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commissions will also find it to their advantage to utilize engineering students and staff members during summers in connection with valuation problems. However, only in extreme cases should an egineering staff member be requested by a commission to give expert testimony.

Eight land-grant engineering colleges have definite cooperation with their State conservation departments, including the State geological survey; in one of these the professor of civil engineering is chief engineer of the State conservation department. Cooperation with the health, labor, or other State departments is found only in two States.

Several engineering colleges report that they have aided in connection with State legislation pertaining to safe boiler codes, water resources, highway laws, sanitation, building codes, engineers' license laws, architects' license laws, smoke prevention, and city-manager plans.

As is the case of the United States Government bureaus, insufficient cooperation exists between the State technical bureaus and the State-supported engineering colleges. The land-grant engineering colleges and the State departments should establish closer cooperative relations. Even the smallest land-grant engineering college can render effective service to State departments. The State technical departments, on the other hand, have a great opportunity to assist in the improvement of engineering education, particularly in the smaller land-grant colleges which are not located in industrial districts.

Aid to municipalities. The communities in which land-grant institutions are located seldom make use of the talents of engineering staff members in connection with problems pertaining to city planning, water supply, sewage disposal, and street improvement. In rare cases engineering staff members are retained as consultants and as city engineers. Ordinarily such services are advisory in character and are rendered without compensation. Local communities should make greater use of engineering staff members. However, such services should not be given gratis as this practice is detrimental to consulting engineers.

Engineering staff members are quite generally used in advisory and consulting capacities in connection with the engineering problems of municipalities outside of the local community. These services are in connection with road building, bridge design, water supply, sanitation, smoke elmination, irrigation, drainage, and heating problems for schoolhouses and public buildings. One institution reports that the watershed for a town of 14,000 was protected by the proper location of filter beds. Several institutions report test of materials


at cost for municipalities. Other institutions report definite assistance to municipalities in connection with their water supplies, streets, buildings, and other technical problems.

Aid to State institutions.-The engineering colleges are contributing greatly in connection with the solution of the engineering problems of their institutions as indicated in a previous section of the report. In 32 cases members of the engineering staff act in an advisory capacity in connection with the design and operation of the institutional heating and power plant. In many instances the members of the engineering staff are also consulted with reference to buildings, grounds, athletic stadiums, sanitation, and æsthetic surroundings of the land-grant institution. In 12 smaller institutions it is customary for a member of the engineering staff to be responsible not only for the design and construction but also for the operation of the heating and power plant, and in some cases a professor or the dean of engineering is responsible for the entire physical plant of the institution.

In one case the land-grant engineering college made a survey of the physical plants of 20 State institutions at the request of the governor. In several the engineering staff members are consulted with reference to the physical plants of State institutions.

The practice of utilizing the talents of engineering staff members for consulting service to State institutions other than the land-grant colleges is favored only in exceptional cases, on account of objections offered by consulting engineers. Furthermore, this practice is detrimental to the main teaching and research duties of staff members.

Special services to industry and to the engineering profession.Twelve land-grant engineering colleges report definite service to commercial organizations, 25 to manufacturing, 24 to building, 7 to ceramics, 16 to chemical, 14 to transportation, 26 to electric power utilities, 19 to electric communication, 17 to gas utilities, 21 to water utilities, 11 to mines, 4 to petroleum interests, 6 to quarries, 4 to textile, and 2 to financial houses. These services were mainly through special instruction or research of value to industry.

In several States new industries were built up mainly through the assistance of the engineering staff members of land-grant colleges. The ceramics industry of Ohio is a definite example. The coal industries of two Middle West States were greatly aided through researches by the land-grant colleges of their States.

Nine engineering colleges indicate definite aid from commercial organizations, 33 from manufacturing, 13 from building, 10 from ceramic, 13 from chemical, 20 from transportation, 31 from electricpower companies, 26 from telephone and telegraph companies, 9 from gas utilities, 10 from water utilities, 9 from mines, 10 from

petroleum, 2 from quarries, 4 from textile, and 5 from financial houses. In the majority of cases gifts of equipment, special lectures, and supplementary teaching material were furnished by industry. Only in a very few institutions did industry cooperate with the engineering colleges by supplying funds for research.

