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ble north of Richmond," making the rebel army his objective point. He had in mind the possibility of crossing the James above the enemy's capital, and thus of cutting off its communications with the South. He had hoped that General Butler would occupy the south bank of the James even to the points in the immediate neighborhood of Richmond. Being disappointed in that respect, and meeting with a more strenuous opposition from the army of Northern Virginia than he had reckoned upon, General Grant's object now seemed to be to place his army between that of General Lee and Richmond, or, failing in that, to transfer it to the south of the James and unite with General Butler. The movement upon Ox ford, New Bridge and other points on the North Anna would effect the first of these objects, provided General Lee did not anticipate it. But since the battle of the 12th, the utmost vigilance was exercised in the enemy's camp and every movement of our forces was observed with the greatest watchfulness. General Grant's army was scarcely on the move before General Lee had also started with his command. Having the main roads in his possession, the enemy could move with greater facility over equal distances. The march of our columns had to be made with great caution, and every available plantation road and pathway was used to push forward the troops. The enemy was too quick for our army, and when General Grant reached the North Anna, he found that the passage was to be disputed.

The army struck the North Anna, on the afternoon of the 23d at three points-the fifth and sixth corps on the right, at Jericho bridge, the Ninth near Ox ford, and the second near the railroad bridge. General Warren crossed the river during the afternoon. The North Anna at the points where the army reached the river makes a decided bend to the south, and then immediately to the north-east, thus nearly forming two sides of a triangle. The enemy's lines of intrenchments commenced two or three miles in the rear, and at their point of junction near Ox ford, formed an obtuse angle. The position of the Ninth Corps on the north bank was opposite the enemy's

salient. A crossing at Ox ford was therefore impracticable without a very serious loss. The corps was here divided. General Potter's division was sent to the assistance of General Hancock, General Crittenden's to the aid of General Warren, and General Willcox's retained in the rear of the ford.

General Willcox on the 24th succeeded in seizing and holding a small island in the river near the ford. General Crittenden on the same day threw his division across the river at Quarles's ford. The troops pressed forwards, forded the stream with great celerity, marched up the opposite bank, and at once engaged the enemy. General Ledlie's brigade had the lead, and behaved most creditably, advancing beyond the river for at least a mile and a half with brisk fighting and forcing the enemy into his intrenchments. The troops held their position close to the enemy's lines for some time, but were finally obliged to retire. Two divisions of General Hill's corps marched out, attacked and attempted to outflank General Ledlie. The brigade withdrew from its advanced position to a point nearer the river. During the day it lost one of its finest officers, Lieutenant Colonel C. L. Chandler of the 57th Massachusetts, who fell at his post in the brave performance of duty. In these movements Major J. St. C. Morton of the Engineer corps, on General Burnside's staff, distinguished himself by leading a portion of the brigade in a gallant attack upon the enemy's lines.

General Potter's division crossed the river on the 24th, at Chesterfield bridge and in conjunction with the second corps engaged the enemy. The right of the division rested on a bluff near the river, the left was well advanced connecting with General Mott's brigade of General Birney's division. The line was held and well intrenched. On the 25th but little was done at this extremity of our lines, but on the 26th the enemy was disposed to be troublesome. In the afternoon of that day. a sharp affair took place in which General Potter's division won fresh laurels. It drove back the enemy's entire line in front, and came near gaining a decisive advantage. As it was, Gen

eral Potter succeeded in advancing his line for some distance, and in securing a highly favorable position for his command. In this operation, however, he had the misfortune to lose one of the best officers of his division, Lieutenant Colonel Pearson, commanding the 6th New Hampshire. This excellent soldier had manifested his bravery on many a well fought field, and was considered by all who knew him as one of the most promising among the volunteer officers in the army. General Potter spoke of him in terms of high commendation, and to the officers and men of his own regiment he was greatly endeared. He had entered the service in the early days of the war, and won his way through the several grades of office, by faithful service and distinguished gallantry. His manly and honorable qualities of character attracted the respect of his brother officers, and his bright and genial disposition made him at all times a welcome and agreeable companion. He was killed while watching from an exposed situation the progress of the movement on the 26th, and his death caused, throughout the brigade to which he was attached, emotions of genuine sorrow and expressions of sympathy and regret.

