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principles to be taken up in connection with the study of the growth and development of the plant, and of its environment. It should take up first an orderly and progressive study of the essential and fundamental facts as to plant composition, structure, physiology and heredity, followed by a study of the environmental factors affecting plants, light, heat, moisture, air, soil (characteristics, tillage, drainage, irrigation), plant food (fertilizers), and repressive agencies. Lastly should come more or less study of the various classes of economic plants and of individual local crops and their rotation. This work should be made as practical as possible, with special attention to the application of the principles studied to local problems. (See aim and method suggested under 12g, General Science.) About one-third of the time should be given to demonstrations by the instructor and to laboratory work by students; another third to excursions, field trips, garden work, greenhouse work and outdoor practicums, and the remainder of the time to lectures and recitations.
The above course is recommended as the first-year science study for schools desiring to provide instruction in general science and to introduce the study of agriculture at the same time.
SECOND AND THIRD YEAR GROUP Owing to the great variety of local conditions in this state, no attempt has been made to specify as to the selection and exact order of the subjects in this group. 19b. Dairying. (112 units.)
A half-year course of five periods per week or the equivalent. The study should embrace the composition of milk, the Babcock test for fat and adulterations, the separation of cream from milk, cream ripening, churning, washing, working and packing butter, and the principles of cheese making. Especial attention should be paid to the sanitary production and handling of milk from the cow to the consumer. At least one-half of the exercises should be laboratory or field work. The labor. atory work should consist of a thorough drill in the use of the Babcock milk test and in detecting adulterations by using the same test and the lactometer; in a study of the effect of pasteurization, sterilization and bacterial action upon the keeping qualities of milk; and in the preliminary operations of cheese-making, by a study of the use of rennet, pure culture starters, etc. The ground to be covered is represented in Wing's “Milk and Its Products,' and Farrington and Woll's “ Testing Milk and Milk Products.'
19c. Live Stock. (3 units.)
The requirement represents the equivalent of five exercises per week for one year.
Types and Breeds of Live Stock. Study of the history of important breeds and types of live stock, methods used to develop these breeds, distinguishing characteristics of standard breeds, and the special merits of each. Text-book study should be supplemented with pictures, charts and lantern slides. (See Plumb's “Types and Breeds of Farm Animals.'')
Stock Judging. The theoretical part of this work should be done in the classroom by the use of charts, lantern slides and the score card. Practice should consist in scoring of individual animals owned in the vicinity or borrowed from more distant farms. Competitive judging should be done by occasional visits to the best herds and flocks in the region. (See Craig's “Stock Judging.'')
Care and Management. Study of feeds and feeding, including individuals or group study of experiments with rations and cost of keeping domestic animals; sanitary housing of live stock, including study of plans and inspection of modern barns and dairies; common diseases, their prevention and cure. (See Henry's “Feeds and Feeding,” Jordan's “'The Feeding of Animals," and Mayo's “Care of Animals” and “Diseases of Animals.'')
19c'. Live Stock. (112 units.)
A half-year course of five periods per week, or the equivalent, to be devoted to such portions of the requirement for 19c as are adapted to any school where a full year course may not be given. This course may be arranged to extend throughout the year, with work equivalent to at least two and one-half periods each week.
19d. Poultry. (112 units.)
The requirement represents the equivalent of five exercises per week for one half-year.
Types and Breeds. Study of the various breeds of poultry, their distinguishing characteristics and special merits and deficiencies; poultry breeding, ideals and methods. Text-book study should be accompanied by pictures and charts to supplement the study of live specimens., Practice in judging and use of the score card should be given. (See Robinson's “Principles and Practice of Poultry Culture”—best general reference; Basley's “Western Poultry Book”—especially for California; also Brigham's “Progressive Poultry Culture,”' Valentine's “How to Keep Jens for Profit,” and “The American Standard of Perfection” by the American Poultry Association.)
Care and Management. Fundamental principles of successful poultry eulture; natural and artificial incubation, and breeding; feeds and feeding; location, construction and sanitation of poultry houses and yards;
scoring eggs and poultry plants; keeping records and figuring profits. (See Lewis' “Poultry Laboratory Guide”'; Fiske's “Poultry Architecture” and “Poultry Appliances and Handicraft.”')
19e. Horticulture. (3 units.)
This course should follow a year's work in plant study which may be secured in any one of three ways: (1) by taking subject 12c (Botany); (2) by taking subject 19a (Agriculture) plus a year in biology since about one-half of each of these subjects should consist of plant study; (3) by taking 129 (General Science) plus a year of biology for the same
The requirement represents the equivalent of five exercises per week for one year.
The work should include study of the fruits and vegetables of California, and especially of the individual pupil's home region as to varieties, methods of growth, cultivation, improvement, and marketing. About two-fifths of the work should be practical in nature, covering propagation of plants, mixing sprays and spraying; mixing and applying fertilizers; pruning and treating wounds; planting, cultivating and irrigating trees and vines; gathering and packing fruits and vegetables; decorating home and school grounds with trees, shrubs, vines and flowers. Part of the field work can be done at school and part in neighboring orchards, vineyards, nurseries, truck gardens, and packing houses.
