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understand Latin prose and poetry in the original, and upon the thought of the authors read, rather than upon the syntax, except in so far as the syntax is suggested by the interpretation of the thought. Considerable attention should be given to the matter of historical and literary allusions.
The basis of the work in subject 7a must equal in amount six orations of Cicero; but in this total may be included selections from Cicero's letters, or from Sallust (Catiline and Jugurthine War), or from other prose work of equal difficulty. The basis of the work in subject 76 must equal in amount Virgil's Aeneid, books I-VI; but selections may be included from the Bucolics and Georgics, or from Ovid (Metamorphoses, Fasti, Tristia), or from other poetry of equal difficulty. The examination in subject Ta will include questions on the Manilian Law and Archias; and in subject 7b, on Virgil's Aeneid, books I and II, and, at the option of the student, on books IV or VI.
7c'. Latin Composition, Advanced. (1 unit.) This subject represents one period a week, or its equivalent, for one year, presumably the third of the course. It includes the writing in Latin of connected English sentences. The emphasis should be laid upon the order of words, the simpler features of sentence structure, and the means of connecting sentences in paragraphs.
7co. Latin Composition, Advanced. (1 unit.) This subject represents one period a week, or its equivalent, for one year, presumably the fourth of the course. It may well serve as a means of reviewing Latin forms and syntax, but the prose of Caesar and Cicero should be the standard for reference.
8a. Elementary Greek. (3 units.) The requirement represents a year's work in the elements of the language, reading of simple prose, memorizing of quotations, writing from dictation, and abundant easy composition, both oral and written, leading to a sound knowledge of the ordinary inflectional forms and the common rules of syntax, and to a fair vocabulary. There is no regular matriculation examination in 8a apart from 8b.
8b. Attic Prose. (3 units.) The year's work should include reading of Attic prose equal in amount to books I-IV of Xenophon's Anabasis, memorizing of quotations, writing from dictation, and abundant easy composition, both oral and written, and should lead to a better mastery of inflection, syntax, and vocabulary. Some attention should be given to the historical setting of the Anabasis (or whatever other book or selections may be read) and to the antiquities connected therewith.
9a. Attic Prose. (112 units.) A continuation of the kind of work done in 8b; the reading, however, should be more rapid, and there should
be more translation at sight. Writing should be continued, still abundant and still easy.
96. Homer. (142 units.) The requirement represents the reading of three books of Homer (the matriculation examination will include ques. tions on books I-III of the Iliad) and a knowledge of the ordinary characteristics of Homeric language and the principles of Homeric prosody. Ability to read Homer aloud with fluency and expression is expected.
It is not possible for schools to gain accrediting in both 8 and 9 with less than three years' study of Greek, except under extraordinary cir. cumstances. The adjustment of Greek work in the University to the different classes of students is as follows: 1. Students who offer no matriculation Greek will be admitted to Greek
A-B in their freshman year. 2. Students who offer 8a will be admitted to Greek B. 3. Students who offer Sab will be admitted to Greek C-D. 4. Students who offer sab and 9b will be admitted to Greek C. 5. Students who offer sab and 9a will be admitted to Greek D. 6. Students who offer sab and 9ab will be admitted to Greek 1 or 2.
Students who begin Greek in the University have time for two years of strictly college Greek before graduation. But the period of life covered by the high school course is the time when the memory-work involved in learning the elements of a highly inflected language, like Greek, is most easily and successfully accomplished, and students who intend to study Greek are advised to begin the subject in the high school whenever this is possible.
10. Ancient History and Geography. (3 units.) The elements of ancient history, from the earliest times to 800 A.D. Chief stress should be laid upon Greek history from the fifth to the third century B.C., inclusive; upon Roman history, from the conquest of Italy to the end of the second century A.D.; and upon the geography of the ancient world. The following text-books* will indicate the amount required from those who are admitted on certificate: Goodspeed's History of the Ancient World, Botsford's Ancient History, West's Ancient World, Wolfson's Essentials in Ancient History, Myers' Ancient History (new edition).
11. Physics. (3 units.) The requirement represents at least a daily exercise during one school year, which falls within the last two years of preparation for college. It is expected that the ground covered will include fair representation of primary empirical laws from each of the main subdivisions of physics.
* The mention of any book does not mean that the University or the department of history recommends it.
The results called for demand vigorous and thorough instruction in the classroom, based upon laboratory exercises by the pupils and other experimental illustrations; and it is urged that a strong effort be made to connect the principles of physics with familiar facts and processes.
In case the pupil appears for examination in this subject, he should submit his experimental notebook to the examiner in charge. Such notebooks must contain an explicit certificate from the teacher, in a form that specifies the date and place of the work, and the number of experiments vouched for.
12a'. Synthetic Projective Geometry. (142 units.) The operations of projection and intersection, the principle of duality, ideal elements, triangles in perspective, the complete quadrilateral, harmonic quadruples, involution. Construction of projective figures in the plane and in space, construction and projective properties of the conic sections, Pascal's and Brianchon's theorems, poles and polars. The relation between metric and projective geometry, with numerous problems and constructions.
12a2. Plane Trigonometry. (14, units.) The development of the gen. eral formulae of plane trigonometry, with applications to the solution of plane triangles and the measurement of heights and distances. Practice in computation with logarithmic tables.