Fifteen out of the twenty-five presidents of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education were teachers of land-grant colleges. A large proportion of the educators who were presidents of the engineering societies were also land-grant college teachers.

Chapter VIII.—Conclusions and Recommendations

(1) The definition of “Mechanic arts” during the time of the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant College Act and the custom of interpreting it place engineering as a required part of the program of land-grant institutions and coordinate with agriculture.

(2) The results secured through the land-grant college survey do not indicate that the land-grant institutions have developed a distinctive form of engineering education. At present the problems pertaining to undergraduate curricula, graduate study, teaching staff, and graduates are the same in all types of engineering colleges whether they are endowed polytechnic institutes, endowed universities, State universities, or separate land-grant colleges.

(3) The land-grant engineering college curricula are representative of the general tendencies in engineering education in America. Two-thirds of all the engineering students are enrolled in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. The engineering student devotes only about one-half of his time to technology and an equal amount to science, mathematics, and humanities. The quantitative require

, . ment for graduation is 145 to 150 semester hours and the student carries about seven subjects at one time.

(4) Those in the land-grant college group, like all engineering colleges, are mainly undergraduate institutions. Inadequate recognition by industry of graduate degrees and lack of facilities in most institutions for advanced instruction are the two reasons for the small number of graduate students enrolled. The demand for graduates with the bachelor's degree in engineering exceeds the supply, but the stronger land-grant colleges should provide facilities for graduate study in engineering in order to train teachers and research engineers. Land-grant institutions located near large industries will also do well to consider the development of credit graduate courses for the benefit of techincally trained engineers employed in industry.

(5) Three-fourths of the land-grant engineering colleges section their freshman students in mathematics and English in accordance with their preparation. These institutions have also been the first in this country to develop orientation courses and special engineering problems for freshmen.

(6) While selective admission to the freshman year seems impractical for State-supported institutions, about one-third of the land

grant engineering colleges favor a compulsory stopping place at the end of the sophomore year for those who lack qualifications to benefit by the advanced instruction of the upper two years.

(7) Only in one land-grant institution are students in the upper classes placed on their own resources and their instruction differentiated from that of the first and second years. This practice should become more general and greater recognition should also be given to superior scholarship.

(8) The junior colleges have thus far had little effect upon engineering colleges. However, land-grant institutions will ultimately be called upon to deal with such students and probably in larger numbers than is the case at present with those who hold degrees of bachelor of arts or bachelor of science from liberal arts colleges.

(9) A considerable number of land-grant engineering colleges have tried in the past to develop nondegree as well as degree curricula, but without success. Nearly all land-grant college engineering deans and the more prominent members of their staff's state that it is undesirable for an engineering college to offer both collegiate and noncollegiate resident instruction. Information now at hand indicates that it is usually undesirable for an engineering college to undertake 1-year or 2-year technical courses not leading to degrees upon the same campus with the degree curricula.

(10) Land-grant engineering colleges should cooperate to a greater extent with secondary schools and other agencies in their States which offer noncollegiate technical and trade instruction.

(11) Some land-grant engineering colleges may well offer in residence elementary courses in mechanics, electricity, power plants, machine design, surveying, metallurgy, and other technical subjects for the benefit of special students and for others who lack time or mathematical ability to benefit by the instruction of the regular engineering curricula.

(12) Short-term courses, conferences, special instruction in industrial centers, and elementary resident technical instruction are some of the methods of offering noncollegiate aid to industry which should be considered by all land-grant engineering colleges.

(13) Only about 225 students are enrolled in the curricula leading to degrees in agricultural engineering, and the small change in enrollment for a number of years raises the question as to whether it is necessary to have 20 land-grant institutions offer curricula in this field.

(14) While considerable encouragement is being given to younger teachers to continue their preparation, little systematic effort is being made to assist the younger teacher in mastering the technique of teaching. To raise the general standard of land-grant college en

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