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Dismissal of staff members is made only upon the recommendation of the dean and head of the department concerned. Dismissal of staff members occurs only in extreme cases, such as distinct incompetence, low morals, or disregard of national laws.

Recommendations concerning increase in salaries or promotions in rank are made by the head of the department to the dean who transmits such recommendations to the president. Usually such matters are considered only in the spring of the year when the annual budgets are prepared. In one institution promotion to be a voting member of the institutional faculty must have the approval of twothirds of the heads of departments of the institution who act as a committee in all such cases.

Alumni contacts.—Only in the largest institutions do the engineering colleges maintain relationship with engineering alumni distinct from those carried on by the general alumni association of the institution. These are usually very informal in character and in only one case was a distinct engineering alumni association reported. Contact with engineering alumni is carried on by every engineering college through news letters, addresses before alumni associations, aid to alumni in connection with employment problems, and through social contacts of individual staff members.

Contact with the public.-Four institutions report that special officers are employed to make contacts with industry who devote from one-fifth to one-third time to the engineering college. In nearly every engineering college the dean of engineering and the more experienced staff members are constantly in contact with the industries of their specialties. Institutions which maintain engineering experiment stations and engineering extension departments have additional opportunities for contact with the public. The placement problems in connection with the large numbers of graduates again places the engineering staff members in direct contact with a great variety of industries. The fact that 175 members of land-grant engineering college staffs are members of committees of national engineering societies indicates rather close contact with industry. While a large per cent of these members of committees are selected from the most prominent and most centrally located land-grant institutions, the promising and most active engineering teachers of smaller colleges are to an increasing extent appointed on such committees. In general, institutions which have a liberal policy with regard to the payment of traveling expenses of staff members to national meetings and conferences pertaining to engineering maintain the best contacts with industry.

Nearly every institution has an officer who gives full or part time to institutional publicity. Replies from institutions indicate that

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only in exceptional cases is 10 per cent of the time of the publicity officer devoted to engineering. One cause for this is the fact that engineering staff members in general are very reluctant about giving out technical information in a popular style.

Technical bulletins, papers before engineering societies, and articles in the engineering press are considered by all engineering staff members as types of proper publicity. Short newspaper items about special accomplishments of students, special achievements of alumni, installation of distinctive equipment, or outstanding investigations by staff members are favored by more than half of the institutions. Radio for engineering publicity is favored by a considerable number of institutions. Only in rare instances have exhibits at fairs and conventions been practical; in most cases such exhibits have led to wrong ideas about the activities of the engineering college or the work of engineers. News items in alumni and student publications concerning activities of engineering colleges are always favored.

In one institution special publicity committees are set up in each engineering department and a special publicity representative from each department cooperates with the publicity officer of the institution. This institution receives considerable engineering publicity in the Associated Press.

The deans of nearly all land-grant engineering colleges state that more general publicity for engineering is needed and the majority feel that an experienced publicity agent could devote advantageously considerable time to engineering.

Responsibility for the physical plant.-In 12 cases, including most of the small institutions, the dean of engineering or one of the engineering professors is responsible for the physical plant of the institution, including buildings, heating plant, power generation and distribution, water supply, sanitation, roads, and walks. As the institution grows in size this practice is undesirable as it becomes detrimental to the educational program. In one large, separate landgrant college a superintendent of the physical plant is responsible for the aforementioned services, but he reports to the dean of the division of engineering. Even this plan places an undue burden upon the dean of engineering and interferes with his main duties pertaining to teaching, research, and extension in engineering.

Thirty-two institutions, including most of the larger engineering colleges, report that the dean of engineering acts as the chief advisor to the president in connection with all of the engineering problems of the institution but neither he nor his staff members have responsibility for the physical plant. In such cases the superintendent of the physical plant reports to the controller or business officer of the institution. This plan which is favored by engineering faculties as

an advisory relationship in connection with the engineering problems of the institution enables them to prevent the installation of obsolete equipment or wrong service systems. Only in one case is the engineering staff absolutely ignored in connection with the engineering problems of the institutional plant. In one land-grant institution operating under the advisory plan the dean of engineering has designated one of his staff members as the advisor to the superintendent of the physical plant.

In a number of cases members of the engineering staff have designed institutional power and heating plants, water works, and sanitation systems, but act only in a consulting capacity in connection with their operation. Such a contact with the physical plant of the institution is most desirable. In installing new power and heating plant equipment the educational as well as the service features should be considered. Contact of the engineering staff members in connection with new installations also enables the institutions to secure special price discounts on account of the standing and acquaintance of engineering teachers with industry.

