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Let us assume first the most common type of this series; i.e. a two-story building without basement. The space allotments to the different floors would be thus:

First floor: Six to eight general classrooms, shops, cooking and sewing, mechanical drawing, administration, teachers' and rest room, auditorium, gymnasium, health service, cafeteria, storage for vocational subjects (except commercial branches), locker and dressing rooms, and toilets.

Second floor: Ten to twelve general classrooms, freehand drawing, science, commercial subjects and commercial storage rooms, music room, and toilets.

The library is about as likely to be placed on one floor as on the other.

But if the plan calls for a two-story-with-basement building, there will necessarily be a considerable shifting of these floor allotments. Two or three general classrooms will probably be moved from the second floor to the first, and the sewing room, and possibly the teachers' room, will be moved from the first floor to the second. The

chief change, however, will be to put into the basement much of the space formerly allotted to the first floor. This basement space is likely to include the shops (especially wood working and printing), and the cooking room and cafeteria, together with the appropriate storage space. The gymnasium, locker rooms, and toilets may also be moved down to this floor.

A "Composite" Three-Story Building

The samples of three-story plans afforded by this study are too few to permit of more than suggestions. If, however, the "composite" representative building described above were to be planned for three stories, according to the models herein presented, its space would be allotted as follows:

If without basement: On the first floor would be found four or five general classrooms, the various shops, the guidance and health service rooms, the auditorium, and toilets, storage, and dressing rooms. On the second floor; eight or ten general classrooms, the administration and commercial rooms, the gymnasium and locker

TABLE IV-FLOOR PLACEMENT OF MAJOR SPACE PROVISIONS; IN TERMS OF NUMBER OF ROOMS

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rooms, the teachers' and rest room, and toilets. On the third floor; four to six general classrooms, space for science, sewing and cooking, with storage, drawing and music, toilets, cafeteria, and library.

If with basement: In basement; the wood and machine shops, cooking (sometimes also sewing), the cafeteria and the gymnasium, locker rooms, storage and workrooms, and toilets. On the first floor; about four general classrooms, the print shop, the auditorium and dressing rooms, and offices. On the second floor; about ten general classrooms, the teachers' and rest room, the health service, the library, general storage, and toilets. On the third floor; the remainder of the general classrooms, rooms for the sciences, sewing, and the commercial branches, with storage, drawing rooms, and toilets.

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Some Disadvantages

Of the foregoing, some placements can only be explained as resulting from the limited number of plans. Among these are the placement of the gymnasium and locker rooms on the second floor in three-story-without-basement buildings. In the main, however, the placement will be found to conform with those recommended in the literature. The reader will not, of course, infer that the foregoing is intended as a recipe for the laying-out of any and all junior high-school floor plans. Not all such buildings will parallel in size the buildings contemplated here.

Other factors, such as the size, shape, and topography of the grounds, will also have to be considered. The primary purpose of this article has been to set forth the facts as found in the analysis of a group of actual floor plans, and to show what a building that was typically representative of these plans would be like. But it is probably no stretching of the truth to say that a building laid out in accordance with these suggestions would be found to be fairly satisfactory.

Small Schools of Ohio Stress

Vocational Agriculture

In a recent study by E. L. Bowsher, superintendent of schools, Wauseon, Ohio, it was found that sixty-four per cent of the vocational agricultural departments are located in schools with an enrollment of less than 150. This is not to be wondered at since the big purpose of the establishment of these departments is to reach boys who have been born and reared on farms and to interest them in agriculture to the extent that they may remain on the farm and carry on in an intelligent manner.

There were 3,445 farm boys enrolled in the 100 schools reporting in the study. Of these, 2,288 were enrolled in the vocational agricultural departments. In all, 66.4 per cent of the farm boy' enrollment was found in the vocational agricultural work. Of the farm boys enrolled in the work, eighty-eight per cent actually lived on the farm, and six per cent were reared on the farm, but were then living in town. This made a total of ninety-four per cent of all the farm boy vocational enrollment, boys who have actually been reared on the farm.

