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facturing business? There is not; and this being so well known everywhere, I need not say more about it.

In regard to silk manufacturing in England, it is also notorious that at Manchester, Macclesfield, Derby, etc., thousands and thousands of bands are employed in it. Lombe, of Derby, in seventeen hundred and sixteen, disguised himself as a workman, went to Piedmont, and succeeded in taking drawings of the machinery for making organzine, which article up to that time was always imported into England. There are silk factories in St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Capital of Poland, and other places, too many to enumerate tbem here. But it will be seen from the above that there is bardly a country on the European Continent where this business does not exist. Now, let us look into the present condition of the silk manufacturing business of the United States. We can estimate, at a low rate, that between fifty and eighty thousand bands are employed in it. Take, for instance, the factories in Paterson, New Jersey :

First-Thomas Dale & Co. This factory was finished, but the machinery not quite in operation, wben I visited it last year. I estimate that it contains about two hundred thousand dollars worth of machinery. It is a brick structure of four stories bigh. The firm must give employment at this time to from six hundred to one thousand hands.

The next in importance are Hummel & Booth, employing also several hundred people ; Rile & Son, Abraham Tilt & Son, and four or five others. Besides these, there was a silk velvet association, incorporated about two years ago, with a capital of five hundred thousand dollars. Their principal place of business is New York. There are large factories in Connecticut and Massachusetts. In Pbiladelphia we especially have to mention the factory of Hausmann & Son. It is managed on a large scale. There are also the works of Tom Harrop, John Smith and several otbers.

All these above named factories manufacture solely sewing silk, embroidery silks, tram and organzine, and are very little connected with weaving

There are some factories in the City of New York, as well as in Connecticut, the principal business of which is weaviny.

But we shall combine all of these separate branches of weaving, spinning and dyeing in California. None of those factories in the Eastern States bave such facilities offered to them as we bave in our State :

First—There is the steamsbip communication with China and Japan, by wbich we can get the raw material cheaper and quicker than any other manufacturer on the globe; and

SecondThe culture of the silk worm, which has advanced to such an extent tbat within a few years we sball have enough of our own raw material.

The reader will see tbat everything said above is based upon facts, and that in any emergency we are able to manufacture silk goods considerably cheaper tban they can be imported either from the Eastern States or Europe, and I am convinced tbat no better chance for investment was ever offered to the public than this silk manufacturing business.

I also add a report of the Committee of Judges at the State Fair held in Sacramento in September, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven.

(Extract from Sacramento Daily Union of Soptember 19th, 1867.-Report of Committee as above

alluded to.]

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To the President and Board of Directors of the State Agricultural Society:

GENTLEMEN: The undersigned, appointed a committee to act judges in making awards on articles exhibited at the State Fair, in section thirty-three, class one, in the third department, hereby respectfully present their report :

We award to L. Prevost, for best general exhibition of the silk business throughout, from the feeding of the worms to the weaving of silk goods, the first premium of fifty dollars. Wo award to Joseph Neumann, for best specimen of silk manufactured, not less than five yards, the first premium of twenty dollars; also, to the same party, for best specimen of raw silk, the first premium of ten dollars; also, to the same party, for the best silk cravat, the first premium of ten dollars. We award to Mrs. Muller of Nevada City, for the best pound reeled silk, made in family, the first premium of ten dollars.

In closing our report, we will state that from the data given us by the parties exbibiting silks and fabrics made from California silk, and from other sources, we feel it our duty to congratulate the people of California on the evident progress which has been made within the last year, in this State, in these most important branches of domestic industry. We are confident that this progress is not ephemeral, but is the result of practical knowledge on the part of culturists and manufacturers, and that a new and profitable source of labor is to be firmly established among our people, to their moral and pecuniary benefit, and that the representations of silk culturists at the State Fair of eighteen bundred and sixty-eight will convince the most skeptical.

HORACE B. DUNN.
W. B. EWER,

Committee.

It is a well known fact tbat silk factories are necessary to support silk culture, by giving or creating a demand for the raw silk. It is equally as well known that silk culture is necessary to the support of the factories. Each is dependent upon the other. There are hundreds of persons who bave commenced in a small way the cultivation of the mulberry trees who have no idea of asking a premium from the State, but simply because they know we have a footing, and they can therefore find a market for their cocoons. The State a few years since offered a premium on hops to the amount of twenty-two hundred dollars, seven hundred and difty of which bas been taken, and the result is, that California bas already become one of the most noted States in the Union for her bop culture; and the capital now engaged in production of hops pays annually to the State more money in taxes than the State offered in premiums. At the same time the State offered a premium for raw and manufactured cotton, and the result is that a mill came to the State from Oregon, and is now constantly employed making up on raw material and furnishing millions of socks annually for our State.

