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of graduate instruction, partly of classroom work and partly of practice teaching, is exacted before a certificate is issued.
University extension lectures were begun in 1891 and continued through succeeding years with increasing encouragement until 1902, when a Department of University Extension was expressly organized. This department has established centers of extension work in various parts of the State. A corps of instructors has been appointed, whose duties are entirely or mainly devoted to the extension field.
Summer schools in several departments were annually held for a number of years up to 1899, when the work was systematically organized and a summer school of general scope was for the first time held. It bas met a great public demand and has been largely attended, not only by teachers of California, but by special students from all parts of the country. A marked feature of the summer sessions at Berkeley, and an important element of the University's policy in that regard, is the presence as lecturers of leading men from the Eastern and European universities.
ORGANIZATION The University of California is an integral part of the public educational system of the State. As such it completes the work begun in the public schools. Through aid from the State and the United States, and by private gifts, it furnishes facilities for instruction in literature and in science, and in the professions of art, law, medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy. In the Colleges of Letters, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Commerce, Agriculture, Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, and Chemistry these privileges are offered without charge for tuition, to all resi. dents of California who are qualified for admission. Non-residents of California are charged a tuition fee of ten dollars each half-year. In the Professional Colleges, except that of Law, tuition fees are charged. The instruction in all the colleges is open to all qualified persons, without distinction of sex. The Constitution of the State provides for the perpetuation of the University, with all its departments.
ADMINISTRATION The government of the University of California is intrusted to a corporation styled THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, consisting of the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor, the Speaker of the Assembly, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the President of the State Board of Agriculture, the President of the Mechanics’ Institute of San Francisco, and the President of the University, as members ex officio, and sixteen other regents appointed by the Governor and approved by the Senate. To this corporation the State has committed the administration of the University, including management of the finances, care of property, appointment of teachers, and determination of the internal organization in all particulars not fixed by law. SITE AND CLIMATE OF BERKELEY
The instruction and government of the students are intrusted to the FACULTIES OF THE SEVERAL COLLEGES and to the ACADEMIC SENATE.
The Faculty of each college consists of the President of the University and those professors and instructors, and only those, whose departments are represented in it by required or elective studies.
The Academic Senate consists of the members of the Faculties and the instructors of the University, the President and professors alone having the right to vote in its transactions. It holds regular meetings twice a year, and is created for the purpose of conducting the general administration of the University, memorializing the regents, regulating in the first instance the general and special courses of instruction, and receiving and determining all appeals from acts of discipline enforced by the Faculty of any college; and it exercises such other powers as the regents may confer upon it.
The Academic Senate has created certain standing committees, among which are:
1. The Academic Council, composed of the President and the professors, lecturers, and instructors in the Academic Colleges, the President and professors alone having the right to vote in its transactions. Of this committee the President of the University is ex officio chairman, and the Recorder of the Faculties secretary.
It regulates provisionally, or (where the functions to be exercised are executive) supervises, such matters relating to undergraduate and graduate students and their work as are not reserved by law to the separate Faculties at Berkeley, but in which they are all concerned.
2. The University Council, composed of the President of the University, five members of the Joint Faculties of Letters, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences, one member from each of the Faculties of Commerce, Agriculture, Chemistry, Mining, Civil Engineering, Mechanics, one member of the Lick Astronomical Department, two members of each of the Fac. ulties of Law, Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Art, the Dean of the Faculties, and the Dean of the Graduate School, regulates provisionally, or, where the functions to be exercised are executive, supervises those matters in which an academic and professional college or colleges are jointly concerned, and considers the wants of any or all such colleges, and makes recommendations concerning the same to the Academic Senate in such matters as are not committed above to the Academic Council.
In all matters not expressly delegated to the Senate or to the several Faculties, the Regents govern, either directly or through the President or Secretary.
The principal seat of the University is at Berkeley, a city of about 43,000 inhabitants, on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay directly opposite the Golden Gate. It is thirty-five minutes' ride by train and ferry from San Francisco, and twenty-five minutes' ride by electric car from the business center of Oakland. The site of the University comprises about five hundred and thirty acres, rising at first in gentle and then in bolder slopes from a height of about two hundred feet above the sea level to one of about thirteen hundred feet. It has a superb outlook over the bay and city of San Francisco, the neighboring plains and mountains, the ocean, and the Golden Gate.
