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27. From the varied ways in which so large a number of departments of home economics in land-grant colleges are working to avoid duplication of high-school work it is clear that further systematic study of this problem is desirable. In part, solution probably lies in development of research in home economics that will provide subject matter sufficiently advanced to be distinctly separate in type from that offered in secondary schools. Problems of articulatiny college and secondary offerings in home economics will nevertheless demand adjustment by the colleges upon the basis of present offerings in both units. In this process the obligation rests most heavily upon the college.
28. The home economics staffs are attacking the problem of duplication of offerings with considerable energy by means of frequent revision of courses, observation of classes, conferences, and use of course outlines. Probably in part because of the tentative nature of home economics development, the home economics unit displays more interest in and use of these methods than is the case of the older and better established subject-matter fields.
29. Stimulating and constructive courses may best be developed by a determination and delimitation of objectives, by group review of course outlines, by the employment of carefully worked out bibliographies and other guides for reading, and by the use of carefully selected equipment. It is the relationships between library facilities, adequate equipment, and the extent to which these relationships are discovered and employed in service of objectives that will determine in large measure the strength or weakness of courses.
30. Home economics should contemplate reconstruction of its curricula in such fashion as to provide for two years of upper division work to which admission may be obtained simply and easily by general junior college preparation.
31. Although there is a tendency to start serious specialization at the beginning of the third year in college, graduate work is rapidly becoming something still more highly specialized and requiring content and method distinct from those of senior college courses. Home economics should prepare to direct its further development in harmony with these tendencies.
32. Graduate work in home economics, as is the case in other fields in land-grant colleges that do not have highly developed graduate schools, is too largely merely a continuation for a longer period of time of the same sort of work that is offered in the undergraduate years.
33. The increasing emphasis upon all forms of adult education and consequent development of methods and těchniques appropriate to such instruction make it evident that home economics may well
give greater attention to courses designed for the special training of home economics extension workers.
34. It is earnestly recommended that home economics leaders consider the possibility of utilizing subject matter in the fields of health and sanitation to a much greater extent than at present as a means of accomplishing the objectives of home economics.
35. Home economics has not reached such a degree of common agreement concerning the major objectives of general home economics curricula as would seem to be indicated by the frequency with which homemaking and general culture are stated as objectives.
36. The undergraduate student who does not expect to enter a professional or technical field is the primary concern of those who would construct a general home economics curriculum on the college level. This curriculum should be definitely directed to this end. The purpose is large and its attainment will constitute an outstanding contribution to American education. Other purposes may well be set aside or delayed.
37. The assignment of objectives to home economics teacher-training curricula is almost as confused as the assignment of objectives to general home economics curricula. Curricula designed to prepare students to be teachers of home economics show a material difference from those in general home economics in only one significant respect—the number of hours of education required when the two curricula are compared institution by institution.
38. When definite technical objectives are ascribed to foods and nutrition curricula, other names would be more appropriate. The term food and nutrition curriculum has no common meaning or significance among the institutions that list such a curriculum.
39. The 17 institutions that offer a curriculum in textiles and clothing show the same confusion and vagueness of definition of objectives that are apparent in the foods and nutrition curriculum and probably for much the same fundamental cause, confusion of subject matter with purpose.
40. The range in number of semester hours in all fields of home economics subject matter in the extension curricula is sufficient demonstration that there is little agreement upon what is necessary to provide the technical home economics material demanded by an extension curriculum and that some institutions are offering so-called extension curricula that are well devised to excite the prevalent doubtful attitude that extension leaders take in regard to their effectiveness as actual preparation for extension work.
41. In the curricula in institutional management there is a notable absence of courses in mathematics or business administration which would acquaint those preparing to follow the occupation of managing any institution with business methods, accounting, and similar fundamentals.
42. The curricula offered in applied art, home management, and family life, child care, and development represent no significant or specific contribution to the problem of adaptation of subject matter material to attainment of specific and important objectives. They appear to represent still further the tendency to multiply the number and names of curricula without corresponding differentiation of content or purpose.
