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THE great and vitally important principle erton of N. H. moved to amend by substiof so adjusting our Duties on Imports as to tuting the Committee of Ways and Meansfavor and protect our Home Industry from a meaning thereby, as was fully avowed in the ruinous Foreign competition is asserted in debate upon his motion, that the revision of the first Tariff ever passed by the first Con- Duties should be made with exclusive refergress that assembled under our Federal Con-ence to the raising of Revenue, and that the stitution, in the preamble to which Act it is Protection of our Industrial Interests should expressly affirmed that such imposition of not be considered at all! This proposition, duties is necessary, to pay the debts, pro. after a long and able discussion, was susvide a revenue, &c. " and for the protection tained by seventy-one Loco-Focos and twentyand encouragement of Domestic Manufac-four Southern whigs, but overruled by the Stures." The necessity of such Protection is votes of ninety Whigs and fourteen Locoaffirmed and urged in the Messages of Presi- Focos-all but three of the latter being from dents GEO. WASHINGTON, THOMAS JEFFER- Pennsylvania. Had the two great parties SON, JAMES MADISON, JAMES MONROE, JOHN been nearly equal in numbers, the amend. Q. ADAMS, ANDREW JACKSON, and mea-ment would have prevailed, and the Protecsurably by the first of John Tyler. Old tion of Home Labor been formally stricken John Adams and Martin Van Buren are the from the duties of the Government.

only exceptions to the uniformity with which The subject was then referred to the Com-2 this doctrine has been urged; but Mr. Van mittee on Manufactures, by whom a bill and Buren is expressly concluded by his vote in able Report were, after mature deliberation, the Senate for the Tariff of 1828-the highest presented; as was another by the Secretary and most Protective Tariff ever levied in this of the Treasury, Hon. WALTER FORWARD Country, though on some points not equally and a third to the Senate by the Committee and wisely Protective. For this Tariff, Mar- on Manufactures of that body. These three? tin Van Buren, Silas Wright, and the great bills were perfectly accordant in recognizing) mass of the Jackson Members from the Free the principle of Protection, and differed but States voted; by them it was shaped, (Mr. slightly in details. The bill of the House Wright being its principal manufacturer) and Committee, slightly modified by the Comby their votes mainly passed. Massachu-mittee of Ways and Means and the subsesetts, oppressed in her vital interests by some quent action of the two Houses, passed the of its provisions, voted against it. So in 1816, House by a vote of One Hundred and Sixteen Mr. John C. Calhoun framed and carried the Yeas to One Hundred and Twelve NaysTariff of that year, expressly affirming the one only of the Yeas (Mr. Parmenter of {constitutionality and expediency of Protec- Mass.) being a Loco-Foco, while of the Nays tion in his able Speech in support of the bill. Ninety-six were of that party, two Tylerized, New-England at this time also gave a de- and Fourteen Southern Whigs. This bill cided majority of her votes against the mea- passed the Senate by Twenty-five Yeas (all) sure. But in 1841-2, when--the necessity of Whigs) to Twenty-three Nays, of whom a revision of the Tariff being imminent and Twenty were Loco-Focos and Three Southadmitted on all hands-Mr. FILLMORE in the ern Whigs, including Mr. Rives of Virginia. House moved the reference of so much of the This bill was vetoed by President Tyler, President's Message to the Committee on on the express ground that one of its proMannfactures, (a Committee constituted for visions continued in force the LAND DISTRIthe express purpose, and which had always BUTION to the States, which Act, by its before had charge of this subject,) Mr. Ath- terms, was to cease to have any effect when

