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teachers' meetings are of the right type, attendance to them will be considered a privilege, rather than a chore, and consequently the problem of whether or not meetings should be compulsory will not arise in the school system where the personnel of the teaching staff is of the quality that is desirable.

The first teachers' meeting should set forth a working plan of teachers' meetings for the entire year and should also present to the entire teaching staff a somewhat specific statement of the philosophy in accordance with which the local school system is being administered. In a school system having seventy-five teachers or more, the first general meeting should consist largely of an address by the superintendent of schools and should offer an opportunity for the new members of the teaching staff to become acquainted with their colleagues. In systems having seventy-five teachers or more, special routine rules, and building directions should be distributed at a building meeting held subsequently. In the small school system the first meeting may serve the double function of the general meeting indicated above and also take care of matters of routine.

Plans for the First Meeting

Suggested plans for the first teachers' meeting and a year's schedule of following meetings are presented below. These plans are adaptations from a schedule formulated and used in a community of some 35,000 in one of the Southern states last year.

SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR FIRST TEACHERS'
MEETING

(Thursday, September 8, 1927, 9 A.M.) (High-School Auditorium) Annual Plans

I. Improvement of Instruction-Chief objectives for year

1. To administer a testing program for diagnostic purposes.

2. To train teachers in the preparation and use of objective tests.

3. To provide a teachers' professional library and make use of same in teachers' meetings. 4. To prepare instructional materials.

5. To provide for demonstration teaching. 6. To provide for inter-visitation of teachers. 7. To make a definite program by calendar and follow it.

8. To secure greater teacher participation and co-operation in teachers' meetings.

9. To plan work by units of instruction both daily and term.

10. To encourage teachers' contributions to the improvement of classroom instruction.

11. To revise the curriculum.

12. To make a well-selected collection for school

museum.

II. Supervision of Instruction 1. Testing program

a. Mental ability tests

b. Standardized educational tests

c. Traditional tests

1. Essay type

2. Open book type, etc.

d. Objective tests

1. True-false type

2. Completion type

3. Best answer of selection type

4. Matching type

5. Recognition or recall type
6. Reasoning type.

2. Teachers' plan books

a. Daily and weekly plans

b. Outline of plans
1. Aims

2. Means and procedures, content
of subject-matter

3. Checking provisions.

3. Instructional materials

a. Bibliographies

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2. Instructional materials, Friday, September SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR ORGANIZATION MEETING 9, 9 A.M.

3. Curriculum construction, Saturday, September 10, 9 A.M.

4. Organization for curriculum construction, Tuesday, September 13, 7 P.M.

5. Standards for the improvement of arithmetic, Tuesday, September 20, 7 P.M.

6. Standards for the improvement of reading, Tuesday, September 27, 7 P.M.

7. Standards for the improvement of handwriting, Tuesday, October 4, 7 P.M.

8. Teachers' marks, Saturday, October 8, 9:30 A.M.

9. Discipline, Tuesday, October 18, 7 P.M. 10. The teaching profession, Tuesday, November 1, 7 P.M.

11. Teacher visitation, Tuesday, November 15, 7 P.M.

12. Objective tests and measurements, Saturday, December 10, 9:30 A.M.

13. University interscholastic league activities, Tuesday, January 10, 7 P.M.

14. First semester results and plans for second semester, Saturday, February 18, 9:30 A.M.

15. School exhibit (Parents' Day), Tuesday, March 14, 7 P.M.

16. Plans for final testing program, Tuesday, April 18, 7 P.M.

17. Reports, summer plans, etc., Tuesday, May 9, 7 P.M.

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B. Called meetings

There

There will be a number of called meetings of committees at work on the curriculum. will also be a number of called meetings for discussion of standards for the improvement of subjects of instruction not cared for under scheduled meetings.

VI. Other Plans for the Year

1. To provide transportation facilities for children in outlying districts.

2. To make provision for better playground supervision.

3. To improve assembly programs.

4. To improve further appearance of campus. 5. To develop a better spirit of loyalty and school pride upon the part of school pupils.

6. To present a series of worth while entertainments for the general public.

7. To make valuable additions to school libraries.

ON CURRICULUM REVISION1
Tuesday, September 13, 1927, 7 P.M.

I. A Program of Curriculum Revision.
1. The Denver Program

2. The Cincinnati program

3. The Seattle and Detroit programs
4. Co-operative procedure.

II. The General Aims and Objectives of Education

1. Aims and objectives as stated by early writers:

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8. To print a course of study as an out-growth $600 a year. The administration of the system is of work on the curriculum.

At this first general meeting copies of the rules and regulations and any other mimeographed material concerning the keeping of records might be distributed.

intrusted to the state board of education, and the pensions are to be paid from the school fund of the state.

This plan of organization was patterned after the organization of the Curriculum Revision Committees in San Francisco, in 1927, which were directed by Professors G. M. Ruch and John Guy Fowlkes.