The State also offered ten thousand three hundred and fifty dollars for various kinds of woolen goods, eight thousand nine hundred and fifty of which bas already been taken, and as a result we have already four woollen mills in the State, manufacturing one-third of our entire wool product, and paying in the aggregate, according to my estimation, an annual revenue to tbe State equal to four times the premiums paid. Many other branches of industry bave been encouraged in the same way with equally beneficial results.

So it will be with silk culture and silk manufacture. So soon as the first million of cocoon will be sent to market, those raising them will obtain a full price for the production of their labor; and as soon as it becomes known that there can be a silk factory kept in operation in the consumption of California silk cocoons--thus creating a constant demand for them, the producers thus supplying the factory, and the factory creating the demand for the raw material-thonsands who cannot now be induced even to listen to the subject will be anxious to invest their money in silk culture and manufacture, and the State will, as in the cases above cited, be receiving an annual revenue of more than she will ever be called on for in the payment of premiums now offered or likely to be offered for silk culture and manufacture. And I may truly add, that the silk industry will in a very few years become the first and most profitable industry of the State.

Again : How much longer shall we consent to remain the chief support of some of the most dangerous monarcbies of Europe by remaining the chief consumers of their staple product. We should not forget that each silk dress worn by our wives or danghters pays a tribute of from eight to ten dollars to some enemy of democratic institutions. Is this not taxation ? Indirect, it is true, but none the less taxation. The impost duty on all clean silk manufactured goods is sixty per cent. Now suppose that our importation of such goods into California be only three million dollars per annum in value ; our indirect tax paid on the same would be one million three hundred thousand. But our real importation is from five million to six million dollars, and consequently our impost taxes are nearly double the above figures. Now, how shall we get rid of this enormous indirect tax? The answer very plainly is, stimulate the cultivation and manufacture of silk. What is a few thousand dollars paid out of the State Treasury, with a certainty that it will be returned with compound interest in a few years, compared to the payment annually of this enormous indirect tax-with a certạin prospect that it must increase? Which is the better policy for us as a State, to continue to support the population of foreign countries by buying and consuming the product of their labor, or, by the increase of our own industries, to induce them to migrate here and thus add to our population and wealth? Thousands of skilled laborers in the different branches of the silk business in the old world are now laying their plans to come to California, having learned through their friends here that this was a good country for their business, and that silk culture and manufacturing were already commenced here. Your memorialist has already received applications for employment from some sixty to one hundred of such who bave already arrived on this account.

Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in the year seventeen hundred and sixty-three, ordered the planting of mulberry trees in bis kingdom and himself had erected a factory in the city of Potsdam for the purpose of manufacturing silk, which is still in operation at the present time and affords employment for about eight bundred people, and since the time of the erection of this factory many factories bave been erected in the Prussian Kingdom; and to take it at the least calculation, there is in this kingdom alone, over two hundred thousand people constantly employed in making silks.

Nicholas the First, Emperor of Russia, in the year eighteen hundred and forty, imported operatives from France and Germany and started for them a silk factory in the city of St. Petersburg, wbich is in a flourishing condition at the present time and gives employment to at least two thousand persons. He also had another factory erected in Poland, and went so far as by proclamation to exempt all bis subjects from military duty who were willing to learn the art of silk weaving. The history of France, Italy and England in regard to this enterprise bas been already explained in my prospectus. And furthermore, I invite your attention to what the Eastern States have accomplished towards the encouragement of silk culture and manufacture.

I am informed on reliable information, that at the time of the “ multi. caulis speculation,” some States gave as much as six dollars per pound for sewing silk as a premium.

And now, in conclusion, I sincerely and earnestly pray that your honorable body will take this matter under advisement and place such a premium on silk manufacturing as to induco capital to come forward and assist in this valuable and most important enterprise. All of, wbich is most respectfully submitted,

JOSEPH NEUMANN.
Pioneer Silk Manufacturer of the Pacific Coast.

R E P O R T

OF THE

JOINT COMMITTEE

ON THE

STATE PRISON.

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