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Eminent Men retire from Congress.
Delegations of the States renewed
Striking Instance of State Jealousy
Washington requires an Oath of Allegiance to the United States 107
The Requisition denounced as improper
Formation of a new Army
Embarrassments in the Formation of the Army
Persistence of the States in giving Extra Bounties
Bounty offered by Massachusetts .
Army greatly reduced
Washington hindered in his Efforts to plan and carry out a Cam-
Applications for Troops to defend particular Neighborhoods
Battle of the Brandywine
The Congress leaves Philadelphia
Sir William Howe takes Possession of it
The Congress removes to Yorktown
They resolve to consider the Articles of Confederation
The Plan of a Confederacy submitted to the several Legislatures. 114
Necessity for a National Government
End of the Revolutionary Government approaching
Want of a Civil Executive
States engaged in forming Governments
Colonies accustomed to the Business of Government
Practice of Representation familiar
Previous Political Training of the People .
Distinctions between the Departments of Government
Ideas not yet applied to a General Government
Union of the People of the United States, as distinguished from a
Union of the States, learned by a bitter Experience .
First Stage in the Constitutional History of the Country
November, 1777 - March, 1781.
ADOPTION OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. CessionS OF WEST-
ERN TERRITORY. - First PoLITICAL UNION OF The States.
Adoption of the Articles of Confederation
Causes which delayed the Adoption of the Confederation
Changes of the Members of Congress
The present Congress compared with that of 1776
Objections made to the Articles of Confederation
Propositions for Amendments rejected .
Objection made by the State of New Jersey
Their Suggestion rejected
Claims of the Larger States to Vacant Lands
Objection of the Smaller States
Assent of Maryland to the Confederation withheld
New York authorizes its Delegates in Congress to limit the West-
ern Boundaries of the State
Congress urges other States to surrender a Portion of their Claims
Generous Example of New Jersey
Delaware follows it
Maryland adopts the Articles of Confederation
Virginia yields her Claim to some of her Territory
Progress of the People of the United States towards a National
Security against a Dissolution of the Confederacy
NATURE AND POWERS OF THE CONFEDERATION.
Nature of the Government established by the Confederation
Provisions in the Confederation for the States as separate Commu-
Form of Government established by it
The Confederation a League for Mutual Defence and Protection
Powers of Congress with regard to the External Relations of the
Powers of Congress with regard to Internal Affairs .
Committee of the States to sit in the Recess of Congress
Restrictions imposed upon Congress
Revenues of the Country
No Provision for enforcing Measures adopted by Congress
The United States enter upon a New Era of Civil Polity
The Confederation demonstrates the Necessity for a more perfect
THE CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES,
FROM THE ADOPTION OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFED.
ERATION, IN 1781, TO THE PEACE OF 1783.
1781 - 1783.
REQUISITIONS. - CLAIMS OF THE ARMY. NEWBURGH ADDRESSES.
THE ARMY DISBANDED.
Congress assembles under the Confederation
Treaty of Peace signed
Treaty of Alliance with France
Delay of the States in complying with the Requisitions of Congress 156
Washington addresses Letters to the States on the Subject of Fi-
nance, and completing their Quotas of Troops
Force of the Army.
Discontents in the Army
The Newburgh Addresses
Congress votes an Establishment of Half-Pay for the Officers
Impracticable Adherence to the Principles of Civil Liberty
Provision for the Officers found to be inadequate
Congress recommends to the States to make Provision for the Offi-
cers and Soldiers.
Pennsylvania places her Officers upon Half-Pay for Life
Congress pass a Resolve giving Half-Pay for Life to the Officers. 163
Disappointment of the Officers
The Congress of the Confederation refuse to redeem the Pledge of
the Revolutionary Congress
Officers offer to commute the Half-Pay for Life
Breach of Public Faith
Situation of Washington
Anonymous Address circulated among the Officers at Newburgh 168
Washington forbids an Assemblage at the Call of an Anonymous
He appoints a Day to hear the Report of their Committee .
The Officers again refer their Claims to the Consideration of Congress 169
Half-Pay commuted to Five Years' Full Pay
The Army disbanded
Value of the Votes which fixed the Compensation of the Officers
FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES OF THE CONFEDERATION. REVOLUTIONARY
Debt.- Revenue System of 1783.
Public Debt of the United States
Congress recommend a Duty upon Importations
Office of Superintendent of Finance established .
Rhode Island refuses to grant to Congress the Power of Levying
Virginia repeals the Act by which she had granted this Power to
No Means of paying the Public Debts .
Another Plan for collecting Revenues recommended to the States 176
Strong Appeal to the People in Favor of it.
Claims of the various Classes of the Public Creditors
Character of the United States involved
The Confederation a Government for Purposes of War
Its Great Defects
The Moral Feelings an Unsafe Reliance for the Operations of Gov-
Proofs of this in the History of the Confederation
Design of the Framers of the Revenue System
Claims of the Army
Wisdom of proposing a Scheme of Finance during the Continu-
ance of the War
Influence of the Revenue System of 1783
The System of 1783 different from the Present Constitution
Note on the Half-Pay for the Officers of the Revolution
Note on the Newburgh Addresses
OPINIONS AND EFFORTS OF WASHINGTON, AND OF HAMILTON. – De-
CLINE OF THE CONFEDERATION.
Washington's Relations to the People of this Country
His Address to them on resigning his Office
His Views at the Close of the War .
His Advice and Suggestions
The Necessity for a Complete Sovereignty in Congress
Hamilton's Entry into Congress .
Nature of a Federal Constitution not understood
urges the Necessity of vesting the Appointment of Col-
lectors of Revenue in the General Government
Ratio of Contribution by the States to the Treasury uncertain 210
Hamilton desires to change the Principle of the Confederation
Advises General Taxes to be collected under Continental Authority 212
An Attempt to substitute Specific Taxes on Land and Houses 212
It is determined to adopt Population as the Basis of Contribution
Hamilton's Views on a Peace Establishment
Committee to arrange the Details of such a System
An Army and Navy necessary
No Provision in the Articles of Confederation for their Maintenance
Hamilton advises Federal Provision for Defence
Congress driven from Philadelphia
Hamilton examines the Confederation
He proposes to revise it .
His Plan unsuccessful
Improvement in the Revenue System
Causes of the Decline of a National Spirit
Falling off in the Attendance of Members of Congress
Results of the Confederation
Its Defects displayed
Another Government necessary for the great Duties of Peace 230
FROM THE PEACE OF 1783 TO THE FEDERAL CON.
VENTION OF 1787.
JANUARY, 1784 - May, 1787.
DUTIES AND NECESSITIES Congress. — REQUISITIONS ON
STATES. Revenue SysTEM OF 1783.
State of the Union from 1783 to 1787 .
Dangers and Evils which existed during the Four Years after the