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our environment and to the appreciation of the progress of civilization in its various aspects, and to develop those habits of thought and action that will make these powers effective in the life of the individual."

In the consideration of the aims listed by the courses, those that appear most frequently are: 1. Practical.

To give knowledge essential for life. 2. Disciplinary.

To develop functional thinking.

To develop proper mental habits and attitudes.

3. Cultural.

To develop appreciation.

To inculcate democratic spirit.

To awaken spirit of social service. 4. Exploratory.

To develop interest in the subject. In consideration of the content of the courses, the items occurring with marked frequency are: Statement of objectives, teaching outline, methods of teaching, suggestions for the use of supplies and texts. The items having low frequency are: Discussion of teaching methods, provisions for individual differences, diagnostic and remedial measures, methods of measurement, references, items of mechanical make-up.

Conclusions

In consideration of the general agreement or uniformity and grade placement, it was found. that:

1. Arithmetic, algebra, intuitive geometry, simple trigonometric facts, commercial arithmetic, and demonstrative geometry comprise the mathematics taught in the junior high school. Of these, arithmetic and algebra are the chief subjects.

2. Arithmetic appears more often than any other subject in the seventh and eighth grades; and in the ninth grade in the form of commercial arithmetic. This arithmetic is taking a decidedly practical form, including much work on such topics as investments, budgets, savings accounts, etc. An informal approach to algebra through the formula is also being made.

3. Algebra appears in the ninth grade in both semesters in ninety-five per cent of the courses. 4. Intuitive geometry appears in the seventh and eighth grades in approximately sixty-five per cent of the courses.

5. Demonstrative geometry appears in one semester of the ninth grade in ten per cent of the

courses.

6. As to the order of presenting topics in the three grades there is a wide variation of sequence.

The ninth year presents a difficult problem in making a junior high-school mathematics course because some of the colleges and universities do not recognize the work of the junior high school and consequently pupils are penalized one year in their preparation for college. It is very evident that something should be done concerning the crediting of junior high-school work. If on the basis of quantitative evidence, work done in a junior high school is equivalent to work done in the ninth grade of a school organized on the eightfour plan, then the junior high-school work should certainly suffer no peralty. An effort has been made to reorganize and revise the courses of study in junior high-school mathematics to meet the practical needs of the pupils and at the same ume retain the formal mathematics that is desirable. This work should be extended and the courses in the senior high school should continue the adaptation of the mathematics curriculum to modern needs of all kinds.

Some Problems With Teachers' Salaries and a Salary Schedule

An inquiry was received some time ago concerning teachers' salaries that reveals the existence of some conditions that doubtless exist in a number of communities throughout the country. The community in question is a town of about five thousand, situated in one of the richest sections of one of the western states. There has been a good deal of dissatisfaction over teachers' salaries for some time. Nearly seventy per cent of the teachers are "home teachers." Many of these home teachers are the wives of successful professional or business men. The rest are the favorite sons and daughters of prominent people. There is a good deal of insistent clamoring for the employment of other "home girls." The salaries are low, and consequently it is difficult to get good outside teachers to come in at the salaries available. There is no salary schedule. The inquiry made by the superintendent described conditions as just stated and indicated that he was most anxious to establish good salaries. The request was also made that data concerning salaries paid teachers in other communities of similar size be included.

It is at once evident that there are two rather fundamental, as well as several other minor, problems involved in the situation just presented. The major problems existent here might well be stated as follows: (1) Home versus outside teachers; and (2) teacher salary criteria. Obviously, these questions cannot be treated in an adequate fashion here any more than they were by letter. Only on the basis of an exhaustive investigation

in the community involved can these matters be settled in a satisfactory fashion. However, there are certain fundamental theses that can be suggested, and these will be offered here.

Teaching positions in many communities in the United States are nothing short of political plums for the relatives or patronage of some influential man or group. Being the daughter of some prominent citizen, membership in some certain lodge, or affiliation with some church or faction have too long been the bases of teacher selection in our public schools.

But on the other hand the greatest of care should be exercised to make sure that just as rigid standards are used on home applicants as on outside candidates. Unless such is the case, the teaching force of any school system will degenerate to one of mediocrity, and salaries will be kept so low that even the best of the home talent as well as the superior outside teachers will refuse to consider a teaching position in a community where "pull" rather than "power" is the basis for teacher appointment. Teachers' salaries were created neither for the subsidizing of charity cases nor political dictators. Also it is a well-known fact that inbreeding is extremely dangerous for any organization. Schools are no exception to this law. Consequently, for these various reasons "home appointments" should be the minority, rather than the majority among the faculty of a local school system.

