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the presiding quorum of the Church agreeable The Saints' Herald, the official publication to the revelation which reads: «The Twelve of the Church, was begun 1 Jan. 1860, at traveling counselors are called to be the Twelve Cincinnati, Ohio. It was removed to Plano, Apostles, or special witnesses of the name of IlI., March 1863. Since 1881 it has been pubChrist in all the world; thus differing from lished at Lamoni, Iowa. Joseph Smith was its other officers in the Church in the duties of editor-in-chief from 1865 to 1914. The Church their calling. And they form a quorum equal held annual and semi-annual conferences unin authority and power to the three Presidents til and including 1882, when the semi-annual previously mentioned.” (Doctrine and Cove- were discontinued. The headquarters were at nants 107; 23-24). After the rejection of his Plano, Ill., from 1863 to 1881; since then at claims, Sidney Rigdon became disaffected and Lamoni, Iowa. The quorums of the reorganizawithdrew to Pittsburgh, Pa., with a small fol- tion are organized in the same order which exlowing, over which he presided for a few isted at the death of Joseph Smith. The docyears, when the organization, for lack of mem- trines are as follows: bers, ceased to exist. William B. Smith claimed

A belief in God the Eternal Father, his Son Jesus Christ, the right to the presidency by virtue of being and the Holy Ghost. the only surviving brother of Joseph Smith. That men will be punished for their own sins, and not His following was always small and soon dis

for Adam's transgression.

That all men may be saved by obedience to the laws banded. James J. Strang declared that he and ordinances of the gospel, namely, faith in God and the had been appointed by the Prophet Joseph Lord Jesus Christ; repentance; baptism by immersion for Smith to be his successor, in a letter writ

the remission of sins; laying on of hands for the gift of the ten but a

Holy Ghost; the resurrection of the body; that the dead few days before the tragedy. in Christ will rise first; that men shall be judged, rewarded, He was a man of some ability and gathered or punished, according to the degree of good or evil they about him few

shall have done. prominent men who

That a man must be called of God, and ordained by the refused to remain with the Church under the laying on of hands of those who are in authority, to entitle leadership of Brigham Young and the Twelve him to preach the Gospel, and administer in the ordinances Apostles. For a time his organization appeared


In the same kind of organization that existed in the to flourish, but like the organizations of Sidney primitive Church. Rigdon and William B. Smith, soon fr into That in the Bible is contained the word of God, so far decay and was deserted by many memerders. In

as it is translated correctly. That the canon of Scripture

is not full, but that God, by His Spirit, will continue to the year 1852 Jason W. Briggs, a resident of reveal His word. Beloit, Ill., and Zenas H. Gurley, gathered some In the powers and gifts of the everlasting gospel, namely, of the scattered remnants from these organiza

the gift of faith, discerning of spirits, prophecy, revelation,

healing, visions, tongues, and the interpretation of tongues, tions and formed branches at Beloit, Waukesha

wisdom, charity, brotherly love, etc. and Yellowstone, in what they called the New That marriage is ordained of God; and that the law of Organization of the Church. Jason W.

God provides for but one companion in wedlock, for either

man or woman, except where the contract is broken by Briggs, it is said, held the office of Elder in the

death or transgression. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints That the doctrines of a plurality and a community of previous to the death of Joseph Smith. Until

wives are heresies. The Book of Mormon says: “ Wherefore,

my brethren, hear me, and hearken to the word of the Lord: 1846, the year of the exodus to the west, he re- For there shall not any man among you have save it be one mained a member of the Church. Later he wife, and concubines he shall have none. joined the organization of James J. Strang,

That the religion of Jesus Christ, will, if its precepts are

accepted and obeyed, make men and women better in the then that of William B. Smith in which he re- domestic circle, and better citizens, and consequently better mained until 1851. Zenas H. Gurley, before fitted for the change that cometh at death. the death of the Prophet Joseph Smith, held the

