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News of the Month

Parents Often Retard Education of

Feeble-minded Children

Parents of a mentally defective child, in their eagerness to have their child appear as bright as any other child, often ruin his chances for success, Meta L. Anderson, school supervisor at Newark, N. J., stated recently in an address on education for mental defectives, at a conference of state and local supervisors of rural schools of the Northeastern States held in New York City.

Frequently, Miss Anderson said, the parents refuse to allow the child to attend a special school adapted to his needs, or, if they do allow it, they bring about retarding emotional conflicts by constant nagging.

To determine the essential characteristics of the type of education best adapted to mental defectives means that we must study these children psychologically, socially, and

credited toward a degree in many colleges and universities. The amount of credit that can be earned by extension work varies among institutions. In general, in institutions that offer courses by this method from one-fourth to one-half of the work necessary for a bachelor's degree may be earned by correspondence. There is a tendency to be more liberal in this regard for class work taken outside of the institution.

Most colleges and universities record credit in terms of semester hours. A semester hour is supposed to be equivalent to one hour of class instruction per week for eighteen weeks, including the periods taken for class organization at the beginning of the work and for examination at the close. In general, a semester hour means sixteen actual class hours of instruction, exclusive of the periods devoted to organization and examination.

educationally and act on the knowledge gained to establish French Secondary School Established

training centers where they may receive the type of education best adapted to their needs. More than that-when we have learned what to do and are ready to do it, we must provide a situation in the school system and in the community that will be favorable to the proposition that we teach these feeble-minded children what they should be taught.

Bureau Studies Extension Work
in Colleges

The purpose of a study just published by the Bureau of Education is to make available information as to what and where college and university help through extension methods may be had. The information given was gathered, in the main, by means of a questionnaire sent to all colleges and universities in the United States, and by an examination of catalogues. The study shows that many educational institutions of higher learning are giving extension work.

The two kinds of extension work most in demand are work by correspondence and work in classes held outside of the institutions. These two kinds of work are what is usually meant when people speak of university extension. However, this study shows that there is a wide variety of extension activities in addition to the two mentioned. The scope of this work is growing constantly on account of the ever-increasing number of adults who have need for guidance in their study programs.

One does not need to have any college work or even to have finished high school in order to enroll for noncredit courses through college or university extension. In the main, colleges and universities endeavor to duplicate their residence work through extension methods, but there is also a tendency to render any educational service for which there is a demand and for which they are equipped. Work done by extension, either through correspondence study or in classes outside of the institution, may be

by American University

A provisional charter for a secondary school at ChateauNeuvic, in Dordogne, France, has been issued by the board of regents of the University of the State of New York, the Bureau of Education has just stated orally.

The institution gives training equivalent to that given in schools of New York State, and is maintained principally for the instruction of American boys between twelve and eighteen years of age whose homes are in France, the bureau said.

Under authority granted by the state, the bureau added, the board of regents of the university has chartered a number of higher institutions in foreign countries; but this is believed to be the first entirely secondary school to which such a charter has been granted.

High-School Enrollment Totals
4,000,000 Pupils

The public high school in the United States, in the one century of its existence, has attained an enrollment of approximately 4,000,000 pupils, the Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, stated recently. It estimates that fifty-three per cent of all pupils of high-school age are enrolled in secondary institutions, 4.8 per cent of them being enrolled in private high schools and preparatory departments of higher institutions.

The public high school has had a wonderful growth. Estimating the number of persons in the United States of high-school age (those of ages fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen) as 7,779,070 for 1926, these schools have enrolled 48.2 per cent of those who might be expected to attend high schools. Private high schools and preparatory departments of higher institutions enroll another 4.8 per cent, so that fifty-three per cent of all pupils of high-school age are now enrolled in secondary schools. The public high school will continue to grow,

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News of the Month

but probably at a rate more nearly that of the growth of population.

The recrganization of public high schools into junior. and senior units and the co-ordination with junior colleges are now occupying the attention of secondary-school interests to a marked degree. The reorganization and enrichment of curricular material and the construction of buildings suitable to the needs of reorganization are being pushed forward at a rapid rate. All this is done in a serious attempt to make the secondary school better fit the needs of the pupil and of the community as well.

Increase of Women in School

Administration Field

Women are taking a prominent place in the field of school administration, according to the Educational Directory just issued by the Bureau of Education. In this directory may be found the names of women college presidents, presidents of junior colleges, heads of departments of education in colleges and universities, presidents or deans of schools of law and medicine, presidents of institutions for the training of teachers, presidents of international associations of education, state superintendents of public instruction, and city and county superintendents of schools.

