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year of ten months.

The school year ending June 30th, 1867, marks the transition period of California from rate bill common schools to an American free school

For the first time in the history of the State, every public school was made entirely free for every child to enter.

100 children and less than 200,000 taxable property, free schools were maintained three months ; in the larger districts, having more than

100 children and $200,000 taxa? ble

property, free schools were kept open five months.
More than 21,000 pupils

attended free schools during the entire school I am glad that in this, my last official report, I can say that a system of free schools, supported by taxation, is an accomplished fact. When I assumed the duties of this office, five years ago, I saw clearly that it was useless to expect to improve the character of the public schools to any considerable extent without a largely increased school revenue, derived from direct taxation on property.

At the session of the Legislature in 1863, T secured a revision of the
School Law, and a State school tax of five cents on the hundred dollars,

$a year. a bill was also passed providing for the gradual funding of the.indebtediness of the State to the school Department, then amounting to $600,000. At the next session, in 1864, an additional school revenue mens secured by providing that the minimum county school tax should

an connty school revenue of $75,000,

20. 1866, by the passage of the “ Revised School Law," the State minimum county tax was raised equal to $3 per census child, both proen od tax was raised to eight cents on the hundred dollars, and the visions together increasing the school revenue by at least $125,000 a hear on need not say that to secure an additional school revenue of 300.000 per annum, in the face of the high county, State, and National taxation, during a period of civil war, was no holiday task.

During each successive session of the Legislature I became a per
Bistent member of the Third House," arguing, soliciting, meeting com-


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mittees, and patiently waiting, with a determination to secure for every child in California a right guaranteed by law to an education in a system of free schools based upon the proposition that the property of the State ought to be taxed to educate the children of the State.

I saw clearly at the outset that even after the revenue was provided, the schools would be to some extent a failure, unless protected from incompetent teachers by a thorough system of State examinations and certificates. The schools cannot riso higher than the teachers.

The second leading object of my administration bas been to secure a corps of professional teachers, and to elevate the occupation of teaching. How far this has been accomplished, the list of professional teachers, and the graduates of the Normal School, found in this report, will show.

One third of the teachers in the State hold State diplomas and certificates, and one twelfth of the teachers are graduates of the California State Normal School.

A State Board of Education, of Examination, of Normal School Trustees; a uniform series of text books, a course of study, rules and regulations, an educational journal, all constitute a system of education, in place of the irregular and unsystematical balf public and half rate bill schools of five years ago.

The progress of the schools since 1863 will be shown, to some extent, by the following brief comparison of statistics.

The school census taken in June last showed an increase of attendance on public schools of 16,820 children over the number reported in attendance the year preceding, and a decrease of attendance on private schools since 1866 of 1,645.

In 1862 only 50 per cent. of the census children were enrolled on the public school registers; in 1867 the percentage of enrolment was 66. In 1863 the average public school attendance was 20,000; in 1867 it was 46,000. In 1862 the amount of State School Fund apportioned was $75,000; in 1867, $269,000. In 1862 the amount raised by county taxes was $146,000; in 1867, $303,000. In 1862 the total receipts from all sources of school revenue amounted to $497,000; in 1867 to $1,287,000.

In 1862 the amount paid for teachers' salaries was $330,000; in 1867, $696,000. In 1862 the total expenditures for public schools amounted to an average percentage of tbirty cents on each one hundred dollars of the assessment roll of the State; in 1867 she expenditures amounted to 58 1-10 cents on each hundred dollars, besides leaving a surplus on hand for the next year of $150,000.

A reference to the succeeding Summaries A and B, will exhibit in detail the statistical condition of the schools in 1865, 1866, and 1867.

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Number of Mongolian children under 15 years of age........
Fumber of Mongolian children between 5 and 15 years of age

attending school..

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Average number belonging.
Total number of schools........
Average number of months school was maintained ......
Monthly salary (board included) paid teachers-


Average annual salary of male teachers, (exclusive of board)..
Average annual salary of female teachers, (exclusive of board)
Number of districts which have voted a school tax.......
Number of school visits made by County Superintendents......
Number of school visits made by School Trustees.
Number of school visits made by other persons

105 2,133 5,792 30,060

$77 $64 $554 $160

100 2,775 6,574 39,185


782 9,125






$551,462 02

$696,110 28

$144,648 26

To cash paid for teachers' salaries......
To cash paid for sites, buildings, repairs, and

school furniture.......
To cash paid for school libraries.......................
To cash paid for school apparatus....
To cash paid for rent, fuel, and contingent expenses
To cash drawn from unapportioned County Fund

for County Institutes...
To cash drawn for payment of County Boards of

To cash drawn for postage, binding books, and

works on school architecture ...........

185,056 42

2,074 81

4,059 57
111,850 37

238,010 64
10,125 10

5,431 83
213,610 96

52,954 22 8,050 29

1,372 26 101,760 59

750 35

1,743 31

992 96

1,164 45

2,339 95

1,175 50

2,067 33

1,211 34

Total expenditures......

$858,485 32

$1,168,583 41

$310,098 09

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Total number of school districts....
Number of new districts organized .........
Number of Trustees appointed by County Superintendents....
Number of schoolhouses built of brick..
Number of schoolhouses built of wood ..........................
Number of new schoolhouses erected ..........
Number of male teachesr........
Number of female teachers.....


82 658

37 681 85


58 821 106

21 140 21



19 102




Number of schools maintained more than 3 and less than 6 months..
More than 6 and less than 9 months.
Sumber of schools maintained 9 months and over ..........................
Arerage number of months of all schools in the State
Sumber of schools for colored children.........................................
Number of pupils attending them ........
Fuinber of teachers who attended County Institutes...
Number of volumes in county teachers' libraries.
Estimated value of sueh libraries.......



497 1,500 $2,174

387 281 249 7.2

16 400

723 3,220 $6,090

29 76 52 1.7

4 103

226 1,720 $3,916

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