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A. Those who can undergo any amount and kind of gymnasium and athletic work.

B. Those with borderline findings, who are still permitted free choice of and participation in physical activity, but who are carefully watched for its effect on their condition.

C. Those who are given limited or corrective gymnasium work, and are not permitted to take part in competitive athletics.

D. Those with definite pathology or serious underweight, who are not permitted to do any gymnasium work. Many of these are given rest periods during school hours.

The boy goes through the hands of four people

column, a zero means normal or no findings, and
an X indicates a positive finding; (X) indicates
that the finding requires medical attention, and
(X) means that the need for attention is urgent.
The examiner covers the following points:

Neck; thyroid, lymph-nodes, vessels, muscles;
Heart and lungs;

Skin;

Genitals and hernia;

General nutrition;

Posture in respect to spine, shoulders, and abdomen:

Feet and legs.

For testing heart function, a standard exercise

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Typical examining room, showing placement of various factors to facilitate rapidity and results.

during his examination. The height, weight, and a brief history are taken by the gymnasium instructors at a separate time. The nose and throat are examined by a specialist, and the refraction and hearing roughly tested by a nurse, each at a separate period. The records are all kept on a card, which is kept throughout the entire period during which the pupil is in school. When the boy comes to the physician who does the major part of the examination, all these data are on the card and can be seen at a glance.

It is literally true that they can be seen at a quick glance, for they are recorded in symbols instead of in writing. Names of findings are printed at the edge of the card; then in the proper

is given, requiring the boy to lift his full weight from the floor to a chair twenty times in the standing position. The pulse is counted before exercise, immediately after, and again three minutes later.

The elements required to secure speed in the examinations are as follows:

The examiner must have a picture of the examination blank in his mind, so that he can interpret the previous findings at a single glance, and so that he can proceed unhesitatingly with his part of the examination without having to hunt about on the card with his finger for the thing to do next. He should look at the card only for the purpose of checking the recording-clerk's ac

curacy in placing pertinent data on the card. A certain amount of practice or drill is essential. The first few periods of examining should be devoted to thoroughness and care, to the acquisition of "form," as the athlete says, without regard to speed. Naturally, the work will proceed slowly during the learning period. Therefore, not only the speed of examining, but its reliability and its general value depend on keeping one man at the work long enough so that he can acquire the technique to do it well. Results from examiners who are frequently changed are not only inefficiently obtained, but are of questionable value.

An examiner who has been at the work for several years can go from one step to another with precision and dispatch, without any hesitation or loss of time.

A trained assistant to do the recording is necessary. Of course it is out of question for the physician to do

his own recording; if he did, half his time would be consumed in doing something that a boy can do as well. In some of the schools, gymnasium instructors act as clerks; in others, boys are selected from the classes. At first, their work is slow and lacks accuracy. Only with practice do they gain the necessary reliability and the speed to keep up with the examiner. Therefore, it is desirable that the recording-clerk also be kept at his job long enough to learn it well. He and the physician are a team that must be trained to work together. Otherwise time will be wasted in friction, delay, and talking about procedure. At one time it occurred to me that an assistant

might be used to count the pulse after the heartfunction exercise-test. That would save time, but it would sacrifice thoroughness; for by counting the pulse himself, the physician can at the same time observe its quality and rhythm, and get information that would escape him if the counting were delegated to an assistant. The maximum efficiency of operation is gained by counting the pulse with the stethoscope at the apex before the exercise and immediately after;

and at the wrist with the fingers after the three-minute rest period. Thus, while the rate is being obtained, the observation on the quality of the heart sounds and their rhythm can be obtained simultaneously. A little practice will enable the examiner to count the rate mechanically, while he focusses his real attention on listening to the sounds.

The subjects must be properly prepared. They should be completely

stripped. It is best to call them from classes in groups of ten or fifteen. If there is a large number waiting, much time can be saved by giving the necessary instructions to the entire group, in regard to deep breathing, coughing, stepping on the chair, and other things expected of them. If these instructions have to be repeated individually to each boy, much time is wasted. If a dozen or more of them stand in line and watch what is being done, each one learns exactly what to do when his own turn comes; and the examiner can put his entire mind on his examination, with

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Unless they were physically fit these boys would be denied the opportunity of playing basket ball.

out being distracted by the need of constantly reminding his subjects what to do.

Instructions for taking deep breaths, coughing, stepping on the chair, etc., are most quickly and effectively given by demonstration. Show the boy what to do and he will grasp it at once; try to explain it to him and it will take five times as long.