In 1916, twenty-four of the colleges and universities of the United States were presided over by women; to-day there are fifty-seven. Twelve years ago there were thirty women presiding as heads of departments of education in colleges and universities; to-day there are 101 filling these positions. Twelve years ago, twenty-six women were employed as city superintendents of schools; at the present time there are more than forty administering such offices.

The greatest demand for women in administration school work is doubtless as county, union, or district superintendents of schools. In 1916 there were 508 women filling such positions; at the present time there are 900 holding such offices. Every state but six utilizes one or more women as county, union, or district superintendents of schools. In some of the states women would seem to have almost a monopoly of the positions.

College in Alaska to Train
Teachers

Two-year training courses for teachers will be established by the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, Fairbanks, according to the Bureau of Education. The training of persons living in Alaska for positions as teachers in Alaska is expected to be beneficial because of the familiarity which the new teachers would have with the climate and general conditions of the Territory, the bureau states. It explains that teachers appointed in the states and going to Alaska for the first time sometimes have difficulty in adjusting themselves to the severe winters and the native environment. Decision to add the

normal work to the curricula of the territorial college was reached after a conference in Washington between Dr. John J. Tigert, United States Commissioner of Education, and Charles E. Bunnell, president of the college.

Graduates of the new courses may be considered for appointment as teachers in the schools for Alaskan natives conducted by the Bureau of Education.

The work of the natives includes the promotion of native industries, domestic arts, personal hygiene, village sanitation, and morality as well as the elementary subjects usually taught in the schools. Residents of Alaska presumably understand these things and are already fully acclimated.

Dr. Tigert also requested President Bunnell to co-operate further with the Bureau of Education by developing plans for special instruction for Eskimo boys engaged in the reindeer industry.

Instruction for intending teachers and for the native boys is in accord with President Bunnell's policy of making the college an active instrumentality in the development of the territory. He expects to issue a bulletin in a short time outlining the new courses.

Outline Development of Education in Hawaiian Islands

The history of the development of free education and laws concerning compulsory attendance in the Hawaiian Islands, which in the case of attendance precedes the United States by eleven years, is contained in the proceedings of the first Pan-American Conference on Education, held in Honolulu. Education at the expense of the government was established in 1823 in Hawaii, seventyfive years before the islands became a part of the United States.

The origin of this education was unusual in that the high chiefs were the first pupils. Each chief sent the most proficient scholars to his different islands as teachers with a notice to his tenants to attend school. The instruction was in the Hawaiian language, which had been reduced to written form but a short time previous by missionaries. The eagerness of the people to acquire the novel art of reading and writing was intense and practically the whole population of both sexes and all ages went to school. These primitive schools, at the time of their highest prosperity, numbered 900 and were attended by approximately 52,000 pupils.

They spread rapidly over the islands to the remotest villages and flourished for about ten years. The schools were in session from one to two hours during the latter part of the day, and the subjects taught were reading, writing, elementary arithmetic, and geography. The headman of each village was ordered by his chief to provide the teacher with a house and food and clothing.

When Hawaii was annexed to the United States in 1898 the system of education provided free education and compulsory attendance of all children from six to fourteen years of age. This system has been continued since that time under a board of education and superintendent of public instruction.

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News of the Month

Catholic Educational Association Holds Annual Meeting

Approximately 2,000 administrators of Catholic schools in the United States and Canada attended the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the National Catholic Educational Association held at Loyola University, June 25-28. Diocesan directors, lay brothers, and many sisters filled the various halls where the meetings were held and from every standpoint the meeting was an outstanding success.

The program was divided into sessions, with the opening meeting on Tuesday, June 26, and the first paper given was entitled, "Standardization and Its Abuse," by the Rev. Henry Woods, S.J., University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. The only other session of the general meeting was held on Thursday afternoon when reports were received, election of officers was held, and a paper, "Catholic Ideals in Higher Education," was read by Charles Phillips, professor of English at the University of Notre Dame.

Considerable interest was manifested at the meeting of the department of colleges and secondary schools which opened on Tuesday afternoon with the appointment of committees, and an address by the president, the Rev. J. W. R. Maguire, C.S.V., St. Viator College, Bourbonnais, Ill. A report on the commission of standardization given by the Rev. Daniel M. O'Connell, S.J., vice president of St. Xavier College, Cincinnati, completed the afternoon session.