General notes on organization.-Well-organized engineering colleges with the duties and responsibilities of deans and heads of departments carefully defined are very exceptional. In the majority of land-grant institutions there is either no organization scheme or the plan is only a paper one. For best results the dean of engineering, as the chief executive officer of the main division pertaining to engineering, should be given definite authority and should be held responsible for results. In a similar manner the dean should outline the duties of heads of departments and should hold them responsible for the effective administration of their departments. The dean of engineering should be in responsible charge of all teaching, research, and extension activities in engineering. In a similar manner the heads of the engineering departments should be in charge of the teaching, research, and extension activities in their fields.

Separate engineering faculties with power to handle questions pertaining to curricula, discipline of students, and other internal problems should be set up for every engineering college. Only matters of general institutional concern should be taken up with the general faculty of the institution. The engineering faculty should meet at least once per month and when not occupied with routine matters should consider educational problems in engineering. It is only by this plan that the fullest cooperation between engineering staff members may be secured and interest in educational problems increased.

Chapter VII.—Services of Land-Grant Engineering Colleges

The previous surveys of engineering education, while dealing very fully with the educational problems of the engineering colleges, have given little or no attention to the direct contributions of these institutions to the social and economic problems of the Nation. They have not considered the major services which engineering colleges are rendering to their communities, the States in which they are located or the Nation as a whole. The land-grant engineering colleges, which owe their existence to national and State beneficence and which receive their major support from State funds, should be particularly interested in services which are of direct benefit to the public.

Replies to questionnaires indicate that all land-grant engineering colleges consider that they serve the public best if they prepare the engineering students enrolled in their institutions for most effective performance as members of the engineering profession. Accordingly, an effort was made to find out through questionnaires the direct contributions which these land-grant engineering colleges have made through their graduates.

Since a higher educational institution is a place where scholars teach and create new knowledge, an endeavor was also made to discover what the engineering staffs of land-grant colleges have contributed not only through teaching, but also as the result of their investigations, discoveries, and practice as engineering experts. A summary of the results of the most outstanding researches by the land-grant engineering colleges will also be given in this part of the report.

These statements will be followed by data secured through questionnaires of the special services rendered by the land-grant engineering colleges to the United States Government, State agencies, municipalities, industry, and the engineering profession. Major Accomplishments of Land-Grant Engineering College Graduates

In the 55 years from 1873 to 1928 the land-grant institutions have awarded 47,677 bachelor's degrees in engineering and more than 5,000 master's degrees. During the same period at least 50,000 stu

. dents who did not receive degrees received one or more years of instruction in engineering at these institutions. Since this country has about one engineer for each 12,500 of population, or about 100,000 altogether, it is evident that a considerable portion of the engineering talent of the United States has been derived from landgrant institutions.

An effort was made by those in charge of the land-grant college survey to secure through questionnaires accurate data about the engineering graduates of each land-grant college and their contributions through discovery, invention, research, engineering practice, or other means that have resulted in the improvement of standards of living and human happiness. Unfortunately, even the best and largest institutions have only incomplete records of the accomplishments of their graduates. In the following paragraphs is included an incomplete summary of the contributions of land-grant college engineering graduates as reported by the institutions.

Pioneer experiments by engineers trained at land-grant institutions did much to place the design of concrete structures upon a rational basis. Their contributions in steel structures include the design and construction of steel bridges, tall buildings, industrial structures, and railway terminals. A considerable number of the leading architects and architectural engineers of the United States are graduates of land-grant engineering colleges. These have added greatly to American architecture in general and have improved industrial buildings in particular. Land-grant college trained engineers have been active in the design, construction, and operation of steam-electric and hydroelectric power plants. They have also contributed to pioneer work on electric power development and have headed firms that are concerned with financing, designing, construction, operation, and consulting services in connection with power generation. They are largely responsible for pioneer investigations which have been carried on with high voltage electric transmission by two industries and three universities The directors of the largest and most important laboratories in the world devoted to researches on telephone and radio hold degrees from land-grant engineering colleges. Graduates are largely responsible for pioneer work in the development of electric street railway and electric interurban systems. The first locomotive-testing plant in the world was designed by a land-grant engineering college graduate. His experiments on this plant and on air brakes, brake shoes, draft gears, and other equipment have contributed greatly to the standardization and improvement of American railway mechanical equipment. . Land-grant college engineering graduates have had a leading part in highway research and in the development of the science and practice of highway design, construction, and maintenance. The ceramic industry of Ohio was developed by an alumnus of a land

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