43. The most obvious superficial situation revealed by study of home economics courses and curricula is confusion of objectives, confusion of means adapted to the attainment of objectives, and confusion of lines of demarcation between subject-matter fields. The impression is created that home economics is bewildered by the wealth of possibilities, by the necessity of selecting from the multitudinous materials available those best suited for its purposes, by the variety of demands, and by the chasms of ignorance that must be bridged.
44. The tradition of the 4-year college course represents the background and environment in which the college curriculum in general home economics has developed. The problem of the general home economics curriculum becomes one, therefore, of determining which of four general policies it shall follow. Shall it adhere to the principle of the 4-year arts and science course in which interest is aroused by insetting courses of specific home economics character throughout the entire period? Shall it attempt to develop what may be called an isolated college of general home economics in which the basic core about and through which the abstract sciences and humanities are made to function upon the consciousness of its students is home interest? Or shall it accept the principle that home economics shall during the first two years complete the general education of its students by utilizing home economics subject matter to vitalize the elements of education that in their abstract form appeal less to women and to follow this general training by other specialized 2-year curricula looking to occupational or research preparation? Or shall it abandon any special emphasis upon home economics during the first two years, and, depending upon a type of general education designed to prepare during this period for almost any kind of specialization, undertake to set up distinct 2-year general, vocational, and research curricula in home economics upon the basis of these two years of general education? All these tendencies are evident in current educational development. The survey does not recommend any single one of these plans to general home economics for
adoption by all institutions. It does earnestly recommend that in harmony with the policy of the institution of which it is a part each home economics unit definitely select one of these four choices and reexamine its curricula, especially its general home economics curriculum, in accordance with the general theory and policy adopted.
45. The general home economics curriculum that contemplates a general college education especially designed for women is the basic function and service of home economics education. This implies, however, no belittling of more specific vocational functions which should be served through their own curricula. The need for vocational specialization in the fields in which women find employment is highly desirable.
46. From the strictly vocational standpoint many of these occupations do not require four years of college training in the specialty that is applicable. Many of the women who look forward to life employment in certain vocations may not profitably devote two years of junior college to general education as foundation for specialization. In these cases which can be determined only by careful personnel judgment of the student and by careful analysis of the contemplated occupation, the vocational preparation may well be given upon the lower division or junior college level. Curricula should be devised for this purpose.
47. On the other hand, several of the vocational curricula now dispersed through four years may well be concentrated into two years of senior college or upper division work based upon two years of general junior college training.
48. General home economics curricula and curricula designed to prepare for home economics vocations should be distinguished from those that contemplate preparation for research.
49. Research in the sociological and economic aspects of women's interests and especially in the problems of women's education should have as much earnest attention as research in the physical sciences; perhaps more emphasis should be given since the conventional investigations in the field of the social sciences is less directly applirable to home economics problems than is the case of research in physical sciences.
50. The undoubted values of the laboratory method have in other fields as well as in home economics led to overemphasis upon and substitution of routines and insignificant procedures for basic instructional values that may be acquired by this method. The entire matter of laboratory method and its place in teaching needs through reexamination in home economics as in other fields.
51. The individual conference method of instruction under which the student is largely thrown upon his own resources and in which it is the function of the instructor to provide the student with guidance in methods of attack and procedure rather than with subject matter is used to a very limited extent in home economics instruction by the land-grant colleges.
52. It is highly desirable that home economics departments establish relationships with homemakers, commercial concerns, and other persons and agencies in order to work out a cooperative program which will include an opportunity for student practice under the guidance or supervision of persons capable of wise direction.
53. Seventy-eight per cent of all graduates of divisions of home economics among 39 land-grant institutions in 1927–28 completed work either in general home economies or teacher training. Such a large percentage shows clearly that these curricula may well be the first and major concern of the home economics units in the land-grant institutions.
54. Home economics should lead in establishing somewhat the same relationship with commercial firms that medicine, agriculture, and other fields of education have established for the purpose of working out standards for commodities in their fields. This is a gigantic undertaking. Home economics should exert a wide influence based on scientific investigation.