During the operations of this campaign Gencral Burnside had perceived the difficulty of moving and fighting two independent commands. To this point the Ninth Corps had been a separate organization from the Army of the Potomac, and in reality constituted a distinct army. It is easy to see that some embarrassment might ensue. It not unfrequently happened that the Ninth Corps was called upon to reënforce the different corps of the army of the Potomac in positions where they were hard pressed. A division was sent here, another there, reporting to the different corps commanders, and General Burnside, thus called upon, willingly denuded himself of his command, to serve his brother officers. But these orders could only come from General Grant, and valuable time might be lost in their transmission. It was necessary that the Ninth Corps should be incorporated with the Army of the Potomac. But here a difficulty at once became apparent. General Burnside

was superior in rank to General Meade, as was also General Parke. If the two armies were consolidated, General Meade, according to military usage, could not well hold chief command of the Army of the Potomac. But General Burnside was not willing thus to affect the position of an officer for whose feelings, as a skillful commander, he had a considerate regard. He therefore, with General Parke, generously waived all considerations of rank, and at his suggestion, an order was accordingly issued by General Grant on the 25th, incorporating the Ninth Corps with the Army of the Potomac. By this action General Burnside voluntarily placed himself under the command of his inferior, General Meade, as two years previously he had done in the case of General Pope. It was an act of generosity of not common occurrence among military men, and deserves this special mention.

The operations at the North Anna had not been so successful as to justify General Grant in hoping for the defeat of the enemy at that point. General Lee was not more disposed than previously to come out and deliver or receive battle at any distance from his fortified lines. Within his defences he could rapidly reënforce any threatened point, by simply moving his troops across the intervening space between his lines. General Grant had the disadvantage of being compelled to reënforce any point in his lines, by crossing his troops over two bridges, and marching over a distance at least twice that of his opponent. Nothing could be accomplished under such circumstances, and accordingly General Grant again determined to turn the enemy's position. It was a question whether he should attempt the right or the left. After carefully weighing the matter, he decided to continue his former tactics, and, moving by the left flank, to make his base of supplies at White House, cross the Pamunkey and essay a nearer approach to Richmond across the Tolopotomoy Creek, by way of Cold Harbor and Bethesda Church. Orders were accordingly issued and during the night of the 26th, the army was withdrawn across the North Anna

and put on the march for the passage of the Pamunkey at Hanover Town.

The two divisions of the Ninth Corps, that had been temporarily under the command of Generals Hancock and Warren, were united with General Willcox's division, and on the 27th the entire Corps was concentrated near Mount Carmel Church and awaited orders to move. On the afternoon of that day, the movement towards the crossing of the Pamunkey, at Hanover Town, began. The second division, which was in the advance, reached the river bank and crossed at ten o'clock on the evening of the 28th. The rear division, General Willcox's, crossed at one o'clock on the morning of the 29th. The Ninth Corps took position between the second and fifth and intrenched. On the 30th General Burnside moved the Corps across Tolopotomoy Creek, skirmishing with the enemy at every point, particularly in front of the second division, and forcing back all opposition. On the 31st the entire line was moved forward from one to three fourths of a mile, under a brisk fire, and after a smart engagement, involving considerable loss, several detached lines of skirmish pits were carried, and our troops pushed closely up to the enemy's main lines.

The 1st and 2d of June were passed in changing, establishing and strengthening our lines, and in making such disposition of troops as promised the most decisive results. Almost continual skirmishing took place while these movements were going forward, and the sharpshooters on both sides were busily employed. On the 1st, particularly, there was severe fighting by the cavalry and infantry at different points of the line. But no very general engagement ensued. Several gallant charges were made by different divisions on either side, and the result of the operations was our occupancy of the country extending from a point near the Chickahominy to Bethesda Church. In the course of these two days the Ninth Corps was moved from the centre to the right. By the night of the 2d it was posted on the extreme right of the line, the right partially refused, the left resting, near Bethesda Church, the main line running part

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