That men should worship God in "Spirit and in truth;" office of Seventy. He also accepted the leader

and that such worship does not require a violation of the

constitutional law of the land. ship of Brigham Young and the Twelve Apostles until the exodus in 1846, when he

The Church has been more aggressive in its withdrew and became a member of the Church

fight against polygamy than any other organizaunder James J. Strang. In this organization he

tion. The local work is divided into the followlabored diligently until 1851. After Jason W.

ing organizations according to latest reports: Briggs and Ženas H. Gurley joined their forces

Two States, Lamoni, Iowa; and Independence, in 1852, they commenced to preach the doctrine

Mo.; both organized in 1901 ; 74 districts; 62 in of the rejection of the Church of Jesus Christ

the United States, two in Australia, five in Engof Latter Day Saints or the original church

land, two in Wales, two in Canada and one in because they said the saints had failed to build

Nova Scotia. The reorganization supports the temple at Nauvoo within a given time,

Graceland College and a home for the aged, which expired at, or shortly following, the

both at Lamoni, Iowa. It is prosecuting misdeath of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. Because of

sionary work throughout the United States, the this "rejection they said it became necessary

Canadas, Australia, New Zealand, Society for the church to be newly organized that it

Islands, Sandwich Islands, the British Isles, might find favor with the Lord. They also

Scandinavia and other countries. The memberpromulgated the doctrine of "ineal priesthood

ship is about 75,000. claiming that it was the right of the oldest son REPAIRS. See LAW OF LANDLORD AND of Joseph Smith to succeed his father in the TENANT. presidency of the Church. For a number of

REPARATIVE SURGERY. See SURyears they labored to induce Joseph Smith, son

GERY. of the Prophet Joseph, to take the presidency of the new organization, but without success. REPEAL, the rescission, annulling, or revoFinally, at a conference held at Amboy, Ill., 6 cation of a law. Repeal of a statute may be April 1860, he consented and was installed as express or implied. It is express when the represident of the new organization, which was pealing statute states specifically that a prior later incorporated as the Reorganized Church statute has been abrogated. It is implied when of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

the statute does not refer specifically to a prior statute but contains provisions wholly or in part REPLEVIN, rē-plěv'in (French replevin, repugnant thereto. In case only a part is re- from Middle Latin replivire, to pledge), an acpugnant, the other part of the prior statute con- tion for the recovery of unlawfully possessed or tinues in effect.

detained goods or chattels. The action reREPEAL MOVEMENT, the agitation for

quires the issue of a writ for the seizure of the repeal of the Union between Great Britain the goods. To effect this the plaintiff must file and Ireland. This agitation began almost

a bond large enough to cover all probable reat the moment of the Union, and has continued

sulting damage of the action to the defendant; to the present time. Robert Emmet sacrificed or the latter may, in some cases, give bond and his life to the cause of repeal in 1803. But the

retain the possession of the contested goods word repeal is most intimately connected with

until the case is settled. Should the plaintiff the name and career of Daniel O'Connell, the

win the action he is entitled to the return of the Irish «Liberator.) O'Connell died in 1847, and

goods, or, in case this be impossible, the paythe cause of repeal was taken up by the Young ment of their value. In either case he is also Ireland party of 1848; by the Fenians, whose

entitled to damages for the retention of the operations came to a head in 1865-67; and goods. But should the plaintiff lose the action finally by the Home Rule party organized under

the defendant may recover damages and may the leadership first of Isaac Butt, in 1870, and

sue for the same on the plaintiff's bond. later under the leadership of Charles S. Parnell. REPLICATION, from the Latin replicatio, During the celebrated Parnell Commission of

an answer, a reply. In law, the reply of the 1888–89, however, the Home Rule party, plaintiff to the defendant's plea. through their counsel, disclaimed all desire for repeal, maintaining that their aims were con

REPLY TO HAYNE, The. The reply fined to the obtaining of Home Rule in the

delivered by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts strict, or restricted, sense of the word.

