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of new teachers anyway, whether or not the rule is in force. It is doubtless true that such an idea is altogether too prevalent, because so many teachers expect to marry after a few years of teaching and to give up their professional work after marriage, but to make rules that teachers must give up their professional work after marriage probably can have no other effect than to increase the number of those who consider their work as temporary.

Will the rule against employment of married. women teachers increase the turnover in the teaching force? Thirty-two superintendents who sent in replies believe that the rule will increase the turnover, while fourteen believe that it will not. The consensus of opinion seems definitely to be that the turnover will be increased. If there is any value in training and experience in teachers, and few superintendents would question their value, then large turnovers in the teaching force are undesirable. The rule against the employment of married women teachers will mean that there will be an increased number of new teachers to break in each year, who will, in their turn, become married while yet in the prime of their ability as teachers, and by so doing will lose their positions to make way for other new teachers to gain teaching experience which they cannot use after they marry.

Do the Best Teachers Marry?

Will the rule against employment of married women teachers eliminate the more normal and popular women of the force and retain the freaks and unpopular teachers? Thirty superintendents believe that the rule will not have this effect, while fourteen believe that the better and more popular teachers are more likely to marry. Some believe that the better teachers are more likely to have desirable qualities in general, which will bring to them more opportunities for desirable marriage, of which they will avail themselves. Others maintain that it is the poorer teachers and freaks from the standpoint of teaching who are most likely to marry.

In general the comments of superintendents seem to indicate that most of them believe that those who marry and those who do not cannot be classified as the successful and the unsuccessful, the efficient and the inefficient, the popular and the unpopular teachers, respectively, of the force. If it be true that teachers having all degrees of efficiency both marry and do not marry, there is no argument here either for the retention or elimination of married teachers as a class. Will the rule against employment of married women teachers eliminate excellent teachers of

experience and training whose married life would not interfere with their work? Forty superintendents believe that excellent teachers whose marriage would not interfere with their work will be eliminated by such a rule, while six believe that the rule will not eliminate such teachers, probably on the grounds that all teachers become undesirable when married.

The preponderance of opinion, therefore, among superintendents who have recently had the married woman teacher problem to settle, seems to be pretty clear that efficient married women teachers whose marriage will not interfere with their work will be eliminated. To the extent that good teachers will be eliminated the rule will work an injustice to the teachers and, unless their places are filled by equally good teachers, it will be a detriment to the school. In other words, the rule will sacrifice some of these excellent teachers in order to eliminate some who are undesirable because married.

Further Analysis Needed

If opinion on this point is valid, by what logic do boards of education arrive at the conclusion that they should eliminate married women as a class, rather than establish rules relating to the particular factors that make some married women undesirable as teachers but do not apply to others? The remedy seems to lie in a further analysis of the factors that sometimes make married women undesirable teachers. Then, on the basis of such an analysis rules can be established that affect directly such undesirable traits or conditions.

Possibilities for dealing with the problem of the married woman teacher range from absolute exclusion of married women teachers, through partial use of married women as substitutes, to their employment on an equal basis with unmarried women teachers. The possibilities may be stated as follows:

1. An ironclad rule excluding all married women from service as teachers in the schools. Few boards of education, even those making rules against the employment of married women teachers, go to this extreme.

2. An ironclad rule excluding all married women not employed as teachers at the time of the passage of the rule. This seems to be the form the rule against employment of married women teachers usually takes. This, of course, will ultimately amount to a rule against all married women teachers, if the rule remains in force sufficiently long. Both this and the preceding rule seem to be unfair to the efficient, well trained and experienced married woman teacher whose house

hold duties do not interfere with her school work, and also to the teacher, already employed, whose marriage will act as a resignation, according to provision against marriage written into her contract.

Such rules are detrimental to the school system in that they lose to the school experienced teachers who have served well, often replacing them with inexperienced persons, or at least those whose qualifications are not so well known.

3. The temporary rule against employment of married women teachers. The object here is to keep a balance between the two groups of teachers. This may be advisable if it can be determined that the percentage of married women teaching in any system should be limited, and where such limits should be placed. It may often be desirable, also, to limit the number of local teachers, in which case some married women may be excluded without enforcement of a rule against them as a class.