Fundamentals of Salary Determination

How much should such workers be paid is a question that arises in determining the salary or wage needs of any group. The two fundamental elements that should be considered in answering this question are: (1) The economic needs of the group of workers involved; and (2) the value of the service rendered by the group of workers involved. Therefore, stated in other terms, the two basic factors in fixing teachers' salaries are: (1) Cost of living; and (2) wages paid workers who render the least valuable personal service.

Cost of living, like all other terms, must be defined. If teachers are to hold a certain social and civic position in the community in which they live, cost of living for teachers must correspond to that position. If the position of teachers is to be above or below that, then their cost of living will vary accordingly. It seems reasonable as well as equitable to expect teachers to live in a way that will command the respect and confidence of those they serve, rather than evoke a feeling of pity and condescension, as has been the case in the past.

Teachers' salaries, then, should allow for the generous, although not luxuriant, comforts of

modern life, including opportunity to travel, opportunity for constant study, and a chance for economic independence in old age. The ability of a community to pay such salaries must of necessity be considered in the fixation of teachers' salaries. However, if it is found that a community cannot afford to pay necessary salaries, the problem becomes one of state or national aid, and not one of teacher salary reduction.

Moehlman has suggested that teachers' salaries be based on the wages paid to unskilled laborers. rather than cost of living. This suggestion is made on the assumption that unskilled labor is the cheapest kind of personal service. As previously stated, it appears that both cost of living and value of teachers' service in relation to the cheapest form of personal service must be considered in fixing teachers' salaries. Unskilled labor probably does represent the personal service prized least. Consequently, wages of unskilled laborers seems to form one sound basis for fixing the remuneration of teachers.

Thorough-Going Study Necessary

As has been pointed out, there are two major problems involved here. It was impossible to give the kind of assistance needed without making a thorough-going salary study of the community involved. Consequently, as was recommended to the superintendent in the community in question, any person interested in the scientific adjustment of teachers' salaries in any given community should provide himself with a comprehensive list of works on the subject of teachers' salaries. Also, the continuing salary service of the National Education Association, along with the various bulletins issued by this organization at various times, should be at hand. The following references will prove most helpful to any administrator or group concerned with teachers' salaries and a salary schedule:

Evenden, E. S. Teachers' Salaries and Salary Schedules in the United States, 1918-19.

Lewis, E. E. Personnel Problems of the Teaching Staff. The Century Company, New York City, 1925. See Chapter XIV, p. 275-303. McGaughy, James R., and others. Teachers' Salaries in New York City. Final Report of Citizens' Committee on Teachers' Salaries. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, 1927, 256 p.

Moehlman, Arthur B. Public-School Finance. Rand, McNally Company, Chicago, 1927, 508 p. See Chapter IX, p. 118-154.

Salaries in City School Systems, 1926-27. Research Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 2, March, 1927. National Education Association, Washington, D. C.

Teachers' Salaries and Salary Trends in 1923. Research Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 3, May, 1923. National Education Association, Washington, D. C.

The Scheduling of Teachers' Salaries. Research Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 3, May, 1927. National Education Asso

ciation, Washington, D. C.

Book Reviews

Books For and About Elementary Education

The Elementary-School Principalship, Bulletin of the Department of Elementary-School Principals, by the Department of Elementary-School Principals of the National Education Association of the United States.

Materials and Methods in the Middle Grades, by Joseph Lindsey Henderson, University of Texas. Ginn and Company, Boston.

Changing Conceptions of School Discipline, by Pickens E. Harris, University of Pittsburgh. The Macmillan Company, New York City.

T

HE POSITION of principal of an elementary school has been, down to recent times, more or less nondescript. But the situation is growing better for the principal. She-sometimes he is acquiring and in most places has already acquired a definite and important status in the educational system. She has constructive as well as supervisory and administrative functions in the control of her school. Formerly, she merely carried out the instructions of the board of education, the superintendent, and the supervisors; now she takes the initiative to a greater or less extent in determining policies affecting both the materials of instruction and the method of teaching in her school. Her position is one that requires diplomatic as well as dynamic ability, for the reason that she is not entirely free to manage her school as she chooses because in all cities there is a superintendent, and in some cities one or more supervisors over her, all of whom have a voice in determining the work that is carried on under her principalship.

