Typology and Universals
Cambridge University Press, 21. nov. 2002
Comparison of the grammars of human languages reveals systematic patterns of variation. Typology and universals research uncovers those patterns to formulate universal constraints on language and seek their exploration. In this essential textbook, William Croft presents a comprehensive introduction to the method and theory used in studying typology and universals. The theoretical issues discussed range from the most fundamental to the most abstract. The book provides students and researchers with extensive examples of language universals in phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. This second edition has been thoroughly rewritten and updated to reflect advances in typology and universals in the past decade, including: new methodologies such as the semantic map model and questions of syntactic argumentation; discussion of current debates over deeper explanations for specific classes of universals; and comparison of the typological and generative approaches to language.
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Implicational universals and competing motivations
typological markedness economy and iconicity
Grammatical hierarchies and the semantic map model
Prototypes and the interaction of typological patterns
Syntactic argumentation and syntactic structure in typology
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adjective adposition affix analysis anaphoric animacy argues argument attested basic behavioral potential Bybee competing motivations Comrie conceptual space constraints construction correlation Croft cross-linguistic comparison definition DemN diachronic direct object distinction distribution dominant Dryer element encoding English ergative example explanation expressed extended animacy function gender genitive Giv´on grammatical categories grammatical relations grammaticalization Greenberg Haiman Hawkins Heine and Reh hypothesis iconic motivation implicational universals inflectional inflectional potential involves language change language universals lexical linguistic marked morpheme morphological morphological typology morphosyntactic nasal NDem nominal noun phrase NRel overt parameters participant roles phenomenon phonetic phonological place of articulation plural polysemy predication preposition pronouns properties prototype reference relationship relative clause relativization represents sample semantic maps singular strategy structural coding suffix suppletion synchronic text frequency theory third person transitive typological classification typological markedness typological universals typologist variation verb indexation verbal vowels word order zero coded