ever any Duties should be raised by Congress thirds of the latter being among the stanchabove twenty per cent. The bill thus vetoed est advocates of Protection, and voting against went back to the House, and was there lost the bill expressly and only because they by a vote of Ninety-eight Yeas to Ninety could not consent to the surrender of the Nays-the Constitution requiring a vote of Land Distribution. The bill, slightly moditwo-thirds of each House to pass a bill over fied, passed the Senate on the 27th by a vote the head of a Presidential Veto. of Twenty-four to Twenty-three-Twenty This bill had passed the House on the 16th Whigs and Four Loco-Focos in the affirmaof July, 1842; the Senate on the 5th of Au-tive; Fourteen Loco-Focos, Eight Southern gust following; been vetoed by the Presi- Whigs and Mr. Rives in the negative. Here dent on the 9th, and thus every thing thrown it must be observed, too, that several Whigs: back where it was at the beginning. A Pro-voted in the negative expressly from opposivisional Tariff bill, to supply Revenue until tion to the surrender of the Land Distribution something could be definitively agreed on, to the President's arbitrary mandate, while was next attempted; and, on the discussion Messrs. Buchanan, Sturgeon, Williams and of this in the House, Mr. MCKENNAN of Penn- Wright, the Loco-Focos who voted for the sylvania on the 22d of August moved to strike measure, had repeatedly voted to destroy all out the whole bill, and insert that which had its Protective features in its preceding stages, just been vetoed with the exception of the and Mr. Wright made a speech in condemsection sustaining the Land Distribution nation of the bill introductory to his vote in and the clause imposing Duties of 20 per its favor, and expressly declared that its Procent. ad valorem on Tea and Coffee. This tective features were disapproved by him, and motion prevailed-102 to 98—and the bill as that he voted for this bill only because the proposed by Mr. MCKENNAN passed the Government must have Revenue and he was House: Yeas One Hundred and Five, Nays compelled to take this bill or nothing. One Hundred and Three. Of the Yeas, The amendments of the Senate were promptEighty-two were Whigs, Three Tyler men ly concurred in by the House, and the bill and Twenty Loco-Focos-all the latter from transmitted to the President, by whom it was New-York (10) and Pennsylvania (9) except signed on the 30th, and became thenceforth a Mr. Parmenter of Massachusetts. Of the law of the land. Such is a brief history of Nays Sixty-five were Loco-Focos, Three the passage of the present Tariff. Tyler men and Thirty-five Whigs; two

THE PAST AND PRESENT TARIFFS.

REASONS FOR CHANGES IN THE MODE OF COLLECTING DUTIES.

On the two following pages will be seen to 40 per cent. by means of which Foreign the Rates of Duties imposed on all the most importers were enabled to swear in the goods important articles by the present Tariff, as of their own manufacture cheaper than any compared with each of the Tariffs enacted American could buy them abroad, to the utter since the Last War. On a few items the ruin of our own merchants.

mode of assessing Duties was, for imperative A demagogue clamor has been raised reasons, so changed that the comparison can- against the present Tariff because of the low not be made by a table. Thus Molasses is Duties it fixes on Diamonds and all Precious charged 4 mills per pound instead of 5 cents Stones (7 per cent.) and on Watches, Jewelry, per gallon, (to prevent the fraudulent intro- &c. (12 per cent.) But these were so adduction of two gallons concentrated into one;) justed because, as was proved to the Comand Silks are charged for the cheapest $1,50 mittees of Congress, the articles are of so little per pound; better qualities, $2,50, and cer- bulk in proportion to their value, that they tain costly varieties still higher, thus cutting would inevitably be smuggled in if a higher off the fraudulent undervaluations under for-duty were imposed; and thus the Duty afmer Tariffs, wherein the duty was some 20 ford neither Revenue nor Protection.

A Comparative Statement of the most important articles bearing Specific Duties, as imposed by the Acts of 1816, 1824, 1828, 1832, and 1842, respectively.

Duties by the several Acts of
1824. 1828.
1832.

Names of Articles.

Flannels, bockings, and baizes.
Carpeting, Brussels, &c......
Carpeting, Venetian, &c..
Carpeting, floor-cloth, patent..
Oil-cloth, furniture...

Cotton bagging..
Vinegar.
Beer in casks..
Beer in bottles..
Oil, fish, &c...
Oil, olive....

Oil, castor..

Oil, linseed and rapeseed.
Sugar, brown...

Sugar, white-clayed..
Sugar, loaf...

Sugar, candy..

Sugar, lump and other refined,

¿Sugar syrup.

Chocolate

Cheese

Tallow candles.

Lard..

Beef and Pork.

Bacon

Butter

......

....

Saltpetre, refined.
Oil of vitriol...
Dry Ochre...
Ochre in oil..