Since it was found that 66.4 per cent of all farm boys attending these various schools were enrolled in the vocational agricultural course, it would seem that these departments were making an appeal to the boy who knows the real work and life of the farmer. An important factor that probably influences farm boys on entering the high school to make a decision to elect the agricultural course, is that in a great many high schools the vocational teacher makes personal contacts with all the boys within the patronage of the school during the summer months as a part of his job of following up the home practical work of his pupils.

The popular appeal of "back to the farm" has its effect in the average rural home and the parents, who in so many cases are responsible for the type of course which their children select when entering the high school, naturally desire that the boys take up agricultural work of some nature.

In addition to that, the farm boy on entering high school feels that the agricultural course contains a great many things which he is already familiar with and that he may be able to get along better in that type of work than in any other which the high school may offer.

Of 845,000 teachers, principals, supervisors, and administrative officers in the public elementary and secondary schools of the United States in 1926-27, a total of 377,462 were enrolled in summer schools during the past summer, according to statistics recently compiled by the National Education Association. Of these, 247,227, or 29.2 per cent of the total number of school men and women of the country, were enrolled in teachertraining or education courses. The largest proportion enrolled from any one state was 62.5 per cent from Colorado; Alabama was second, with an enrollment of 56.2 per cent; Oklahoma was third, with an enrollment of 45.4 per cent; and Tennessee was fourth, with an enrollment of 42.5 per cent of the teachers of the state enrolled in courses for professional improvement.

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NE of the developments in the ever changing picture of education in the United States that has caused more than the usual interest has been that of music among the pupils. Perhaps the real reason for this has been the fact that music has crept into the schools rather than been arbitrarily put into curricula and the subject has actually been developed step by step in a sane, logical, and highly beneficial manner to both the pupils and the teachers as well.

It was not many years ago when the only music known in school education was sort of a community singing class; when in a city of forty thousand inhabitants one supervisor was enough. His duties consisted of going around on a bicycle from elementary school to elementary school, spending an hour in each and leading the assembled pupils in a series of old songs from a stereotyped song-book. The pupils were reseated for the occasion with the sopranos, altos, tenors, baritones, and basses brought together amid much confusion. The only musical instrument that was used was a pitch pipe unless one of the pupils possessed enough talent to learn the music of the songs on the piano.

Support Was Lacking

Even this limited amount of musical instruction did not meet with the approval of the parents who felt that they were paying taxes so that the children could learn the three R's and not all this -as they expressed it "folderol."

Then there was introduced the high-school orchestra under the direction of the same supervisor of music and it rehearsed twice a week for an hour after school. It seldom played for the public because the short practice did not perfect it sufficiently to make a creditable showing even among its own small circle of friends.

But gradually the barriers were broken down, perhaps by the war, perhaps by the natural tend

ency toward things progressive, or perhaps by a combination of a variety of reasons, until today every school child has the opportunity to receive not only the fundamentals of a musical education but also may learn to play one or more instruments under competent leadership as part of the school curriculum. School bands are so common now that every school in the country boasts of at least one and some of the larger ones have as many as two regular bands and several specialized orchestras. Frequently, the supervisors of music will point with pride to some popular idol in the music field as a product of his or her particular school. However, this is one of the phases of modern education that can be and is participated in by all classes of schools. The elementary, junior, and senior high schools in the medium sized cities, the consolidated rural schools, and the big city high schools alike participate in bands and orchestras.

It has been pointed out that the well-qualified supervisor of music injects into the music lesson and the band practice three distinct benefits to the pupil; namely, culture, discipline, and vocational guidance. To the members of the school faculty there is the benefit of greater aroused interest on the part of the pupil in his lessons because of his participation in music.

Under proper instruction. the members of the school band will not learn how to play jazz and popular pieces only nor will they learn the

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