4. The use of married women, usually former teachers, as substitutes. This plan has been adopted in a large western city that has a rule against employing married women for permanent positions, and it is in use in many cities that have no such restrictive rules. The superintendent of the western city writes: "The plan permits married women to withdraw from service at the end of any particular assignment without any interruptions. We are much pleased with this use of married women. Our practice is to use those who before marriage were teachers of our own force whenever such are available.”

Use of Substitutes One Solution

This system seems to work well even where women have household duties to perform, in that they are free much of the time, the work is intermittent and they are not obliged to teach when other duties claim their attention. This provision does not, however, provide for the permanent employment of the efficient married women who can give the schools the professional services which their training and experience have made possible, and who are not in any way handicapped or made inefficient by their marriages.

5. Discrimination against all married women except such as are dependent upon their own efforts for support. This is a provision in force in a number of cities and is altogether too prevalent for the good of the schools. As was previously pointed out, such a rule assumes that the schools are to be used as a means of poor relief and that the board of education is responsible for finding employment for women whose husbands are not able to support them, or are dead.

This would eliminate the capable, happily married woman without children, who has a husband to support her, but desires to make her life useful and to use her professional training and experience in the schoolroom. It would also give employment to the overworked woman who has a family to support and household duties to perform. The rule that would give employment to such married women as are dependent upon their own efforts for support, while excluding others, is clearly wrong from the standpoint of what is best for the schools.

6. The employment of some married teachers, but the giving of preference to unmarried ones. One superintendent writes: "We do not have a rule against married women. However, preference is given to unmarried women." This policy permits the board of education to retain excellent married women of training and experience while excluding the others. However, it seems that it is still the wrong policy to give preference to unmarried teachers, in case all other things are equal. Qualifications for service, alone, should receive consideration, and these are largely individual in their nature.

Let the Board of Education Decide

7. Reserving the right, in the teacher's contract, to demand the resignation of any woman teacher who marries during the period of her contract. This seems to be a wise provision, for it permits married women to teach but makes it possible to eliminate such as become inefficient or unable to fulfill their duties satisfactorily because of their marriages. The discretionary power is thus left with the board of education.

8. No regulations concerning the employment of married women teachers. This is probably still the practice in the great majority of school systems. This is the other extreme from prohibiting the employment of any married women teachers. The growing number of rules against the employment of married women teachers, however, points to the desirability of providing for the elimination of those who become undesirable as teachers because of their marriage, while retaining those whose efficiency marriage does not affect.

9. The placing of married women upon the same basis as unmarried women both as to selection and tenure, having the requirements for both classes sufficiently rigid to exclude those who are inefficient or undesirable. This will necessitate analysis of the causes that operate to make some married teachers inefficient or undesirable. When such causes are determined they may be stated specifically in rules.

For example: Rules may be made to require certain standards of health for both married and unmarried women teachers, to require certain standards of training, experience and merit, as is now common, to require that both married and unmarried women shall, if maintaining a home, have someone to care for it, to require that neither married nor unmarried women teachers shall have dependents to care for, and any other like provisions that may be necessary to eliminate the undesirable married women teachers and the undesirable unmarried women teachers as well, while retaining the efficient teachers of both classes.

The only clause that would need to be different in the contracts for married and unmarried teachers would be that terminating the contract in case a married woman teacher becomes pregnant. This would doubtless cause some interruptions of work, but such interruptions would be fewer than those caused by rules terminating contracts of unmarried teachers because of marriage.

With rules in force that apply alike to married and unmarried teachers and that will eliminate the undesirable teachers from both groups, boards of education will avoid the injustice that arises from the elimination of a whole class in order to exclude a few who are inefficient. In this way they will alleviate to some extent the continual turnover of teachers, which tends to sacrifice the trained, experienced teacher for the younger recruit. What is still more important they will then make efficiency and desirability, applied both to married and unmarried teachers, the sole criterion for their employment and retention.

Use of Motion Pictures Increases in Schools

Despite the difficulties that have arisen in the development of the teaching film, motion pictures for educational purposes are now in use in more than 15,000 schools of the country, according to a report of the Bureau of Education.