Red and White Lead.

[blocks in formation]

1816.

sq. yd. 25 p. c. 25p. c.

66

25 p. c. 25 p.c.

50

66

66

30 p. c.

"6

15 p. c. 20 p. c.

66

per gall. 15p.c.

66

10

66

15

66

66

66

Iron, nail or spike rods.
Iron, sheet or hoop...

[ocr errors]

Iron Anchors..

Iron Anvils...

Iron, blacksmiths' hammers, &c...

Iron Castings, Vessels, &c......
Iron, all other Castings...

Iron, round and braziers' rods,3-16 to 10-16

diameter...

15

.per lb. 3

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

Copper rods, bolts, nails and spikes..
Wire, cap or bonnet...

(6

Wire, iron and steel, not above No. 14... “
Wire, iron and steel, above No. 14.....
Iron nails..

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

[ocr errors]

25

15

"

66

66

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

3

20p.c.
1p.c.

20 p.c.

20 p.c.

20 p.c.

20 p.c.

20 p. c.

20 p. c.

30 p. c. 50
30p.c.

15p.c. 15p.c. 15p.c.

3

15p.c. 15p.c.
15p.c. 15p.c.

1

2

20p.c. 25 p.c.

15p.c. 15p.c. 15p.c.

3

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

2p. c. 3

5

5

12

30 p.c.
30 p.c. 12

[blocks in formation]

63

35

121

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

21

[ocr errors][merged small]

1842.

14 cts.

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[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

20

THE TARIFFS or 1816, '24, '28, '32, AND '42-CONTINUED.

Duties by the several Acts of
1824.
1828.

1832.

Names of Articles.

Iron, band, &c.
Iron in Pigs..
Iron, old scrap..
Iron, bar, rolled,.
Iron, bar, hammered.
Hemp..
Alum.

[ocr errors]

....

[ocr errors]

...

Copperas

Wheat Flour....

Salt....

Coal

Wheat:

Oats and Potatoes..

Paper, folio and quarto post...
Paper, foolscap, &c..

66

Paper, printing, copperplate.
Paper, sheathing, &c...
Paper, all other.

66

66

Books, prior to 1775-other than Eng. pr. vol.
Books, Greek and Latin, bound..
- per lb.
Books, Greek and Latin, unbound......
Books, all other, bound...
Books, all other, unbound.
Apothecaries' Vials under 6 oz.....per gross.
Apothecaries' Vials, 6 to 16 oz...
Demijohns, half gall. to 3 galls.

68
66
66

66

per No.

Bottles, to 1

-per gross.

66

Glass Bottles, over 1 quart......
Playing Cards...
Wind. Glass, not over 8 by 10, per 100 sqr. ft. 250
Wind. Glass, over 8 by 10, and not over

...per pack. 30

10 by 12.

100 sq ft. 275

Wind. Glass, over 10 by 12........
Fish, dried or smoked...
Fish, Salmon...

66 275
-per quintal. 100
..per bbl. 200

Fish, Mackerel, or Herring.
Fish, all other....
Shoes and Slippers, silk.
Shoes, prunella..
Shoes, leather, &c...
Shoes, children's..
Boots and Bootees......

1816.

- per lb. 20p. c. 50 ..per cwt.

"C

.....

........

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Woollen Yarn.....

Merino Shawls...
Cloths and Cassimeres..
Other Woollen Manufactures..
Clothes, ready made,....

Glass, cut..

Glass, plain and other...

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4 150

66

45

per bushel. 201

66

5

6

66

25

15p. c.
15p.c. 10

20

...

[merged small][ocr errors]

..per lb. 30 p.c.
30 p. c.

30 p. c.
30p.c.

30 p.c.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

costing under 7 cents per lb..... “

66

15 p. c.

[ocr errors]

20 p. c. 20 p. c. 20p. c. 144

20 p. c.

"150 "100

25 perct. 25

66

46 25
46 30

3

621

[merged small][ocr errors]

150

90

175

200

200

50

20

17

10

3

15

per pair. 30

66

25

66 25

66

15 "150

150

Over 10 30 p. c. 250p.c. Wool, costing over 8 cents...... -perlb. Under 10 15p.c. *Wool, costing over 7 cents per lb........

