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If the use of test results in the diagnosis of individual and group needs were followed, the need for remedial teaching would become immediately apparent. Much of this remedial work should be done by the regular teacher, but in some cases, the aid of special teachers and coaching teachers will become necessary. Included in this remedial work would be changes and adjust ments in programs.

With a knowledge of special abilities, handicaps and interests, comes the opportunity to advise the pupil as to his present and future choice of courses and activities. This advisory function of the schools reaches beyond the school organization itself and out into adult life. It becomes a guidance and informational program. If an activities basis is also used, there will naturally arise situations involving advice and information as to further education, and as to choice of occupations and of leisure time activities. Matters of moral,

social, ethical and physical importance will be touched upon in a comprehensive guidance program, as need arises, with individual pupils and with groups of pupils also.

Briefly, testing leads to diagnosis and to the application of remedial measures. One step further along this line leads to a guidance program.

The success of such a step requires the active and sympathetic cooperation of the entire staff of teachers and principals, under the leadership of a specially trained staff officer and suitable assistants.

For countless centuries, the education of the child by the adult has been approached from the adult's point of view alone.

Now it is becoming increasingly evident that if the child's viewpoint is accepted as a basis and if the adult guides the child's natural activities so as to insure desirable outcomes, greater learning at greater speed will result. Consequently, the curriculum is now being put into operation on a child activity basis.

Utilizing the Child's Interests

This means that the child's natural interests and reactions are utilized, are recognized as purposeful and are directed toward certain desirable outcomes, which may be habits, skills or knowledge.

In this process, units of work, involving many integrated fields of subject matter, are built up by the children. These units serve as natural vehicles for the learning process.

From the supervisor's standpoint, what are these units but revisions of the curriculum, in terms of purposeful activities?

of work as the testing program-curriculum revision.

The approach to curriculum revision work from the activities basis will differ materially from the approach to this problem from the classification basis.

When a curriculum is revised in order to meet the needs of homogeneous groups, the establishment of standards receives prime consideration. Content is defined and goals are set up.

When a curriculum is revised in order to meet the situations growing out of pupil activities, integrated units of work develop. These two can be made complementary phases of the revision.

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The standards must be interpreted in terms of units of work in order to be useful. The units of work must raise accomplishment to the established standards in order to be purposeful.

Another aspect of the activities basis is the provision for group work in which the child may choose those phases of the problem that appeal most to the particular individual.

When natural interests are disclosed to the teacher in this way, certain duties immediately confront her. If she has discovered a special talent, this should be given opportunity for development. If it is an interest which she has uncovered, she must provide information and help that will enlarge and strengthen it.

What is this but another aspect of the guidance program which was found to develop also from the testing work?

The operation of a testing program and the utilization of its results work hand in hand with the operation of the curriculum upon an activities basis. Indeed, the two dovetail into one another so completely, in their outcomes, that they form a natural cycle of six elements. This cycle can

The activities basis, then, leads to the same field be represented as forming a hexagonal structure

similar to the picture of the six carbon atoms in the benzene molecule.

Such a hexagonal presentation is given in the accompanying diagram. Here are the related elements: standardized testing program; classification of pupils; curriculum revision; operation of curriculum on activities basis; guidance program; diagnostic and remedial work.

Each of the elements in the cycle has many important corollaries. For example, ten other outgrowths of the testing program have already been listed in this article. Similarly, outgrowths could be listed for the other five elements.

Such a cycle of educational factors is not a mere theoretical conception. It is an accurate portrayal of what has been happening in the public schools of Lynn, Mass., during the past two years, and of what is planned for the future. Similar conditions exist in many other progressive school systems. In many of them the movement has been under way for a much longer period of time and has accomplished correspondingly greater results.

What Lynn Has Done

In Lynn a comprehensive testing program has been instituted (during the first year, it has been limited to the elementary grades), and many uses have been made of the results. Of especial importance among these uses have been the grouping of pupils and the diagnosis of abilities and difficulties, followed by remedial measures of various sorts. These activities have been under the direction of the research department. Provision has been made for extending the department's activities into the curriculum field, starting during the school year 1928-29. The testing program will also be extended, so as to include the junior high-school grades.

The central supervisory staff of the Lynn schools has been gradually introducing an activities program. This, too, will tie up with the curriculum construction program, in the manner already indicated. The preparation of units of work has already started, and a number that have been worked out in various classrooms during the year have already been mimeographed and distributed to teachers in the various schools.