News of the Month

Plan National Recreation Congress

at Atlantic City, October 1-6

Things and their use for enriching life will be the theme of the Fifteenth National Recreation Congress meeting under the auspices of the Playground and Recreation Association of America in Atlantic City, October 1-6. The six hundred or more delegates from all parts of the country will turn their attention to land and water areas, play equipment, buildings, and recreation materials, with the object of securing from these facilities wider possibilities for health and enjoyment and a more expressive and satisfying use of the nation's leisure time.

Classes in games, folk dancing, music, drama, and handcrafts will be conducted by experts, who will be available also to answer questions and give advice on recreation problems. Each evening speakers of national prominence will appear at meetings of an inspirational nature. Daily meetings for general discussion, when the results of all the previous day's section meetings will be reviewed, will give each delegate a summary of the conferences he could not attend. One morning has been left entirely free for delegates to organize special meetings.

A feature will be the awarding of service medals to community recreation leaders who have served in this new field for ten, fifteen, and twenty years. The boy winners of local model aircraft contests will compete for junior and senior championships at the Second National Playground Miniature Aircraft Tournament on October 5 and 6.

American School Endowments

Pass Billion Mark

In 1926 the colleges and universities of the United States received in benefactions a total of $118,144,082, of which amount $72,374,608 was for additions to endowments and the balance for current expenses and buildings. During the same year teacher-training institutions received a total of $8,728,950 in benefactions, of which amount $6,682,023 was for additions to endowments.

The total amount of endowments reported by schools in 1926 is as follows: Colleges and universities, $987,012,929; teachers colleges and normal schools, $19,425,113; private high schools and academies, $67,151,000; all of which makes a total of $1,061,589,042. The amount received annually by private high schools has not been reported since 1918.

The state departments of education report a total value of public elementary and secondary-school property for 1926 of $4,676,603,539. Private high schools report $511,544,000. Teacher-training institutions, including endowments, have a total valuation of $202,630,512, and colleges and universities of $2,334,307,421. If the private elementary schools have property valued at as much as $400,000,000, this would make a total value for these in

stitutions of $8,125,085,472 for grounds, buildings, contents, and productive funds.

It is not possible to state with any degree of certainty the number of elementary schools. No data exist for private elementary schools. In 1926 there were 256,104 public-school buildings reported. A total of 215,439 of these are designated as elementary-school buildings, and 9,538 as high-school buildings.

This leaves more than 31,000 undistributed as to use. Of the total, 256,104 buildings, the number used in consolidated schools is 16,291 and the number of one-room buildings is 161,531.

There are approximately 21,700 public high schools, 2,500 private high schools, 386 preparatory departments of colleges, and 125 secondary departments in teachertraining institutions. The teacher-training institutions number 402, of which number 101 are teachers colleges, 102 state normal schools, twenty-seven city normal schools, 108 county normal schools, and sixty-four private normal schools. The colleges and universities number 975, of which number 153 are junior colleges.

There are 5,920 students enrolled in private schools for the Indians, 188,363 students enrolled (1925) in private commercial and business schools, 187,828 enrolled (1925) in trade and industrial schools, and 77,768 enrolled (1927) in nurse-training schools. Data on expenditures are not available for these four types of schools.

There are enrolled also 40,076 students in extension courses and 29,647 elementary students in practice and model schools in teachers colleges; 11,174 students in extension courses and 28,433 in practice and model schools in state normal schools; 334 in extension courses and 4,524 in practice and model schools in private normal schools; and 209,454 in summer schools, 268,481 in extension courses, and 3,772 in winter short courses in colleges and universities.

Enrollments in elementary schools, high schools, normal schools, and in colleges and universities in the outlying parts of the United States amount to 1,496,928. This makes a grand total of enrollments in all types of schools above mentioned of 31,037,736.

Propose Automobile Instruction
for Safety

"Motorology" is proposed as a new study in the educational institutions of the country as part of the nationwide plan to reduce the heavy loss of human life and limb in accidents. Records show that one car in every sixteen on the road annually is involved in an accident in which someone is killed or injured.

A careful study indicates that ninety-eight per cent of all accidents are due to carelessness or law violation, and it is believed that education is the best process of making the motorist realize his individual responsibility for safety. Fifteen per cent of the accidents are due to careless driving; ten per cent are due to negligence of motorists at railroad crossings; five per cent are the

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Tired little muscles-chilled little
bodies-"colds" and absences-how
often they are simply the result of
damp, rigid, stone-like floors!

More and more, school board
members are coming to realize the
wisdom of flooring schools with
the one flooring material that com-
bines warm, dry, cushioning com-
fort with the qualities of lasting
wear which school use demands
Northern Hard Maple!