in the United States Senate 26–27 Jan. 1830 (to

Senator Robert Y. Hayne, of South Carolina) REPEATER, in arithmetic, an indeter

was the culmination of a debate that arose minate decimal in which the same figures continually recur or are repeated. A pure, re

over an unimportant resolution regarding the

sale of the public lands, and grew to include peater, or circulating decimal, is one in which

sectional political issues. The oration may be the repetition goes on from the beginning; as,

divided into two sections. The first replies in .3333, .272727 ... A mixed repeater is one in which the repetition does not begin till after

detail to charges of political inconsistency which the intervention of a figure or figures; as,

had been brought against New England and

against Webster personally, and closes with a .128888 .0113636

etc. For the algebraic method of finding the value of a re

glowing eulogy on Massachusetts. The second

and more important section opposes the claim peating decimal see PROGRESSION.

of South Carolina to the right of nullification, In firearms, an arm which may be caused to fire several successive shots without reloading,

and leads up to the famous peroration on the

Union, closing «Union and Liberty, now and whether rifle, pistol or cannon. In horology,

forever, .one and inseparable.” This last pasa watch or clock made to strike the time when

sage was for many years the best-known piece a spring is pushed in. Some strike the hour and

of American political oratory with the exquarter, others the hour, quarter and odd minutes. Nautically, a vessel, usually a frigate,

ception of Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty, or appointed to attend each admiral in a fleet, and

give me death. The two impassioned out

bursts, closing the two sections of the address, to repeat every signal he makes, with which she

are, however, each but a paragraph in length. immediately sails to the ship for which it is

The greater part of the Reply, which occupied intended, or the whole length of the fleet when the signal is general; called also a repeating

four hours in the delivery, is taken up with ship. In telegraphy, the same as relay.

simple and direct reasoning, and while it gives

the sense of great moral earnestness on the REPEATING. See BALLOT.

part of the speaker it contains no obvious ap

peal to the feelings of the hearers. Webster, REPENTANCE, or CONTRITION, as who according to tradition once said that his understood by divines, both Protestant and whole life had been a preparation for the Catholic, is defined by the Council of Trent as

'Reply to Hayne, spoke almost extempora"grief of mind and detestation of sin com- neously, and the chief impression which his admitted, with a purpose of sinning no more”;

dress produces is that of vast grasp of all the more specifically it is that sorrow for sin

widely different matters on which he touches. which arises out of consideration of God's

There were two sides to the questions under disgoodness which sin has outraged, and which

cussion, as there always are, but to many of his includes a resolution never more to offend

hearers he seemed to have annihilated the arguGod because God so deserves our love. This is

ments of his opponent. In a private letter the repentance called by Protestant divines

Webster once referred somewhat oddly to the "goodly sorrow.” The same Protestant divines Reply as «No. 1 among my political efforts," recognized a second kind of repentance, which and to the Seventh of March Speech as "probmourns that sin is attended by a penalty rather

ably the most important effort of my life.) By than hates sin. This differs little from the Cat

an almost unanimous verdict his admirers, many trition” of Catholic divines, which is an imper

of whom disagreed with the political sentiments fect sorrow for sin arising from such motives

of the Seventh of March Speech, have given as fear of hell, loss of heaven, the turpitude of

highest rank to the Reply to Hayne. sin. Consult Psalms li, 4; Acts v, 31, xl, 18;

William B. CAIRNS, 2 Timothy ii, 25; Matthew xxvii, 3–5.

Associate Professor American Literature, UniREPLACEMENT. See METASOMATISM, versity of Wisconsin.

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REPORTING. See JOURNALISM; News- maintain the surrounding surface to support PAPERS, AMERICAN.

the remainder of the metal. Usually a composiREPOUSSÉ, rę-poo'sā'. A term taken

tion is used containing pitch (Stockholm or

Swedish preferred) mixed with tallow or some from the French, meaning "beaten back.” It is

other substance to soften it and overcome its used to designate the formation of raised (re

tendency to brittleness; brickdust, plaster of lief) ornament in metal on flat or hollow ware.