12a*. Plane Analytic Geometry. (112 units.) The fundamental methods of analytic geometry. The straight line and circle, and the simpler properties of the conic sections. Problems in loci. Graphical solution of equations.
[In special cases advanced algebra may be accepted in place of this subject.]
12b. Chemistry. (3 units.) This requirement represents five exercises a week for one year. Laboratory practice is essential, and as much time as possible should be devoted to it. Much of the time should be spent in acquiring fundamental principles, omitting as much as possible the analytical work. A notebook (see under physics) is required.
12c. Botany. (3 units.) A knowledge of the morphology and simpler physiology of the higher plants is required. This should be based upon a full year of practical work in the laboratory, and to some extent, also, in the field. Careful attention should be paid to the recording of observations, by notes and drawings, together with the drawing of correct inferences from the observations. It is desirable that the pupils become familiar with the easier orders of flowering plants represented in the local flora. Setchell's Laboratory Practice for Beginners, Jepson's Flora of Western Middle California, Bergen's Elements of Botany, and Osterhout's Experiments with Plants, indicate both the scope and the method of the work. A note-book (see under physics) is required,
12d. Zoology. (3 units.) Preparation in this subject should aim at proficiency in solving problems rather than the mere acquisition of information. For this reason, the necessity of practical work in field and laboratory is strongly emphasized. Local conditions should determine in the main the character of the course, materials, relative proportions of field and laboratory work, etc. The practice of utilizing plants as well as animals, to bring out fundamental facts common to both groups as a means of interpreting either, is highly commended. Consideration will be given especially to capacity to discover problems and apply facts to their solution, to make accurate observations, thoughtful deductions and clear expositions.
The requirement represents a minimum of five hours a week for one year. Four hours at least should be devoted regularly to practical work, preferably in two periods of two hours each. Drawing should be used as a means of testing the correctness of observations, not primarily as a means of record. Note-books (see under physics)-not composition books -and drawings are required. The following text-books should be useful: Peabody and Hunt's Biology, Bigelow's Applied Biology, Jordan, Kellogg and Heath's Animals, Needham's General Biology, Hunter's Essentials of Biology, Sharpe's Laboratory Manual in Biology, Linville and Kelly's Text-book in General Zoology, Peabody's Laboratory Exercises.
12e. Physical Geography. (3 units.) A course designed to cultivate habits of observation, comparison, and reflection; requiring a practical acquaintance with common natural phenomena and the processes which underlie them. It should embrace experimental and field investigation of as many topics as may be practicable in each of the commonly accepted divisions of the subject, namely: mathematical geography, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the land. Schools too far from the ocean to make field excursions to the shore may reduce somewhat the time for this division, although much valuable work is possible with pictures and the monthly pilot charts. In the other divisions of the subject direct observation of phenomena is equally possible for all schools, the details of climate and land forms varying with the locality. If the pupils have had no general science course many more experiments should be introduced, a large number of them to be performed by the pupil. Each experiment should be chosen to illustrate phenomena in the immediate geographic environment of the school. A note-book (see under physics) is required.
12f. Physiology. (3 units.) The requirement represents five exercises a week throughout one year.
The work should embrace (1) a well organized laboratory course and (2) classroom exercises based upon both laboratory and text-book study.
The emphasis should be placed upon physiology proper, viz., the mechanism of the phenomena of life and the functions of the various organs of the human body; but in connection with this the pupil should learn accurately with the aid of a manikin such anatomical facts as are fundamental for the understanding of the functions of the organs. He should also receive definite and practical instruction in the more important principles of personal and public hygiene, i.e., the sources of infection for typhoid or diphtheria or other infectious diseases, and how to avoid these infections.
In the laboratory, carefully written notes and drawings should be made, and these should be frequently criticized by the teacher. The laboratory work should occupy at least one-half the time of the entire
A laboratory note-book (see under physics) is required. 12g. General Science. (3 units.) This subject should be taken during the first year of the high school course. The aim of the work should be to develop answers to the questions which arise in the pupil's daily experience with natural phenomena, and to familiarize the pupil with the fundamental principles underlying these phenomena. The subject should be treated from the point of view of natural science in general rather than from the points of view of the several subdivisions thereof.
Considerable attention should be paid to local conditions; for example, in country high schools botany, soil physics, and other matters connected with agriculture should be emphasized; in manufacturing cities, chemical processes, mechanics, etc.; while for girls subjects bearing on domestic science would be useful.
Constant laboratory and field work is essential. As a rule, the pupil should perform his own experiments, and, wherever possible, these experiments should be so simplified that they may be repeated at home.
The course should deal with such elementary scientific principles as are involved in gardening, including a study of soil and elementary physiography; household operations; sanitation; simple machinery, including the steam engine; the weather; the change of seasons, and similar natural phenomena. No regular examination will be given in this subject.
13a. Mediaeval and Modern History. (3 units.) The period to be covered is from 800 A.D. to the middle of the nineteenth century. West's Modern History, Harding's Essentials in Mediaeval and Modern History, or Myers' Mediaeval and Modern History indicate the amount required. *
13b. English History. (3 units.) From the earliest times to the middle of the nineteenth century. Cheyney's Short History of England, Walker's Essentials in English History, or Larned's History of England indicate approximately the amount required.*
* The mention of any book does not mean that the University or the department of history recommends it.