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on lands the property of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and Saint Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways, and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.
[Sands v. Manistee River Imp. Co., 123 U. S., 288.
There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western State, in the said territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the Wabash Rivers; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the territorial line between the United States and Canada ; and by the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line, and by the said territoria lline. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided, however, And it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: Provided, The constitution and government, so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles, and, so far as it can be consistent with the general interests of the Confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand.
ARTICLE VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.
Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23d of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same are hereby, repealed, and declared null and void.
Done by the United States, in Congress assembled, the 13th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1787, and of their sovereignty and independence the 12th.
MANUAL OF THE LAW AND PRACTICE IN REGARD
TO CONFERENCES AND CONFERENCE REPORTS.”
[NOTE.—The figures in parentheses at the end of rules refer to sections of Hinds's Parliamentary Precedents, House of Representatives, where decisions and proceedings may be found. The notes and references inserted are additional to those in the work, and not found therein.]
1. Parliamentary law relating to conferences as stated in Jefferson's Manual, Section XLVI:
It is on the occasion of amendments between the Houses that conferences are usually asked; but they may be asked in all cases of difference of opinion between the two Houses on mat ters depending between them. The request of a conference, however, must always be by the House which is possessed of the papers (3 Hats., 31; i Grey, 425.)
Conferences may either be simple or free. At a conference simply, written reasons are prepared by the House asking it, and they are read and delivered, without debate, to the managers of the other House at the conference, but are not then to be answered. (4 Grey, 144.) The other House then, if satisfied, vote the reasons satisfactory, or say nothing; if not satis
a Collated and prepared by Thomas P. Cleaves, Clerk to the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, and reported to the Senate by Mr. Allisoni, First Session, Fifty-seventh Congress, under the following resolution of June 6, 1900:
“Resolved, That the Committee on Appropriations cause to be prepared for the use of the Senate a manual of the law and practice in regard to conferences and conference reports."
fied, they resolve them not satisfactory and ask a conference on the subject of the last conference, where they read and deliver, in like manner, written answers to those reasons. (3 Grey, 183.) They are meant chiefly to record the justification of each House to the nation at large and to posterity, and in proof that the miscarriage of a necessary measure is not imputable to them. (3 Grey, 255.) At free conferences the managers discuss, viva voce and freely, and interchange propositions for such modifications as may be made in a parliamentary way, and may bring the sense of the two Houses together. And each party reports in writing to their respective Houses the substance of what is said on both sides, and it is entered in their journals. (9 Grey, 220; 3 Hats., 280.) This report can not be amended or altered, as that of a committee may be. (Journal Senate, May 24, 1796.)
A conference may be asked before the House asking it has come to a resolution of disagreement, insisting or adhering. (3 Hats., 269, 341.) In which case the papers are not left with the other conferees, but are brought back to be the foundation of the vote to be given. And this is the most reasonable and respectful proceeding; for, as was urged by the Lords on a particular occasion, “it is held vain, and below the wisdom of Parliament, to reason or argue against fixed resolutions and upon terms of impossibility to persuade." (3 Hats., 226.) So the Commons say, “an adherence is never delivered at a free conference, which implies debate." (10 Grey, 137.) And on another occasion the Lords made it an objection that the Commons had asked a free conference after they had made resolutions of adhering. It was then affirmed, however, on the part of the Commons, that nothing was more parliamentary
than to proceed with free conferences after adhering (3 Hats., 369), and we do in fact see instances of conference, or of free conference, asked after the resolution of disagreeing (3 Hats., 251, 253, 260, 286, 291, 316, 349); of insisting (ib., 280, 296, 299, 319, 322, 355); of adhering (269, 270, 283, 300), and even of a second or final adherence. (3 Hats., 270.) And in all cases of conference asked after a vote of disagreement, etc., the conferees of the House asking it are to leave the papers with the conferees of the other; and in one case where they refused to receive them they were left on the table in the conference chamber. (Ib., 271, 317, 323, 354; 10 Grey, 146.)
After a free conference the usage is to proceed with free conferences, and not to return again to a conference. (3 Hats., 270; 9 Grey, 229.)
After a conference denied a free conference may be asked. (1 Grey, 45.)
When a conference is asked the subject of it must be expressed or the conference not agreed to. (Ord. H. Com., 89; i Grey, 425; 7 Grey, 31.) They are sometimes asked to inquire concerning an offense or default of a member of the other House. (6 Grey, 181; i Chand., 204.) Or the failure of the other House to present to the King a bill passed by both Houses. (8 Grey, 302.) Or on information received and relating to the safety of the nation. (10 Grey, 171.) Or when the methods of Parliament are thought by the one House to have been departed from by the other a conference is asked to come to a right understanding thereon. (10 Grey, 148.) So when an unparliamentary message has been sent, instead of answering it, they ask a conference. (3 Grey, 155.) Formerly an address or articles of impeachment, or a bill with amendments, or a vote of the house,