The Seventh Yearbook

The above observations have been incited by a reading of The Seventh Yearbook of the Department of Elementary-School Principals of the National Education Association of the United States. This bulletin-it

bulletin-it contains 638 pages-deals wholly with the role that an elementary-school

principal plays to-day in various cities throughout the country. The volume was prepared under the direction of a committee of the Department of Elementary-School Principals, with Mr. W. T. Longshore, of Kansas City, Mo., as chairman.

A Comprehensive Survey

The results of a thorough-going, comprehensive survey of the privileges, duties, and responsibilities, and also the professional training of the elementary-school principal are presented in this volume. The material is interesting and it is organized in a clear, orderly fashion. By running through this volume one can see in how far a principal is merely an administrative or supervisory officer or an initiating force in the school over which she presides. The relations of the principal to her superintendent, to the supervisors who come to her school, to the community in which the school is located, are covered in the bulletin.

Of Value to All Educators

There are interesting case studies of the work of outstanding principals and there is a summary of the scope and content of courses in various institutions for the training of elementary-school principals. There are other data of an illuminating and interesting character presented in the Yearbook. It contains so much concrete material, all of which is well classified and presented attractively, that it ought to be of enduring value not only for principals but also for superintendents and supervisors. Classroom teachers ought to read it so that they may become informed regarding the role that a principal ought to play in the management of her school.

Any one who has had an opportunity to observe the change that has been taking place in school discipline during the past two or three decades knows that there has been a complete shift from autocratic control to almost complete freedom

and spontaneity in some sections, possibly in all sections of the country. Foreign educators who come to America to inspect our education work always comment on the lack of discipline, as they believe, in our public schools. These foreign visitors have said the same expressions that often came from teachers and laymen in our countrythat our pupils are "running wild;" "they are not made to behave while they are in school;" "they are disobedient;" "they ought to be governed with a stronger hand," and so on through a long list of criticisms and suggestions.

Changing Conceptions of School Discipline

Prof. Harris has shown in his Changing Conceptions of School Discipline that we are treating pupils very much more leniently to-day than we did a few years ago. We hold a different philosophy now from what we did formerly regarding the relations that should exist between pupils and their teachers. He has quoted views of the outstanding writers of education during the last five or six decades. It is interesting and illuminating to note how autocracy, which was advocated unqualifiedly in an earlier time, grows weaker and weaker as we come down through the decades. Three decades ago it began to lose its prestige. To-day one can hardly find an authoritative writer on education who would say that the first duty of a pupil is to obey his teacher and the chief function of a teacher is to make him obey. The story is told clearly and attractively in Prof. Harris' book. It is, by the way, one of the volumes in Prof. Bagley's Modern Teachers Series.

Is the Present Course Wise?

One cannot tell what effect the survey of views on school discipline has had on Prof. Harris himself.

He has a concluding chapter in which he not only sums up the outcome of his study but he projects problems for the future. As the volume. is laid down one feels that the author might have been more positive than he has been in presenting his convictions regarding the wisdom or the unwisdom of continuing to pursue the course that we have been following during the last few years. Are we heading for the rocks because we do not make obedience the most important item in training children, or are we sailing out into smooth waters in the open sea? Are we making teaching so interesting that pupils do not want to "raise Cain" when they are in school, but on the contrary, spontaneously apply themselves to the the tasks that are proper for the classroom? One believes that we have been making such improvement in both the content of education and the methods of teaching that we do not now need to

conduct schools on the autocratic plan; but it is not clear whether or not Prof. Harris takes this point of view as a result of his interesting, candid, and illuminating study of a very important subject.

Prof. Joseph L. Henderson, of the University of Texas, thinks that the intermediate grades in elementary schools have not, during the past few years, been receiving as much attention as the primary and the grammar grades. He has sought, therefore, to discuss the improvements of the work in these grades in his Materials and Methods in the Middle Grades. He covers his field comprehensively. He first discusses the characteristics of pupils during the intermediate grade period. Then he inquires what the purposes of education in the intermediate grades should be. Next follows a discussion of materials, methods, and teachers in these intermediate grades.