Every step of the procedure should be organized, so that the whole scheme moves like a welloiled machine. The most trivial details require careful attention. Maximum efficiency cannot be achieved without the hearty and intelligent cooperation of the principal or the physical director in whose school the examination work is being conducted.

Simple Methods for Efficiency

The examinations should be carried on in a large room. The examiner sits at a table with his back to a window. The table should be, not in front of him, but at his side; in front of him is the subject being examined. The accompanying diagram will make these explanations clear. The recording-clerk should sit across the table facing the examiner, so that the dictation is plainly heard, and so that the examiner can keep his eye on the clerk's work and check. its accuracy.

A wrist-watch saves time, and the stethoscope should be left hanging about the neck to save handling and searching. The chair on which the exercise-tests for heart-function are done should be at one side in plain view of both the examiner and the recording-clerk, so that

errors in the boys' performance may be detected; but it should be at a sufficient distance so that the commotion caused by the boy who is exercising does not interfere with the hearing of percussion sounds.

The general examination is first completed, including the resting pulse-rate at the apex. The boy is then sent to exercise; as soon as he is through he stands at the table just behind the examiner for the after-exercise pulse-count, as indicated on the diagram. Here the examiner can reach him with the stethoscope. He remains here for three minutes, waiting for the third pulse-count. Part of the time there will be two boys waiting for after-exercise pulse counts, one for the immediate count and one for the three-minute count. In order to avoid possibility of confusion in making records, the boy whose pulse is first to be

taken stands nearest to the examiner's table. All of this will be clear from the diagram. Thus, after subject No. 1 has been examined and while he is exercising, the examiner turns to subject No. 2, the next in line. The clerk now has two cards in front of him, the unfinished No. 1 being pushed to the right. When No. 1 has finished exercising his pulse is taken at once, the examination of No. 2 being interrupted if necessary. Then No. 1 waits his three minutes.

When No. 2 is examined and starts his exercise, the examiner begins on No. 3; the clerk shoves the unfinished cards for the first two, to the right and adds the third; now he has three cards before him, and three boys are simultaneously under examination. The card on the left is for No. 3, in front of the examiner; the middle card is for No. 2, exercising; the card on the right is for No. 3, waiting three minutes. Each boy

Before indulging in strenuous athletics students must a thorpass ough physical examination.

has his place in the room at each stage of the examination, and each card has its corresponding

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place on the clerk's table. The clerk need not even know the boys' names. When he sees the examiner reach out his hand for any particular boy, he knows on which card to make the record by the positions occupied.

It is true that this procedure is mechanical. It does, indeed, remind one of the assembly line at an automobile plant. It involves no "intuition," no frowning and scratching of the ear. But it is intentionally so, for that is the only method of any value in group work. It must be standardized and objective, with the personal element of the examiner eliminated (except as it enters into the determination of findings); otherwise the results of different examiners could not be compared.

How Can a Board of Education
Function Efficiently?

Three large groups of factors-philosophy, organization,
and public relations must be given due consideration in
any program of efficient activity in public education

BY ARTHUR B. MOEHLMAN, PROFESSOR OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION,
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

O

NE of the moot questions ever present in the field of public-school administration is the board of education. Nearly every meeting of superintendents brings this problem to the floor and it is even more frequently considered in joint meetings where superintendents and board of education members meet together. I would like to discuss briefly some of these fundamental problems. This may be most easily accomplished by raising four pertinent questions and attempting to answer them. The questions, in their proper order, include the following:

1. What is the board of education?

2. What are the powers of a board of education?

3. What are the duties of a board of education?

4. How can a board of education function efficiently?

Let us proceed to a consideration of the first question. The philosophy of the American people in respect to public education has its fundamental legal expression in the several instruments upon which the federal and state governments are based.

Provide, Encourage, and Protect Education

The people of the several states have carried over into their constitutions the legal philosophy, as expressed in the Ordinance of 1787, that "religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." The acceptance of this doctrine, together with the liberal legislation in respect to schools, indicates a settled purpose on the part of the several states to provide, to encourage, and to protect educational opportunities for all.

The legal basis of the American public schools rests upon the will of the people to have public education and this will is expressed definitely

in: (1) The state constitution; (2) the statutes relating to education; and (3) the court interpretations of (a) the validity of such statutes and (b) the powers implied under the school laws.

For ease in administration, as well as to keep the subject of education close to the people, a series of units known as school districts have been created by state law. Within the limits of the state law, the people of these districts possess rather wide powers in respect to public education. To act as the local agent of the people of the district in carrying out the will of the people in the matter of public education, an elective1 body has been created by state law. This body is most commonly known as the board of education. The board of education is the local legal agent of the people in the matter of public education.