As yet, no definite provision has been made for the personnel which will be required to direct a guidance program. Many teachers, especially in the secondary-school field, are taking courses in guidance work and are beginning to make local application of it in their schools. It is hoped that arrangements will be made for giving more definite attention to this remaining phase of the cycle.

Of course, in the Lynn schools the cycle has only begun to operate. Its real results will not be

fully significant until perhaps five or even ten years have elapsed. During that time, many details of the plan may change. Those who are now engaged in the work, believe, however, that this cycle of six interdependent factors is psychologically and philosophically sound, and that it will remain, with little or no change, as a basis for the work to be done.

Each Element Depends on the Others

In one case, the officers of the school department initiated a testing program and introduced an activities basis for the curriculum and then found the other four elements to be natural outgrowths of these two.

The same elements arise, however, no matter what the starting point may be. For example, if a school system should introduce a comprehensive guidance program, it would find diagnosis to be essential and would need to use standardized tests for diagnostic purposes. On the other hand, if a guidance program were instituted, it would logically call for an interpretation of the curriculum in terms of purposeful activities.

In short, the cycle is complete and each element depends upon the others.

It is not to be supposed that each element leads to only two developments as shown in the diagram. Each one of the six elements will lead to many supplementary fields. In this article, a total of ten legitimate leads from a testing program are outlined. Similar outlines might be prepared, showing a variety of leads from the other elements of the cycle.

Methods of Informing Taxpayers

Citizens (taxpayers) are entitled to full information about their schools-strong points, weaknesses, successes, failures, accomplishments, policies, expenditures, budgets. The majority care too little, are too busy to take time to think about the school, or believe it unnecessary for them to bother with such matters. When special demands are made by the school authorities it is difficult to arouse the people to see the need, especially when it means greater expenditures.

The best means of keeping them informed are the public press, especially the small local papers; the annual report, which in the smaller towns goes into many houses; special bulletins mimeographed or printed, and sent to the parents by pupils; public addresses and demonstrations, exhibits, window displays, posters and teachers who are so interested in the work that they inspire all their friends.

Equipping the School With Radio


A compromise must be effected between maximum services
and minimum cost by fitting radio installation to exact
requirements in accordance with the needs of the individual school


HE problem of radio in the school is quite different from that of radio in the home. In the latter case we are dealing with a small audience in a small room, purely on pleasure bent. The radio set may be one of limited power, and the programs may be received in just one room. There is no need for extensive wiring for the distribution of the radio programs throughout the building, although this feature is now found in the homes of many radio enthusiasts.

In the case of the school, however, we are dealing with radio in more ambitious terms. First of all, we are confronted with audiences of various sizes. Also, the programs may have to be distributed to many classrooms so as to fit them into the school curriculum, without changing the school routine to meet the broadcasting schedule. Again, while in some homes a certain amount of experimentation may be accepted along with radio entertainment by those of a scientific or mechanical turn of mind, school radio must be considered strictly in terms of the end itself-the program, with virtually no attention paid to the means employed. In other words, absolute simplicity and reliability of operation are essential for the school radio. Nothing short of that will give satisfactory results.

What the Problem Comprises

For the sake of convenience in arriving at what is required in any given case, let us divide the school radio problem into several logical branches for a more intelligent analysis of the factors involved.

We have, then (1) the size of the school audience; (2) the degree of naturalness sought; (3) the decision of (a) using a single set to which the pupils are brought, (b) a single set of portable or semiportable form which may be brought to different schoolrooms, (c) a single, stationary set with extension wiring and remote loud speakers for the purpose of making the radio service available in various classrooms; (4) the use of lighting current or, in the absence or inconvenience of using such current, the use of battery

power; (5) simplicity of operation; (6) reliable and economical operation.

It might be said that cost is a prime consideration, but to make price the first consideration is to limit the radio equipment at the outset, without any consideration for the actual requirements to be met. The only price consideration is that cheap equipment often gives cheap results, with frequent repairs and early replacements more than making up the difference in price between good and poor equipment, yet never providing the satisfaction that comes from really good radio.

Size of Audience Important Factor The size of the audience must always be the first consideration in deciding what radio set is required. Thus in the case of a classroom with not over fifty children, a modest radio set may be employed, either of the battery operated or socket power type. The investment is modest in either case, for the set is comparable with that in the average home.