&4 cts.

15

13

30

3

200

250

30

300

50

62

185

112

300

250

200

50

10

3

15

200

250

30

300

100

*200

150

100

30

25

530

62/

15

150

150

30

26

26

S var'us, f'm $1175
to $175pgr's 225

25

25

25

200

225

30

300

90

200

250

200

50

10

6

25

10

20

17

10

3

15

350

350

350
4 to 5004 to 500 400

100

100

200

150

100

30

25

25

15

15

13

30

26

200

150

100

30

25

15

150

40p. c.
& 4 cts.

1842.

2 cts.

$50p.c.
&4cts.

45

50

112

85

200

150

200

70

8

$175pt.

25 cts.

10

17

15

101

15

15

13

30

175

225

15 to 20

300

400

25

200

350

600

100

200

150

100

25

30

15

125

23 p. c. & 4 cts.

30 p. c.

& 3 cts.

5p.c. 30p.c. & 3 cts.

331

331 and 45p.c.

(50

40 cts.

50

40

on various mini-
ma.

50

40

30

50

50

50
$30 p. c. 30 p. c. (30 p. c. 25
&3cts. &3 cts.&3 cts.

to

$20 p. c.
& 2cts. 42

*The variation of the duties on Wool cannot be expressed in the above table, owing to changes in the grade. By the Tariff of 1824, all Wool costing over ten cents per pound paid 30 per cent. on its valuation; all costing under 10 c. pr. lb. paid 15 per ct. By the Tariff of 1828, all Wool costing over eight cents per lb. was taxed 4 cents per lb. and 50 per cent. ad valorem; which rates, by the Tariff of 1832, was reduced to 4 c. per lb. and 40 per ct. while all Wool costing less than eight cents per lb. was admitted free. By the present Tariff, all Wool pays 3 cents per lb. and 30 per cent. ad valorem except such as costs, when cleaned, less than seven cents pr. lb. and this is taxed 5 per cent.

THE WHIG TARIFF OF 1842.

AN ACT

TO PROVIDE REVENUE FROM IMPORTS, AND TO CHANGE AND MODIFY EXISTING LAWS IMPOSING DUTIES ON IMPORTS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

PASSED AUGUST 30, 1842.

Sixth. On woollen and worsted yarn, a duty of thirty per centum ad valorem.

SEC. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the passage Seventh. On woollen and worsted mitts, gloves, caps of this act, in lieu of the duties heretofore imposed by and bindings, and on woollen or worsted hosiery, that law on the articles hereinafter mentioned, and on such is to say, stockings, socks, drawers, shirts, and all other as may now be exempt from duty, there shall be levied, similar manufactures, made on frames, a duty of thirty collected and paid, the following duties, that is to say: per centum ad valorem.