Formal Powers

The formal powers of the board of education. are: (1) To carry out the minimum requirements as expressed through the mandatory laws; and (2) to consider, to accept, or to reject, the provisions of permissive legislation. In all cases where the state laws do not specifically provide, or do not specifically prohibit, the board of education generally considers itself as the agent of the people of the district in planning, executing, and appraising educational activities.

Failure of the board of education to conform to state law as provided for in the statutes relating to public schools makes it liable to incur the statutory penalties in the various states, which include: (1) Fine; (2) imprisonment; (3) both fire and imprisonment; (4) withholding of state subventions; (5) removal from office; and (6) preventing the effective development of an activity through the withholding of approval by the state authorities.

The board of education, elected by, and respon

1This indicates dominant practice. There are exceptions in both appointed boards, and the single commissioner type.

sible directly to the people, is the supreme educational agency under state law for the school district. The duties of the board of education may be conceived as responsibility for: (1) Interpreting the needs of the community and the requirements of the professional organization; (2) developing policies, in accordance with the law and in accordance with the educational needs and desires of the people; (3) selecting the executive; (4) providing means by which professional agents and agencies may make these policies effective; (5) furnishing financial means by which organized activity may be carried on; (6) appraising the efficiency of the agents and the value of the service rendered in terms of worth to the community; and (7) keeping the people intelligently informed of the purpose, value, conditions, and needs of public education within the community'.

A Vital Problem

This brief introduction brings us to the fourth question. How can a board of education function efficiently? It is the question with which we are most vitally concerned for upon its solution depend, to a very large extent, the character and type of education that the children of any state will receive.

There are three large groups of factors that must be given due consideration in any program of efficient activity in public education. These are: (a) Philosophy; (b) organization; and (c) public relations.

Philosophy may be considered for purposes of this discussion as a way of life. A basic philosophy includes principles and expresses ideals. A school-board member should first of all have a well-organized philosophy of life, its purposes, and its goals. He ought next to have a rather definite philosophy of political organization, its purposes, values, and results. Upon these two basic conceptions of living will depend his philosophy of public education. His concept of the purpose of public education in a democratic social organization will determine largely his attitude in respect to the development of educational policies and organization through which these policies may be successfully achieved.

The question naturally arises whether any group, with as many diverse cultural and racial backgrounds as we possess, can develop a harmonious and well-integrated philosophy upon philosophy upon which there can be substantial agreement. The type of our individual philosophy of life will be conditioned largely by our hereditary and environmental influences. This is a personal question that each individual must solve for himself. Our polit

2See Public School Code for Hamtramck, Mich.

ical philosophy will be largely conditioned by our environmental influences. More specifically the type of government under which we are willing to live will mold our thought. We accept generally, by implication and participation, the concept of a democratic social organization. Since this is true it should not be difficult to develop a philosophy of education based upon such assumption.

In bringing together in logical order the major trends of thought in the field of public education, it is possible to organize a definite philosophy of education that most of us can accept in its broad implications without much dissent. Such a philosophy of education may be expressed as follows:

The purpose of public education shall be to develop individuals who can live successfully under a democratic form of social organization. Successful living means that: (1) They must be able to see the problems in their own and the social life; (2) they must be able to solve these problems successfully; and (3) they must will to take the necessary steps to achieve the solution.

An analysis of successful living shows that there are six major fields of problems. These are (1) Health; (2) ethical character; (3) citizenship; (4) vocational activity; (5) home membership; and (6) recreation, which includes all physical, mental, aesthetic activities that minister to the recreation of the individual. The aim might also be expressed as training in the worthy use of leisure time.

Adopt Comprehensive Policy

In each of these fields it should be the policy to make the child acquainted with the presentday problems, with a knowledge of the achievement and methods of solution developed by man in the past, and with the needs and possibilities of the future.

The methods used to achieve these objectives should be those that will develop in the child in the largest measure: (1) The ideals of worthy individual and social progress; (2) powers of selfdirection, self-appraisal, and self-control; and (3) desire and ability to work co-operatively with others in the solution of social problems.

The second group of factors are those related to organization. Organization becomes essential when we pass the range of individual, unrelated activity. A co-operative enterprise, whether in political, social, religious, or economic life, requires organization through which its purposes may be easily and efficiently achieved. The conception of educational organization will be conditioned largely by our accepted philosophy of education.

In educational, as well as other activity, the

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