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should remain a perpetual fund to be “inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools throughout the State." It furthermore provided (4) that “the legislature should take measures for the protection, improvement or other disposition" of lands already given, or thereafter to be given, by the United States or by individuals for the use of the University, that the proceeds of such lands, as of all other sources of revenue, should “remain a permanent fund,” the income thereof to be "applied to the support of the University, for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences''; and that it should be “the duty of the legislature, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of the University.”
From 1849 to 1868 the matter of establishing the University of California in one form or another was constantly agitated. In 1853 Congress gave to the State forty-six thousand and eighty acres of land for a “seminary of learning." In 1862 the Morrill Act granted to the several states a quantity of public land, the interest on the proceeds of which should be “inviolably appropriated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the several states may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life.'' The apportionment of this grant for California was one hun. dred and fifty thousand acres. In order to secure the endowment, an act was passed by the legislature in 1866 to establish an Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Arts College, and to provide a board of directors therefor. The directors provisionally selected a site of one hundred and sixty acres a little to the north of the Berkeley grounds of the College of California.
During the year 1867 a group of men, deeply interested in the intellectual advancement of California, including Rev. Dr. Horatio Stebbins, Professor Durant, Governor F. F. Low, John W. Dwinelle and John B. Felton, sought to secure the establishment of an institution of broader scope than the projected State College of Agriculture, Mining and Mechanical Arts. Their efforts resulted in the generous offer to the State on the part of the College of California of its property in Oakland and its grounds in Berkeley on condition that the State should “forthwith organize and put into operation upon the site at Berkeley a University of California, which shall include a College of Mines, a College of Civil Engineering, a College of Mechanics, a College of Agriculture, an Academical College, all of the same grade and with courses of instruction at least equal to those of eastern colleges and universities." The directors of the State college agreed to this proposal and recommended to the legislature its acceptance. The legislature accordingly passed an act organizing the University of California, which was signed by Governor H. H. Haight on March 23, 1868.
This Organic Act, or Charter, declared that the University was “created pursuant to the requirements of the Constitution, and in order to devote to the largest purpose of education the benefaction" of the congressional land grant of 1862. It “shall be called the University of California and shall be located on the grounds donated to the State by the College of California.” It “shall have for its design to provide instruction and complete education in all the departments of science, literature, art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction for the professions of agriculture, the mechanic arts, mining, military science, civil engineering, law, medicine, and commerce.'
In reference to the congressional grant, the Charter said: ««The Board of Regents shall always bear in mind that the College of Agriculture and the College of Mechanic Arts are an especial object of their care and superintendence, and that they shall be considered and treated as entitled primarily to the use of the funds donated for their establishment and maintenance by the Act of Congress.” In reference to the conveyance by the College of California, it said: “The Board of Regents, having in regard the donation already made to the State by the President and board of trustees of the College of California, and their proposition to surrender all their property to the State for the benefit of the State University, and to become disincorporated and go out of existence as soon as the State shall organize the University by adding a classical course to the College of Arts, shall, as soon as they deem it practicable, establish a ('ollege of Letters. The College of Letters shall be coexistent with the College of Arts, and shall embrace a liberal course of instruction in languages, literature and philosophy, together with such courses or parts of courses in the College of Arts as the authorities of the University shall prescribe.” The past graduates of the College of California were to rank in all respects as graduates of the University.
In 1869 the College of California discontinued its work of instruction and gave place to the new University, which opened its doors on September 23. During the construction of buildings at Berkeley the University occupied the college halls in Oakland. On July 16, 1873, the commencement exercises were held at Berkeley and the University took formal possession of its new home.
The first appointees to the faculty included Professors Martin Kellogg, John LeConte, and Joseph LeConte. The first appointee to the presidency was Professor Durant. When in 1872 he resigned, owing to failing health, he was succeeded by President Daniel Coit Gilman.
In 1869 the legislature directed that no admission or tuition fees should be charged, and in 1870 that the University should be opened to women on terms of equality with men. This latter legislative provision was reinforced in 1879 by the express constitutional declaration that “no person shall be debarred admission to any of the collegiate departments of the University on account of sex.”
President Gilman resigned in 1875 to accept the presidency of the new Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He was followed by John LeConte, who served until 1881, when William T. Reid was elected to the position and served until 1885. Edward S. Holden was then elected, with the understanding that he was to fill the presidency only until the completion of the Lick Observatory, when he was to assume the position of its director. Accordingly he retired in 1888 and was succeeded by Horace Davis, who served for two years. Thereafter Martin Kellogg was acting president until, in 1893, he was formally appointed to the office. Upon his resignation in 1899 he was succeeded by President Benjamin Ide Wheeler.
Until 1887 the University depended for its revenue upon the income from its invested funds and upon biennial appropriations by the legislature. Its invested capital consisted of money derived from the sale of seventy-two sections of land for a seminary of learning and ten sections for public buildings, both granted by Congress in 1853; from the sale of one hundred and fifty thousand acres granted under the Morrill Act of 1862; from the sale of salt and marsh lands granted by the legislature; and from the sale of the College of California property in Oakland.