First. On coarse wool unmanufactured, the value Eighth. On flannels, of whatever material compowhereof, at the last port or place from whence exported sed, except cotton, a duty of fourteen cents per square to the United States, shall be seven cents or under per yard; on bockings and baizes, fourteen cents per square pound, there shall be levied a duty of five per centum ad yard; on coach laces, thirty-five per centum ad valovalorem: And on all other unmanufactured wool there rem; on Thibet, Angora, and all other goats' hair or shall be levied a duty of three cents per pound, and thir- mohair unmanufactured, one cent per pound; on camty per centum ad valorem: Provided, That when wool lets, blankets, coatings, and all other manufactures of of different qualities of the same kind or sort is imported goats' hair or mohair, twenty per centum ad valorem. in the same bale, bag or package, and the aggregate value Ninth. On ready-made clothing, of whatever materiof the contents of the bale, bag or package, shall be apprai- als composed, worn by men, women or children, except sed by the appraisers at a rate exceeding seven cents per gloves, mitts, stockings, socks, wove shirts and pound, it shall be charged with a duty in conformity to drawers, and all other similar manufactures made on such appraisal: Provided further, That when wool of frames, hats, bonnets, shoes, boots, and bootees, importdifferent qualities and different kinds or sorts is imported in ed in a state ready to be used as clothing by men, wo the same bale, bag or package, the contents of the bale, men or children, made up either by the tailor, manufacbag or package shall be appraised at the value of the turer or seamstress, an ad valorem duty of fifty per finest or most valuable kind or sort, and a duty charged centum; on all articles worn by men, women or chilthereon accordingly: Provided further, That if bales dren, other than as above specified or excepted, of whatof different qualities are embraced in the same invoice, ever materials composed, made up wholly or in part by at the same price, the value of the whole shall be ap- hand, a duty of forty per centum ad valorem; on all praised according to the value of a bale of the best qual- thread laces and insertings, fifteen per centum ad valoity: Provided further, That if any wool be imported rem; on cotton laces, quillings, and insertings, usually having on it dirt or any material or impurities other than known as trimming laces, and on bobbinet laces of cotthose naturally belonging to the fleece, and thus be redu-ton, twenty per centum ad valorem; on laces, galloons, ced in value to seven cents per pound or under, the ap-itresses, tassels, knots, and stars of gold or silver, fine or praisers shall appraise said wool at such price as, in their half fine, fifteen per centum ad valorem; on all articles opinion, it would have cost had it not been so mixed embroidered in gold or silver, fine or half fine, when finwith such dirt or impurities, and a duty shall be charged ished, other than clothing, twenty per centum ad valothereon in conformity with such appraisal: Provided rem; and on clothing, finished in whole or in part, emalso, That wool imported on the skin shall be esti- broidered in gold or silver, fifty per centum ad valorem. mated as to weight and value as other wool. SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That from and

Second. On all manufactures of wool, or of which after the passage of this act, there shall be levied,, colwool shall be a component part, except carpetings, flan-lected and paid, on the importation of the articles herenels, bockings and baizes, blankets, worsted stuff goods, inafter mentioned, the following duties, that is to say: ready made clothing, hosiery, mitts, gloves, caps and First. On cotton unmanufactured, a duty of three bindings, a duty of forty per centum. cents per pound.

Second. On all manufactures of cotton, or of which

Third. On Wilton carpets and carpeting, treble ingrain, Saxony and Aubusson carpets and carpeting, a cotton shall be a component part, not otherwise speciduty of sixty-five cents per square yard; on Brussels and fied, a duty of thirty per centum ad valorem, excepting Turkey carpets and carpeting, fifty-five cents per square, such cotton twist, yarn, and thread, and such other aryard; on all Venetian and ingrain carpets and carpeting, ticles as are herein provided for: Provided, That all thirty cents per square yard; on all other kinds of car-manufactures of cotton, or of which cotton shall be a pets and carpeting, of wool, hemp, flax or cotton, or component part, not dyed, colored, printed or stained, parts of either, or other material not otherwise specified, not exceeding in value twenty cents per square yard a duty of thirty per centum ad valorem: Provided, shall be valued at twenty cents per square yard; and if That bed-sides and other portions of carpets or carpet-dyed, colored, printed or stained, in whole or in part, ing shall pay the rate of duty herein imposed on carpets not exceeding in value thirty cents the square yard, or carpeting of similar character. shall be valued at thirty cents per square yard, exceptFourth. On woollen blankets, the actual value of ing velvets, cords, moleskins, fustians, buffalo cloths, or which at the place whence imported shall not exceed goods manufactured by napping or raising, cutting or seventy-five cents each, and of the dimensions not ex- shearing, not exceeding in value thirty-five cents the ceeding seventy-two by fifty-two inches each, nor less square yard, which shall be valued at thirty-five cents than sixty-five by sixty inches, a duty of fifteen per per square yard, and duty be paid thereon accordingly. centum ad valorem; and on all other woollen blankets, Third. All cotton twist, yarn and thread, unbleached a duty of twenty-five per centum ad valorem. and uncolored, the true value of which at the place Fifth. On all manufactures, not otherwise specified, whence imported shall be less than sixty cents per pound, of combed wool or worsted, and manufactures of worst- shall be valued at sixty cents per pound, and shall be ed and silk combined, a duty of thirty per centum ad charged with a duty of twenty-five per centum ad valo valorem; on all hearth rugs, an ad valorem duty of rem; all bleached or colored cotton twist, yarn and forty per centum. thread, the true value of which at the place whence im

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