Berkeley is a healthful locality; the slope of the town site makes perfect drainage possible.
The climate of Berkeley is one of great uniformity and is exceptionally well suited for university work throughout the year. The summers are cool, making it possible to begin the academic year earlier than in Eastern universities, and thus divide it at the Christmas holidays into two equal half-years. Commencement is held about the middle of May.
Extremes of heat and cold are unknown. The average temperatures are about 59 degrees in summer and 48 degrees in winter. Temperatures as high as 85 degrees are of infrequent occurrence and never last more than a few hours. The proximity of the Pacific Ocean and the occurrence of fog, which in Berkeley is usually a high fog, makes the whole summer cool and invigorating. Very low temperatures do not occur; within the last twenty-five years 24.9 degrees was the lowest temperature recorded at the University.
The marked rainy season begins in November and continues through March; although rains may occur in all months except July and August. In the winter rain falls on three or four days in succession, after which a week or more of fine weather follows. On the average, even in winter, less than a third of the whole number of days are rainy. The annual rainfall at Berkeley is about twenty-seven inches.
The prevailing summer wind is from the south west off the Pacific Ocean. It is cool and damp, seldom attaining a velocity of over fifteen miles an hour. During the winter months easterly winds are common, although a considerable portion of the winds are westerly throughout the year. In winter there is occasionally a strong, cool northwest wind, or a strong north or northeast wind which is dry and warm.
The endowments on which the Academic Colleges and the Lick Observatory have been founded and maintained are the following:
1. The Seminary Fund and Public Building Fund, granted to the State by Congress.
2. The property received from the College of California, including the site at Berkeley.
3. The fund derived from the Congressional Land Grant of July 2, 1862.
4. The Tide Land Fund, appropriated by the State.
6. The State University Fund, which is a temporary substitute for a tax of three cents on each $100 of assessed valuation, to yield $760,770 for the year ending June 30, 1912, with provision for an increase of seven per cent each year until the year ending June 30, 1915, for which year the income will be $931,974.
7. The Endowment Fund of the Lick Astronomical Department.
8. The United States Experiment Station (Hatch) Fund of $15,000 a year.
9. The United States Experiment Station (Adams) Fund of $15,000 a year.
10. The Morrill College Aid Fund of $50,000 a year. 11. The gifts of individuals.
The total endowment of the University of California at June 30, 1913, was $5,522,088.87; the income earned by this endowment for the year 1912–13, $229,327.35.
The San Francisco Institute of Art and the California College of Pharmacy are supported by fees from students. The Hastings College of the Law has a separate endowment.
NOTE.-The Academic Council is a standing committee of the Academic Senate, composed of the professors, lecturers, and instructors in the Academic Colleges. The Council regulates provisionally, or (where the functions to be exercised are executive) supervises, such matters relating to undergraduate and graduate students and their work as are not reserved by law to the separate faculties, but in which they are all concerned. Following is the Academic Council as it stood July 1, 1914. The asterisk (*) marks the names of members who are absent on leave, 1914-15; ', in residence first half-year only; 2, in residence second half-year only.
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY, ex officio Chairman
THE RECORDER OF THE FACULTIES, ex officio Secretary
ERNEST B. BABCOCK
JAMES T. BARRETT
DAVID P. BARROWS
WARREN T. CLARKE
HENRY R. HATFIELD
EUGENE W. HILGARD
JOHN GALEN HOWARD
IRA W. HOWERTH
GEORGE H. HOWISON
WM. CAREY JONES
CHARLES B. LIPMAN
ROBERT H. LOUGHRIDGE
*ORRIN K. MCMURRAY
WALTER E. MAGEE
WILLIAM A. MERRILL
CHARLES H. RIEBER
WILLIAM E. RITTER
CHARLES E. RUGH
Absent on leave, June 10 to October 10, 1914.
From January 1, 1915.