A weekly schedule of garden, nursery, propagating house and orchard work extending throughout the school year should be prepared by the teacher. This plan should indicate the laboratory studies of seeds and seed testing, comparative morphology, variation, classification of fruits, and study of insect pests, and plant diseases, insofar as these can be arranged in advance. As above stated, two-fifths of the course should be practical outdoor work. About one-fifth of the course should be devoted to laboratory exercises. The remaining two-fifths of the time should be given to the study of texts and references and desk work such as preparation of note books, drawing plans for orchards, truck farms, and ornamental pla ing, plans for drying yards, packing houses, etc.
Best references: Wickson's “California Fruits" and "California Vegetables''; Bailey's “Principles of Fruit Growing,'' Budd-Hansen's “American Horticultural Manual," Paddock and Whipple's “FruitGrowing in Arid Regions,” Card's “Bush Fruits," Bailey's “The Pruning Book,” “The Nursery Book," and “The Forcing Book,” Hume's “Citrus Fruits and Their Culture,'' Lodeman's “The Spraying of Plants,” Bailey's “The Principles of Vegetable Gardening,'' (Bulletins of the United States and State Departments of Agriculture.)
19e1. Horticulture. (1142 units.)
A half-year course of five periods per week, or the equivalent to be devoted to such portions of the requirement for 19e as are adapted to any school where a full year course may not be given. This course may be arranged to extend throughout the year with work equivalent to at least two and one-half periods each week.
FOURTH YEAR SUBJECT
19f. Farm Mechanics, Farm Architecture and Farm Management. (3 units.)
The fourth year work should consist of an elementary study of the more important topics dealing with farm mechanics, farm architecture and general farm management or farm economics; that is, a study of the machinery needed on the farm, and its uses, the planning and construction of farm buildings, and the things that make up farm work and life in their relation to each other.
The first half-year may well be divided between farm mechanics and farm architecture, the last half-year being devoted to problems of general farm management.
The work in farm mechanics should include a study of the kinds, construction and operation of farm machines gained through examination, taking down and setting up, and observation or actual practice with machines in the field. Some time should also be given to the study of the kinds, construction and uses of farm motors.
The study of farm architecture should include the planning and construction of farm buildings and of farm water supply and sewerage sys. tem. There should be practice in the designing and drawing of farm houses, barns, stables, poultry yards, hog houses and other farm buildings, accompanied by a study of materials and calculations as to the quantity and cost of materials and labor for these buildings. Attention should also be given to the convenient, artistic and sanitary arrangement of farm buildings, and grounds. If possible, there should be some practice in the actual construction of farm buildings, or at least in the making of models of such buildings.
The work in general farm management should include a study of capital and labor on the farm and choice of a farm, the outlay of a farm, sys. tems of farming, marketing problems, the keeping of records and accounts and some consideration of co-operation and other problems of rural 19f1. Farm Mechanics, Farm Architecture and Farm Management. (149
units.) A half-year course of five periods per week or the equivalent to be devoted to such portions of the requirement for 19f as are adapted to any school where a full year course may not be given. This course may be arranged to extend throughout the year with work equivalent to at least two and one-half periods each week.
Explanatory Note-The total number of units offered by a school giving all the full length courses would be 15, that is 19a (3) + 19b (142) + 19c (3) + 190 (114) + 19e (3) + 19f (3). It is not likely that many schools will offer all these and many will probably prefer to offer halfyear instead of year courses in certain subjects as listed above.
The total amount of credit that may be used toward university matriculation is now 9 units.
20a. Economic Geography. (112 units.)
Five periods a week for one half-year.
Economic geography should be considered as an aspect of general geography, rather than as a distinct branch of the science. It should be based on the general principles of mathematical, physical and biogeography. While including a study of countries, products, trade routes, etc., the chief emphasis of the course should be placed on the relations which exist between the fundamental principles of geography and the economic interests of man. 205. Commercial and Industrial History. (3 units.)
This subject should comprise, in broad outline, the development of commercial and industrial activities in the western world. It should discuss such subjects as the economic inheritance from Rome and the East; the gradual renewal of trading activity after the Teutonic invasions; the revival of commerce under Arab influence; the growth from village to town economy; the Renaissance in Italy and the commercial supremacy of the city republics; the Age of Discovery and the development of economic “nationalities;” the industrial revolution and the conception of international division of labor; modern international trade and its significance, etc. Emphasis should be laid on the interaction of political and economic factors in the growth of Western civilization; on the evolution and decay of economic “institutions”'; and on “movements'' rather than the facts of any particular period. 20c. Bookkeeping. (3 units.)
A knowledge of the principles of double entry bookkeeping, based on five double periods weekly for one year, or its equivalent.