On Wednesday morning the department heard the report of the committee on graduate schools by the Rev. Alphonse M. Schwitalla, S.J., St. Louis University, St. Louis. There was also a report given by the Rev. James A. Reeves, S.T.D., Seton Hill College, Greensburg, Pa., on philosophy studies. At the afternoon session much discussion was aroused by the paper entitled, "Status of the Lay Professor in the Catholic College," presented by the Rev. John F. McCormick, S.J., Marquette University. Formal discussions were given by Prof. John V. Sweeney, Manhattan College, New York, and Sister Mary Francisca, Seton Hill College, Greensburg, Pa.

The Rev. Maurice S. Sheehy, of the Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., gave the first paper on Thursday morning in the college and secondary-school department on "Tendencies in Higher Education." Sister Mary Ruth, Rosary College, River Forest, Ill., read a paper on "The Function of Religion in Character Formation." The rest of the morning was devoted to a business session.

Sessions on secondary education played an important role in the meeting. Sessions were held on each of the four days with the following papers presented: "The Secondary Section, What Has Been Done, and What Is to Be Done," by the Very Rev. William P. McNally, S.T.L., rector of Roman Catholic High School, Philadelphia; "What Is Wrong With the Teaching of Religion in Our Secondary Schools?" by the Rev. Joaquin F. Garcia, C.M., Niagara University, Niagara Falls, N. Y.; "The Scientific

Approach to the Measurement of Character," by Brother Matthew, C.S.C., Dujarie Institute, Notre Dame, Ind.; "The Purpose and Content of High-School Algebra," by Sister M. Pauline, Sisters of St. Joseph, Aquinas Institute, Rochester, N. Y.; "Basic Consideration on the Teaching of English Literature," by the Rev. John I. Barrett, S.T.D., J.C.L., archdiocesan director of Catholic education, Baltimore, Md.; "High-School Chemistry Teaching," by the Rev. George L. Coyle, S.J., Georgetown University, Washington, D. C.; and "Some Elements in Teaching Elementary Latin," by the Rev. Michael L. Moriarty, University of Notre Dame.

Salary Statistics of Elementary

Teachers

Salaries paid to elementary teachers in cities of 100,000 population and over range from a low minimum of $950 per year to a high maximum of $3,504 per year, according to figures just made public. The low minimum is given for Salt Lake City, Utah, which also has the highest number of annual increases required to reach the maximum, or seventeen annual increases. The highest maximum salary is given for New York City.

The following figures show, first, the minimum salary; second, the maximum salary; and third, the number of annual increases required to reach the maximum: Alabama: Birmingham, $1,000, $2,000, 10. California: Los Angeles, $1,400, $2,440, 13; Oakland, $1,380, $2,460, 9; San Francisco, $1,400, $2,400, 11. Colorado: Denver, $1,200, $2,520, not specified. Connecticut: Bridgeport, $1,000, $3,100, not specified; Hartford, $1,000, $2,000, not specified; New Haven, $1,000, $1,850, 9.

Delaware: Wilmington, $1,000; $1,800, 9.

District of Columbia: $1,400, $2,600, not specified.
Illinois: Chicago, $1,500, $2,500, 8.

Indiana: Indianapolis, $1,300, $2,800, 12.
Iowa: Des Moines, $1,200, $2,210, not specified.
Kansas: Kansas City, $1,200, $1,788, not specified.
Louisiana: New Orleans, $1,200, $2,250, 8.
Maryland: Baltimore, $1,200, $1,800, 6.

Massachusetts: Cambridge, $1,228, $1,804, 6; Fall River, $1,100, $1,700, 6; Lowell, $1,200, $1,700, 6; New Bedford, $1,000, $1,900, 10; Springfield, $1,300, $1,900, 6; Worcester, $1,200, $2,000, 8.

Michigan: Detroit, $1,200, $2,000, 5; Grand Rapids, $1,200, $2,000, not specified.

Minnesota Minneapolis, $1,200, $2,500, not specified; St. Paul, $1,100, $1,700, 10.

Missouri: St. Louis, $1,200, $2,700, not specified. New Jersey: Jersey City, $1,400, 2,800, 14; Paterson, $1,200, $2,800, 12.

New York: Albany, $1,100, $1,900, not specified; Buf

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