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the north of the small islands marked C and D, and north also of Chrystler's Island, and of the small island next above it, marked E, until it approaches the northeast angle of Goose Neck Island; thence along the passage which divides the lastmentioned island from the Canada shore, keeping 100 yards from the island to the upper end of the same; thence south of and near the two small islands called the Nut Islands; thence north of and near the island marked F, and also of the island called Dry or Smuggler's Island; thence passing between the islands marked G and H to the north of the island called Isle au Rapid Platt; thence along the north side of the lastmentioned island, keeping 100 yards from the shore, to the upper end thereof; thence along the middle of the river, keeping to the south of and near the islands called Coussin (or Tussin) and Presque Isle; thence up the river, keeping north of and near the several Gallop Isles numbered on the map 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, and also of Tick, Tibbits, and Chimney islands, and south of and near the Gallop Isles numbered 11, 12, and 13, and also of Duck, Drummond, and Sheep islands; thence along the middle of the river, passing north of island No. 14, south of 15 and 16, north of 17, south of 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, and 28, and north of 26 and 27; thence along the middle of the river, north of Gull Island and of the islands Nos. 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, Bluff Island, and Nos. 39, 44, and 45, and to the south of Nos. 30, 31, 36, Grenadier Island, and Nos. 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, and 48, until it approaches the east end of Well's Island; thence to the north of Well's Island, and along the strait which divides it from Rowe's Island, keeping to the north of the small islands Nos. 51, 52, 54, 58, 59, and 61, and to the south of the small islands numbered and marked 49, 50, 53, 55, 57, 60, and H, until it approaches the northeast point of Grindstone Island; thence to the north of Grindstone Island, and keeping to the north also of the small islands Nos. 63, 65, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, and 78, and to the south of Nos. 62, 64, 66, 69, and 71, until it approaches the southern point of Hickory Island; thence passing to the south of Hickory Island and of the two small islands lying near its southern extremity, numbered 79 and 80; thence to the south of Grand or Long Island, keeping near its southern shore, and passing to the north of Carlton Island, until it arrives opposite to the southwestern point of said Grand Island, in Lake Ontario; thence, passing to the north of Grenadier, Fox, Stony, and the Gallop islands, in Lake Ontario, and to the south of and near the islands called the Ducks, to the middle of the said lake; thence westerly along the middle of said lake to a point opposite the mouth of the Niagara River; thence to and up the middle of the said river to the Great Falls; thence up the Falls through the point of the Horse Shoe, keeping to the west of Iris or Goat Island, and of the group of small islands at its head, and following the bends of the river so as to enter the strait between Navy and Grand islands; thence along the middle of said strait to the head of Navy Island; thence to the west and south of and near to Grand and Beaver islands, and to the west of Strawberry, Squaw, and Bird islands to Lake Erie; thence southerly and westerly along the middle of Lake Erie in a direction to enter the passage immediately south of Middle Island, being one of the easternmost of the group of islands lying in the western part of said lake; thence along the said passage, proceeding to the north of Cunningham's Island, of the three Bass Islands, and of the Western Sister, and to the south of the islands called the Hen and Chickens, and of the Eastern and Middle Sisters; thence to the middle of the mouth of the Detroit River in a direction to enter the channel which divides Bois Blanc and Sugar islands; thence up the said channel to the west of Bois Blanc Island, and to the east of Sugar, Fox, and Stony islands, until it approaches Fighting or Great Turkey Island; thence along the western side and near the shore of said last-mentioned island to the middle of the river above the same; thence along the middle of said river, keeping to the southeast of and near Hog Island, and to the northwest of and near the island Isle à la Pêche, to Lake Saint Clair; thence through the middle of said lake in a direction to enter that mouth or channel of the river St. Clair which is usually denominated the Old Ship Channel; thence along the middle of said channel, between Squirrel Island on the southeast and Herson's Island on the northwest, to the upper end of the last-mentioned island, which is nearly opposite to. Point au Chênes, on the American shore; thence along the middle of the river Saint Clair, keeping to the west of and near the islands called Belle Rivière Isle and the Isle aux Cerfs, to Lake Huron; thence through the middle of Lake Huron in a direction to enter the strait or passage between Drummond's Island on the west and the Little Manitou Island on the east; thence through the middle of the passage which divides the two last-mentioned islands; thence, turning northerly and westerly, around the eastern and northern shores of Drummond's Island, and proceeding in a direction to enter the passage between the island of Saint Joseph's and the American shore, passing to the north of the intermediate islands Nos. 61, 11, 10, 12, 9, 6, 4, and 2, and to the south of those numbered 15, 13, 5, and 1; thence up the said last-mentioned passage, keeping near to the island Saint Josepb's, and passing to the north and east of Isle à la Crosse and of the small islands numbered 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20, and to the south and west of those numbered 21, 22, and 23, until it strikes a line (drawn on the map with black ink and shadled on one side of the point of intersection with blue and on the other with red) passing across the river at the head of Saint Joseph's Island and at the foot of the Neebish Rapids, which line denotes the termination of the boundary directed to be run by the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent.
And the said commissioners do further decide and declare that all the islands lying in the rivers, lakes, and water communications between the before-described boundary line and the adjacent shores of Upper Canada do, and each of them does, belong to His Britannic Majesty, and that all the islands lying in the rivers, lakes, and water communications between the said boundary line and the adjacent shores of the United States or their territories do, and each of them does, belong to the United States of America, in conformity with the true intent of the second article of the said treaty of 1783, and of the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent.
In accordance with the terms of this treaty, a survey was made of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes, and a map prepared. This was photolithographed and published, in 29 sheets, by the United States Light-House Board, in 1891.
By the second article of the convention with Great Britain—1818– the boundary line was extended westward along the forty-ninth parallel of latitude to the “Stony” (Rocky) Mountains, while beyond
(, these mountains the treaty provided that the country should remain open to both parties. The terms of the treaty are as follows:
ARTICLE 2. It is agreed that a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods along the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, or if the said point shall not be in the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, then that a line drawn from the said point due north or south, as the case may be, until the said line shall intersect the said parallel of north latitude, and from the point of such intersection due west along and with the said parallel, shall be the line of demarkation between the territories of the United States and those of His Britannic Majesty, and that the said line shall form the northern boundary of the said territories of the United States and the southern boundary of the territories of His Britannic Majesty from the Lake of the Woods to the Stony Mountains.
ARTICLE 3. It is agreed that any country that may be claimed by either party on the northwest coast of America, westward of the Stony Mountains, shall, together with its harbours, bays, and creeks, and the navigation of all rivers within the same, be free and open, for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention, to the vessels, citizens, and subjects of the two powers; it being