Projecting machines have been installed in the auditorium of the various schools, or else a portable projector easily operated by the teacher or by an intelligent pupil, is used in the classroom. Educational films are supplied to the schools either through distributing agencies or by state universities from film libraries in their extension de partments. Yale University has helped in the preparation of a series of films on American history and Harvard is now cooperating with a well known film producing concern in making films relating to science. Several other universities are making films on their own account.

In many cities, such as Newark, N. J., motion picture apparatus is a part of the standard equipment of every new school. In Cleveland practically every school is thus equipped.

The supply of teaching films, however, has not kept pace with the demand and the schools are confronted with the problem of securing suitable pictures to supplement textbook instruction. Many companies organized for the manufacture of educational films have been forced out of business because the number of schools using their product regularly was not sufficient to insure them a profit. Other concerns tried supplying nontheatrical films but found that they were losing money and stopped. This difficulty, together with the cost of equipment, the expense of operating the machines, the inconvenience of shifting pupils from classrooms to auditorium and the lack of coordination of the subject matter of available films with the regular work of the schoolroom has no doubt detracted from the more general use of this type of instruction.

The situation nevertheless is improving in many respects. The portable projector has been found to be ideal for classroom use and the narrow film reduces the cost materially. Thus a teacher may give her lessons in the approved fashion, using lantern slides and illustrative films to supplement her verbal instructions.

In the platoon schools of Detroit and Pittsburgh, a "professional" projector is used in the auditorium and one day a week is given to motion pictures as a part of the auditorium exercises. The programs are arranged in advance and are planned to make the pictures coordinate with the classroom teaching.

In recent experiments on the value of educational films to the pupil, forty films were developed and a hundred others planned. A company has been organized to produce these films and to promote their use.

Pupils in Forty-Two States Must

Take Medical Tests

Existing laws in forty-two states require a medical inspection of all school children although the laws vary in many respects, according to an article in School Life issued by the Bureau of Education. In sixteen states medical examination of pupils in all school districts is compulsory. In twenty-three states examinations are given by trained persons-physicians, nurses, physical directors, dentists or a combination of these. thirteen states examinations may be given by the teacher; in two states, by the superintendent, principal or teacher.


The Part-Time School-What It Is


and What It Offers

Intelligence tests have revealed a need for more stringent
regulations with regard to school attendance and as a result
the part-time school has developed to meet an economic need




OUT the

United States

during the past decade there has grown up a new system of schools known as parttime schools. These schools have been designated in various ways to get rid of the name "parttime." Nevertheless they are still what they were intended to beschools attended by pupils for part of a day and part of a week only.

These schools are a natural outgrowth of the economic pressure in our country to


They began The training given in upholstering is of a practical nature and can informally and frequently be turned to good account in the pupil's later life. without name,

long before the part-time idea was thought of, in regular high schools in which pupils attended a part of every day and worked the other part of the day to help support their families. The parttime idea arose in an attempt to give the pupil practically full-time employment, from which employment he is excused a portion of the week to attend school. This time in school varies from four hours a week to eight hours a week.

The tightening of the compulsory education laws in this country, due to the results of the army tests showing the percentage of illiteracy ranging from 17 to 41 per cent in various places under certain tests, has accelerated the develop

ment of these

schools and deter

mined the type of pupil who should be placed there. The grade of the pupil may be from the sixth grade up through high school, and the age may range from fourteen to eighteen years for compulsory attendance. Voluntary attendance may be up to any age. In some states compulsory attendance is maintained for illiterates to the age of twenty-one.

Hence, it is readily seen that the type of pupil in the part-time schools is different from that in the

regular schools. He is different because of his need of employment, which connotes lack of leisure, luxury, relaxation and other things that the normal, growing child of the so-called middle class family has. He is different also because of his outside vocational contacts. Resourcefulness and independence, together with originality and ability to work, aimed at as ideals in the regular schools, are acquired in the vocations. They are acquired not as a matter of ideals. or from an academic point of view, but because of necessity. If they are not acquired, the pupil must find another position and that in itself, although harsh, is effective education and will

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