This resilient flooring material is remarkably tough-fibred and tightgrained. It does not sliver or splinter. Scuffing, youthful feet and the moving of equipment simply

Maple, moreover, because of its permanent smoothness, is exceptionally easy to keep clean. It offers no open lodging places for dust and germ-laden dirt to collect. And it permits quick, simple, permanent anchorage for seats.

Hundreds of school boards have
been guided by these facts in select-
ing flooring. They have chosen
Maple for schoolrooms, corridors,
gymnasiums, assembly halls. Con-
sult your architect about Northern
Hard Maple.

MAPLE FLOORS IN COLOR-By a new special staining process-the Marietta-
Murphy Finishing System-Northern Hard Mapie Flooring may now be given a
variety of beautiful, lasting color finishes. Standard finishes as follows:

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News of the Month

result of incompetency; seven per cent to violations of right-of-way; and twenty-one per cent to carelessness or law-breaking.

The proposed course of study in the schools is to include construction and care of motor vehicles; the art of operating a motor vehicle; motor vehicle law and municipal traffic regulation; and motor vehicle accidents, their cause and prevention.

The finishing touch to the motorist's education would be highway courtesy, and elective courses might include: purchase and transfer of motor vehicles, automobile insurance, taxation, highway geography, highway building, and other subjects intimately interwoven with the automobile and its operation.

Commissioner Tigert Resigns
Bureau Position

Dr. John J. Tigert, commissioner of the United States Bureau of Education for the past seven years, has tendered his resignation, effective September 1, that he might accept the presidency of the University of Florida to which he was elected by its board of regents on July 9. The resignation has been accepted by President Coolidge, but no successor has been appointed.

Dr. Tigert is a native of Tennessee, was educated in Vanderbilt University, went to Oxford as a Rhodes scholar, and was president of Kentucky Wesleyan College at the age of twenty-seven. He taught philosophy in the University of Kentucky, went to France with the Y. M. C. A. during the war, transferred to the Army Education Corps of the American Expeditionary Force, and was assigned as a lecturer at Beaune, France. Returning from Europe he resumed his post at the University of Kentucky until he was made Commissioner of Education in 1921.

Announce Unusual Courses

at Columbia University

The Department of Health Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, has announced two new courses of unusual interest. In the winter session, there will be given a course in Methods of Teaching Lip Reading to Deafened Children, in co-operation with the New York League for the Hard of Hearing. The instructors will include Annetta W. Peck and Estelle E. Samuelson, coauthors of Ears and the Man, Studies in Social Work for the Deafened; certain outstanding otologists, including Dr. Wendell Phillips, a former president of the American Medical Association; physicists who have been developing new methods of testing auditory acuity; and authorities on child hygiene, including Dr. Thomas D. Wood.

In the spring session, in co-operation with the National Health Council through the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, there will be given a course on Methods of Teaching in Sight Conservation Classes. The instructors will include Lewis G. Carris, Mrs. Winifred

Hathaway, Dr. B. Franklin Royer, and certain eminent ophthalmologists. A special sight conservation class will be developed as a teaching laboratory for this course.

According to Professor Hugh Grant Rowell, directing these courses: "These two courses signal the active interest of Teachers College in the education of physically handicapped children. Such pupils must be given the best education practicable that their lives may be enriched as much as possible, and their economic values be developed to the individual maximum. At the present time, teachers of handicapped children are usually trained by the cadet system, or under conditions where they cannot have the broadening benefits and contacts of a large educational institution. Since these teachers require specialized training and receive higher salaries than others of the same grade, this field must attract persons of superior personal and professional qualifications. There has been comparatively little scientific study of the majority of the educational problems of physically handicapped children and it is hoped that these new courses may stimulate an interest among educators to delve more deeply into the difficulties of this field and to encourage better professional background for teachers whose work is with such children. Teachers College is the first teacher-training institution to take a definite step toward meeting the general and technical needs of teachers in this field."

New York University Plans School of Education Building

The council of New York University has authorized the erection of a twelve-story building to occupy a plot 100 feet square on the northwest corner of Fourth and Green streets, near Washington Square. The erection of this building is the first step in a program of development for the school of education. The building will be Gothic in design and will set a standard for the university's architecture at Washington Square. Plans have been completed and filed, and the demolition of the structures now occupying the site of the new building will begin as soon as the leases of the occupants of the present building expire. It is expected that the new building will be ready in the fall of 1929.

N. E. A. to Meet in Atlanta,

Georgia, June 29-July 5

Atlanta, Ga., has been chosen as the place of meeting for the National Education Association and the dates set are June 29-July 5, 1929. An important factor in the selection of Atlanta was the feeling that the South needed the National Education Association meeting. The city offers splendid convention facilities including an excellent exhibit hall that is directly connected with the main auditorium where the large meetings of the association will be held.

The National Education Association urges its members to secure hotel accommodations promptly for this meeting.

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