In 1887 the State legislature rendered the income of the University more secure and permanent by providing for the annual levy of an ad valorem tax of one cent on each one hundred dollars of the taxable property of the State. In 1897 the resources were further enlarged by a second act of the legislature, providing for the levy of an additional one cent on each one hundred dollars, and in 1909 a "three-cent tax” was established by the legislature. In 1911, as an incident of an amendment to the Constitution which reorganized the tax system of the state, the legislature substituted for the “three-cent tax” a bill appropriating for university support the sum of $760,770 for the year ending June 30, 1912, with provision for a regular increase of seven per cent per annum in this appropriation for three years thereafter, or until June 30, 1915.
In the early years of its history many attempts were made to segregate the departments of the University, especially to set the College of Agriculture off by itself, and many efforts were made to change the character of the governing body. In 1879 this agitation was put to rest by the constitutional convention, which inserted in the fundamental law of the State the declaration that “the University of California shall constitute a public trust, and its organization and government shall be perpetually continued in the form and character prescribed in the organic act creating the same, passed March 23, 1868, and the several acts amendatory thereof, subject only to such legislative control as may be necessary to insure compliance with the terms of its endowments and the proper investment of its funds."
In 1896 a proposition looking to a general building scheme was made by Mr. B. R. Maybeck, instructor in architectural drawing, and was introduced in the Board of Regents and fostered there by Regent J. B. Reinstein. The board voted to have prepared a programme “for a permanent and comprehensive plan to be open to general competition for a system of buildings to be erected on the grounds of the University of California at Berkeley." Before this resolve had been put into effective operation it came to the notice of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst, who was then considering the erection of a building at the University in memory of her husband, the late Senator George Hearst. Accordingly, Mrs. Hearst at once wrote to the board expressing her desire to promote the proposed competition and to defray all the expenses thereof. This offer was gratefully accepted.
Two competitions were held, a preliminary one at Antwerp, and a final one at San Francisco. The preliminary competition opened January 15 and closed July 1, 1898. Of one hundred and five plans presented eleven were selected by the jury for the final contest. The second contest, in San Francisco, resulted in the award of first prize to Monsieur Emile Bénard of Paris; second prize, Messrs. Howells, Stokes and Hornbostel of New York; third prize, Messrs. D. Despradelle and Stephen Codman of Boston; fourth prize, Messrs. Howard and Cauldwell of New York; fifth prize, Messrs. Lord, Hewlett and Hull of New York.
To adapt and carry out the Bénard plan the Board of Regents appointed Mr. John Galen Howard supervising architect of the University. The first structure completed in execution of this plan was the Greek Theatre, the gift of Mr. William Randolph Hearst. The Greek Theatre is an openair auditorium of unique beauty, lying in the hollow of the hills and surrounded with trees. It is used for great university occasions, and for musical and dramatic representations. The second building to be completed in accordance with the Hearst plans was California Hall, a solid granite structure, erected through appropriations made by the State legislature. The third building in this scheme is the Hearst Memorial Mining building, the cornerstone of which was laid on November 19, 1902, and the formal opening celebrated on August 25, 1907. A fourth building, the University Library, provision for which was made in the will of the late Charles Franklin Doe of San Francisco, was first occupied in June, 1911. The Boalt Memorial Hall of Law, the fifth bulding of the series, was formally opened on April 28, 1911. This building is the
gift of Mrs. Elizabeth Boalt, in memory of her husband, the late John H. Boalt of San Francisco. The Hall of Agriculture, the sixth building of the series, was dedicated in November, 1912. The Sather Gate and bridge at the Telegraph avenue entrance to the campus, provided by the generosity of Mrs. Jane K. Sather, as a memorial to her husband, Pedar Sather, was completed in 1910. As a memorial to Mrs. Sather, herself, the Jane K. Sather Campanile, a bell-tower of white granite and marble, 300 feet in height, is being erected. The cost, $200,000, together with $25,000 for “the Sather Bells,” was provided for by Mrs. Sather. A president's house and central heating station have likewise been erected.
The gift by Mrs. Sophronia T. Hooper, in 1913, of property worth between one and two million dollars to endow the George Williams Hooper Institute of Medical Research, and the giving by other friends of six hundred and fifteen thousand dollars to build a Teaching Hospital for the Medical Department were events of importance in the development of the University.
Beginning in 1891, the University has constantly aimed to extend the benefits of its instruction in agriculture farther and farther beyond its own confines. In the year named the custom of holding Farmers' Institutes throughout the State was begun. So important had this work become that, in 1897, a new department was created, a Department of University Extension in Agriculture. Through these institutes, through bulletins, and through professional visits to farm, garden, orchard, and vineyard, the University constantly stands ready to render aid, advice, and instruction to relieve agricultural emergencies and solve agricultural problems in the State. The acquisition of the farm of seven hundred and seventy-nine acres at Davis, Yolo County, has greatly enlarged the scope of the University's work in agriculture.
The project of accrediting high schools to the University was put into operation in 1884. The main purpose of this movement was, from the first, to aid in unifying the whole system of secondary and higher education throughout the State. Success has in large measure been achieved in this direction, and the work of more thorough co-ordination has penetrated into the elementary schools. From the small number of three accredited high schools in 1884 the list has grown until in 1914 the number is two hundred and twenty-five, including one hundred and ninety. one public and thirty-four private schools.
Connected with this accrediting system is the University's work as a training school for prospective teachers. By a law of the State, Boards of education and examination have authority to issue teachers' certificates of high school grade to graduates of the University who are recommended by the faculty. Within the past few years the standard of preparation of high school teachers has been raised, so that at present a full year