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Production has been intermittent in the State since 1893, as shown in the following table:

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Reference: State Mineralogist Reports IV, XIII. Bulletins 38, 67. There is no commercial output of native sulphur in California although this mineral has been found to some extent in Colusa, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Lake, Mariposa, San Bernardino, Sonoma, Tehama, and Ventura counties. Production of sulphur is very improbable, in the immediate future, although possibilities of such a condition remain to be proven.

SALINES.

Borax, salt, soda, nitrates and potash are included under this heading. Borax and salt have been produced in California since the sixties, although no official records of output were kept by this Bureau previous to 1887. Soda has had a virtually continuous production since 1894. The nitrates and potash have never been commercially produced in the State, although the future possibilities along these lines are indeed great.

Borax
Potash

The desert portions of California, located largely in Inyo, Kern, Riverside, Imperial, and San Bernardino counties, are rich in the possession of salines of all descriptions. Ancient lake beds of vast extent are found there, many of which have never yet been exploited to any extent.

Salt

Soda

The following tabulation shows amount and value of the saline minerals produced in California during the years 1913 and 1914, with increase or decrease in value for 1914 as compared with the previous

year:

CHAPTER SIX.

Substance

Totals

Borax.

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Reference: State Mineralogist Reports III, X, XII, XIII. Bulletin 24.

Borax was first discovered in California in the waters of Tuscan Springs in Tehama County, January 8, 1856. Borax Lake, in Lake County, was discovered in September of the same year, by Dr. John A. Veatch. This deposit was worked in 1864-65-66, and during that time produced 1,181,365 pounds of borax. Not till 1873 were the borax deposits of Inyo and San Bernardino counties discovered.

Aside from the above mentioned localities borax is known in Kern, Los Angeles, Imperial, Solano, and Ventura counties.

California is the only state in America producing borax. During 1914 three producers reported an output of 62,500 tons, valued at $1,483,500.

Value of the State's borax output since 1887 is shown in the following table:

1887

1888

1889

1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

Nitrates.

Potash.

Year

Salt.

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Nitrates of sodium, potassium and calcium have been found in various places in the desert regions of the State but no deposit of commercial value has been located as yet. Interest in this class of mineral substance is increasing and closer search may be rewarded by valuable discoveries.

1,019,158

1,182,410

1,200,913

1,117,000

1,163,960

1,177,960

1,456,672

1,122,713

1,491,530

1,483,500

$26,469,669

Potash has not previously been commercially produced in California and only during the past few years has this substance created general interest in the State. Considerable money has been spent recently in preliminary work with a view toward developing what are claimed to be immense deposits of potash which lie in the old lake beds of the desert portions of California. The imports of this material from foreign countries have an annual value of many millions of dollars, and a domestic production would be of great value.

During 1914 one producer reported 10 tons reduced from kelp, and valued at $460.

Reference: State Mineralogist Reports II, XII, XIII. Bulletin 24. Most of the salt produced in California is obtained by evaporating the waters of the Pacific Ocean, plants being located on the shores of San Francisco Bay, at Long Beach, and at San Diego. Additional amounts are derived from lakes and lake beds in the desert regions of the State. The salt production of San Bernardino County is derived from deposits of rock salt which are worked by means of quarrying with a steam shovel. A small amount of valuable medicinal salts was produced during the year in Mono and Tehama counties, by evaporation from mineral springs.

Distribution by counties is given herewith:

Alameda
Inyo

Kern

Los Angeles

Modoc

Mono

San Bernardino

San Diego

San Mateo Tehama

Totals

*Medicinal. †Mineral.

1887 1888

1889

1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

1902

1903

1904 1905

1906

1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Totals

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Year

126,983

13,500

20,000

20,000

40

*

482

15,300

27,500

†1/11

223,806

Amount and value of annual production of salt in California from 1887 to date is shown in the following tabulation:

Tons

28,000
30,800

21,000

8,729

20,094

23,570

50,500

49,131

53,031

64,743

67,851

93,421

82,654

89,338

126,218

115,208

102,895

Value

95,968

77,118

101,650

88,063

121,764

155,680

174,920

173,332

185,721

$292,641

54,000

50,000

60,000

720

150

2,892

46,200

76,750

200

$583,553

Value

$112,000

92,400

63,000

57,085

90,303

170,855

149,588

204,754

366,376

205,876

211,365

187,300

141,925

213,228

310,967

281,469

414,708

395,417

324,255

383,370

204,407

462,681

223,806

583,553

2,629,612 $6,341,690

104,788

213,000

140,087

150,576

153,244

157,520

Soda.

Reference: State Mineralogist Reports XII, XIII. Bulletin 24. Soda and soda ash were produced during 1914, amounting to 6,522 tons, valued at $115,396.

The total output, showing amount and value, of this product since the inception of this branch of the mineral industry in California is given in the table which follows:

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