The better type of battery receiver to-day has proved highly satisfactory for individual classroom radio. Compact, battery operated, with single dial control, amply sensitive and selective, it provides good service with a suitable loud speaker. It may be installed anywhere in the classroom, since it requires little space. The installation is little more than connecting it with a short antenna to the nearest water or heating pipe. The volume is ample for the average classroom if close attention is paid by the pupils, while the tone quality is of a high order. Anyone, including the youngest school child, can operate this set and obtain the same results as would the expert with the most elaborate radio receiver. The battery operated set is perhaps most popular in the rural school which is not wired for electricity.

When lighting current is available, the advantages of socket power operation are not to be denied. First of all, socket power means endless and constant power at the snap of a switch. It means the lowest cost of operation, since batteries have always been the biggest item of cost

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in the battery operated receiver. Lastly, it stands for greater volume and more realistic tone quality, due to the use of a power tube of ample capacity.

In the moderate priced "electrified" radio set, we have a compact, simple, inexpensive socket power receiver for the individual classroom or small school. In fact, inasmuch as this type of receiver is entirely self-contained with the exception of the external loud speaker, and since it is ready to operate anywhere when connected to a simple antenna and ground to the nearest electric light socket or outlet, this set may be considered a semiportable outfit, available in any room in the large school not wired for the distribution of radio programs from a central receiver. The typical socket power set will operate two usual loud speakers placed in the same room for greater volume and realism, or placed in separate rooms. Such a receiver also features extreme sensitivity and selectivity with utmost simplicity of operation. The tone quality is a close approach to realism, with ample volume for the small classroom.

When we come to the school auditorium, we are dealing in real magnitudes. It should be noted that a radio loud speaker is an electric

power device in much the same sense as is an electric motor. The loud speaker converts electrical energy into mechanical work, which in this case is the vibrating of more or less air space. Obviously, the school auditorium, measuring many times the size of the classroom, contains many times as much air space to be set into vibration. Therefore, a far more powerful loud speaker is required, actuated by a power amplifier of the largest kind. Receivers for this purpose are now available to operate powerful loud speakers, mounted on suitable baffle boards for proper acoustic effects.

A Model That Is Popular

Probably the most popular of all school radio installations is the combination of a loop superheterodyne radio and the power loud speaker. This combination is completely socket power operated and, furthermore, requires no antenna or ground connections. It can accordingly be placed in any location without difficulty. The programs are picked up by means of a rotatable loop on top of the receiver cabinet, while the loud speaker and power amplifier unit supply all power for operation. The receiver contains the well known superheterodyne circuit which is without equal

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for sensitivity, selectivity and all-round efficiency. While such a combination represents a balanced ensemble, the loud speaker amplifier unit may be employed in combination with any other receiver, for furnishing the powerful voice and part of the operating energy. This loud speaker will readily fill a small auditorium with a volume and tone closely approximating actuality. Despite the remarkable results obtained, the operation of such a combination is of the simplest kind.

Getting a Natural Effect

So much for the size of the school audience and fitting the radio equipment to suit it. Turning to the second particular, namely, the degree of naturalness sought, we find that this rests largely in the type and quality of the radio equipment and in its output capacity. Natural radio rendition is a function of carefully engineered and properly fabricated radio apparatus, together with ample power for its operation. Leading research workers and engineers have evolved equipment capable of detecting, amplifying and reproducing radio programs without distortion and with all the volume required. To-day the matter of tone quality is one of investing in the best possible model of a reliable make of radio receiver.

As to how the radio set is to be employed, this particular is readily solved. To-day the usual radio is so compact and simple to install that it may be said to be a semiportable receiver. The simple battery set, despite its extra batteries, may be readily moved about if need be. The simple socket power set is also quite portable, since its power source may be any electric light socket or convenience outlet. Even the superheterodyne and power speaker combination is easily moved, since it takes its power from the nearest electric light socket or outlet, and requires no antenna or other external connections.

The question of extension wiring for loud speaker stations is one that must be considered from every angle. Economically, it is a matter of whether a powerful central receiver, with radiating wiring to many loud speaker stations, is as economical as individual or semiportable radio sets that may be carried from room to room or left permanently installed. Certain it is that if an entire school is to be supplied with simultaneous programs, then a central receiver with extension wiring and separate loud speakers is the obvious choice.

In connection with school installations, engineers have developed special centralized radio re

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