For the Intermediate Grades

The aim of the author has been to present in an orderly and rather popular way the views of the leaders in modern education regarding the work that should be accomplished in the intermediate grades. One can gain from this book a general view of present-day thought regarding the materials and methods that should be found in the schools; and special applications are made to the intermediate grades. It appears that the author did not aim to present any new, and especially, any revolutionary conceptions regarding the subjects to be taught or the methods of presenting them in the middle grades of the elementary school. The suggestions contained in the book seem to be rather familiar though they have not been heretofore applied especially to intermediate grades. Most, at any rate, of what is presented in Prof. Henderson's book is applicable to the work of any grade; but it is worth while for teachers in the middle grades to become acquainted with present-day views of what materials and what methods are most appropriate for their respective grades.

This book differs from the typical educational book of the times because it does not contain tables or graphs or statistical formulae. Doubtless some readers will think that the results of modern experimental work in education should have been incorporated in the book, but other readers will be pleased because the author has told his story in a rather simple, nontechnical, and hortative way. and hortative way. He has told the reader what to do and how to do it without presenting the detailed data upon which all of his suggestions are founded.

Books on the Sociological Aspects of Education

Vocational Civics, by Howard C. Hill, The University of Chicago High School. Ginn and Company, Boston.

Community Civics, by Howard C. Hill, The University of Chicago High School. Ginn and Company, Boston.

International Civics, by Pitman Potter, University of Wisconsin, and Roscoe L. West, Department of Public Instruction, State of New Jersey. The Macmillan Company, New York City.

Principles of Educational Sociology, by E. George Payne, School of Education, New York University. New York University Press, New York City.

URING the past few years tremendous interest has been manifested in our country in the teaching of the social sciences. Three or four decades ago we gave attention in the school primarily to the so-called tool subjects; but during the past decade we have been appraising most highly the studies that are thought to be particularly valuable in leading a child to understand his social environment and to play an intelligent role as a citizen. Most educational conventions to-day offer several papers on the enrichment of the curriculum with subjects pertaining to human society.

Community Civics

Howard C. Hill, of the University of Chicago High School, has recently published two volumes that should be of interest and value to all those who are responsible for instruction in sciences. Both books are designed to be used as textbooks in the higher grades of the elementary school or in the junior high school. His Community Civics deals in a concrete way with group life, community welfare, and government and citizenship. These topics are treated in such a homelike way, if one may so speak, that pupils could hardly fail to be interested in them and to gain benefit from their study.

Mr. Hill's Vocational Civics carries the general principles of Community Civics out into particular vocations. It would be fine if every pupil could go through such a book as this before he completes the elementary school in order that he might understand the industry, business, and occupations in his community. Heretofore, a pupil might complete an elementary-school course or even a high-school course and have but slight

conception of the industrial activities of the community in which he lived, with the result that he could not participate intelligently in the affairs of the community, which are always inevitably affected vitally by industry, business, and occupations.

International Civics

An effort is being made in American schools to develop international as well as national interests and viewpoints. Prof. Potter and Commissioner West have published a book, International Civics, that will be of service in schools in which an effort is being made-the effort ought to be made in all schools-to give pupils an understanding of international questions affecting the welfare of our own country and perhaps the welfare of mankind. There are among us some persons who believe that it is merely sentimental to attempt to train the rising generations so that their sympathies will not be limited by the boundaries of their own country; but for every one such intense nationalist there are probably five persons who believe that we have reached the point where our children should not be brought up to think there are no people but Americans who have any rights that should be respected and who are entitled to our careful consideration and regard.

Delicate problems are handled in International Civics in a skillful way so that prejudice will not be aroused or racial antipathies brought into the foreground. The authors are sympathetic with the movement to have our country recognize its international obligations and to play a role among and in the family of nations. But they are not propagandists and do not indulge in propaganda in their book.

Educational sociology is receiving increasing attention in colleges and universities engaged in the training of teachers. Prof. E. George Payne has prepared an outline of Principles of Educational Sociology for use in teacher-training institutions. Principles of educational sociology are presented in outline merely. There are problems and questions that are designed to encourage students to apply to every-day problems the principles that are presented in the text. The author expects that students will use this outline largely as a guide in their original handling of the sociological problems involved in educational work.— M. V. O.'S.

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