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Cabinet, and, moreover, gave his valuable counsel to General Scott in relation to the defence of the Capitol. At the close of the session he returned to Washington Territory, and there anxiously awaited further developments. The bombardment of Fort Sumter aroused his patriotic feeling to intense fervor. He hurried East, offered his services to the government, and was appointed soon after the battle of Bull Run to the command of the 79th (Highlander) Regiment of New York Volunteers, made vacant by the lamented death of Colonel Cameron. He was promoted to Brigadier General, Sept. 28, 1861, and was sent with his brigade upon the Port Royal expedition. He was selected to command a force sent out to dislodge the enemy at Port Royal Ferry, and met the rebel forces near that point on the 1st of Jannuary, 1862. When General McClellan was reënforced from the Department of the South, General Stevens was sent in command of the troops selected for that purpose. His division was incorporated with the Ninth Corps, took part in the campaign as already described and fought most gallantly in the battle of Chantilly, in which its beloved commander met his death. He had seized the colors of his old regiment, the 79th, and was leading on a desperate charge against the enemy, when he was shot directly through the head, immediately fell and expired without a groan or murmur. His son, the adjutant general of his division, emulating his father's bravery, fell wounded almost at the same time. General Stevens's remains were carried to Newport, Rhode Island, where his wife's family resided, and interred under the direction of the city authorities, Sept. 10, 1862. The tears of whole communities mingled with those of his family and friends in sympathy with their loss. The statesman, soldier, hero, lies at peace upon the shore of the sounding sea, that sings his requiem forever!

After the battle of Chantilly, the enemy made no further hostile movement, and on the afternoon of the 3d of September the Army of Virginia was withdrawn within the defences of Washington. General Pope on the 3d of September was relieved of his command at his own request, and General

McClellan resumed the control of the Army of the Potomac. General Burnside, having remained at Fredericksburg with a small force until all the reënforcements landed at Aquia Creek had passed through to General Pope, was directed to evacuate his position. In pursuance to orders from Washington, he destroyed machine shops, bridges and other material, and on the 4th of September he embarked a portion of his troops and proceeded to Washington. On the 7th the few soldiers that were left on guard at Aquia Creek were brought off, and the active operations of the army were transferred to other and more interesting scenes.

CHAPTER II.

THE CAMPAIGN IN MARYLAND.-SOUTH MOUNTAIN.

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FTER the retreat of General Pope's forces and their arrival at Washington or in its neighborhood, the enemy ceased all hostile demonstrations south of the Potomac. He drew off his troops and disappeared from our front. But although foiled in his attempt to capture or destroy the Army of Virginia, and thus secure possession of the Capital, he had by no means relinquished the object of the campaign. He was still resolved upon further and bolder enterprises. Passing through the gaps of the mountains into the Shenandoah Valley, the main body moved rapidly down towards the ford at Williamsport, while smaller and detached bodies moved towards Leesburg and threatened to cross the Potomac into Maryland at the neighboring fords. The confusion resulting from the untoward character of the operations of our forces in Virginia had not yet subsided, and the authorities at Washington seemed undecided as to the question of the command of the now consolidated army. General Burnside was called into consultation with the President and General Halleck, and the honorable but responsible post of command was again offered to him. It was again declined, and General Burnside used his best endeavors to induce a renewal of confidence in General McClellan. The President had always been well disposed towards the unfortunate chief, but it was very evident that no very friendly relations existed between General Halleck and the commanding general of the Army of the Potomac. The result of the consultation was that General McClellan was again entrusted with the direction of affairs. He at once dis

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posed his garrisons for the occupation of the works around Washington, and put his army in motion to meet the enemy at the point of his new attack. His command consisted of the first corps, General Hooker; second, General Sumner; one division of the fourth, under General Couch; one division of the fifth, under General Sykes; the sixth, General Franklin ; the Ninth, General Reno; and the twelfth, General Williams. The first and Ninth Corps formed the right wing, and were under the command of General Burnside who had the advance. The second and twelfth, with General Sykes's division, formed the centre, and were under the command of General Sumner. The sixth and the detached division of General Couch formed the left, and were under the command of General Franklin. As the enemy's plans were not yet developed, it was uncertain whether he intended by crossing the Potomac into Maryland, to turn Washington by a flank movement down the north bank, or march on Baltimore, or invade Pennsylvania. It became necessary, therefore, for General McClellan to move cautiously, keeping his left flank near the river, while the right pushed into the interior of Maryland to head off any offensive movement upon Baltimore. The enemy had the advantage of moving behind the Kittoctan and Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia, and the South Mountain range in Maryland. In the latter State, the line of the Monocacy river gave him an additional means of defence in case of an attack from our troops.

On the 3d of September, the Ninth Corps moved out on the Seventh street road and encamped just outside the line of the defences of Washington. On the 6th, the Ninth and the first corps, now acting in conjunction, moved out to Leesboro'. On the 9th the two corps were at Brookville, and on the 11th at Newmarket. The enemy, after having occupied Frederick for a day or two, decided not to dispute the passage of the Monocacy with anything more than a mere show of resistance. Nor did he think it feasible to push on toward Baltimore. In fact, General Lee had ascertained that the people of Maryland

were not disposed to give him so cordial a reception as he had anticipated. They had never cherished any very strong love for secession, and their southern proclivities had been in former years strengthened by the undue influence of Virginia. Separated from that State by a line of military posts, and left free to follow their interests, if not their real principles, they had early in the struggle developed a love for the Union, which had become more powerful as the war went on. In Western Maryland, particularly, the loyal sentiment was well pronounced and even conspicuous. General Lee, instead of an oppressed and down-trodden people who would welcome him as a deliverer from federal tyranny, found a people well contented with the federal rule, disposed to pay a willing obedience to the government at Washington, and regarding him and his army as intruders and invaders; more inclined, in short, to speed his departure than to hail his coming. On the other hand, our own troops were on familiar ground, among a people who, not sullenly, but gladly acquiesced in their presence. They derived inspiration and courage from the surrounding circumstances. The swamps of the Chickahominy had been left. The hardships of the Virginia campaign were over. They had recovered their strength in the more bracing air of the early autumn. They had rested from their unusual fatigues. They were in a region where they could be quickly reënforced and amply supplied. Moreover, they were advancing to meet the enemy in the open field, and at a distance from his base. It is more than probable that the two differing circumstances and influences operating upon the two armies were very effective in determining the result of the campaign.

On the 12th of September General Burnside entered Frederick with the advance of the Army of the Potomac. The rearguard of the enemy had left the place a few hours before, and our cavalry and infantry at the head of the column had a smart skirmish in the streets with the enemy's cavalry that was covering the withdrawal of his army. In this skirmish we lost two men killed and seven prisoners, among whom was

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