Paris or resin are often used for this purpose. In its stricter interpretation the term refers to that division of beaten relief work which is

In high relief work the pitch must be kept performed by hammering or punching on the

warm so as to be sufficiently soft to take on

deep impressions. But, in order to avoid the reverse (negative) side of the metal. This is, therefore, embossing as contradistinguished

inconveniences of working on such a soft,

sticky substance, lead, tin or zinc are frequently from chasing, which latter process is the ham

used to support the metal that is to be hammering or driving of the metal into recesses

mered into high relief. For surfaces which (depressing). Inasmuch as the relief ornament

are not in the flat a "pitch bowl and ring) are is, almost invariably, followed by a finishing process of chasing, the entire performance (of

used as support. A hemispherical bowl filled relief and intaglio work on a single piece) is,

with the pitch is rested on a thick ring of

leather, rope or other substance. This contrivby extension, frequently termed repoussé work. The great esteem in which repoussé work of

ance permits the worker to tilt the surface in

any desired direction. fine character is held by connoisseurs is en

Tools. At least two hammers are needed, hanced by the knowledge that the quality of

one with flat face, the other a chasing' hammer the production depends solely on the skill of the craftsman. The art dates back to very

with handle ending bulb-shape; a wooden mal

let can take the place of the latter. Punches early history, and the ancients did very refined, delicate work in this process, as is proven

and several kinds of chasing tools should be

numerous if it is desired to avoid monotonous by such examples as the Bernay Treasure (see SILVERWARE) and other finds of silver, gold

effects; a “tracer) and a “back grounding) and bronze art metal work (see Bronzes). To

tool are needed, and, to ease operations, at

least 50 different punches are required (which the Greeks the process was known as sphyre

are best shaped by the individual worker). laton. Repoussé work is about the most dif-,

Bossing and cushion” tools vary in form (but ficult the craftsman in metal can undertake, re

the edges must be eliminated) and are used to quiring great skill and patience to obtain fine

produce bosses or ridges. Modelling and execution, and for this very reason the great gold and silversmiths of all times have loved to

"chasing tools have a flatter working, end; display their skill in this medium; Greeks,

“lining, "freezing” and “mátting tools are

used to produce (textured on the surface and Romans, Italians, Dutch. French and Germans have all left us grand examples.

contain working surfaces in lines, grooves,

The golden hatchings, etc. «Ring) tools produce a dealtar in Cluny Museum, Paris (see ALTAR), is a beautiful 11th century example of re

pressed circular mark; "backgrounding) tools, poussé work.

of course, are for giving background texture. Technique.- As above stated, this process

«Snarling irons) are for working in the in

terior of hollow ware (such as ewers, vases, consists of hammering or punching embossed work from the reverse side. In efficient work

etc.) and are made in elongated Z shape; they

are fastened at one end in a vice the other end the whole surface, both the relief and the background, should remain of equal thickness as

(which is provided with a knob or button) is.

inserted in the orifice of the hollow piece, pressnear as possible. This involves hammering up the metal sheet (termed blank) to thicken, or

ing against the surface to be operated on. A

blow of the hammer on the tool near the vice reinforce, the parts which are to be in relief, so that, while covering a larger surface than the

sets the free end in vibration whose percussion flat, the thickness of the "walls” may be main

produces on the inside of the vessel a deprestained. Another chief difficulty to overcome is

sion, therefore a corresponding embossing effect

on the outer (positive) surface. Consult Gawthe fact that hammering on the metal tends to harden and cause "temper” or brittleness. A

thorp, A Manual of Practical Instruction in

the Art of Brass Repoussé Work for Amateurs frequent "annealing” is, therefore, necessary.

(London 1899); Horth, A. C., Repoussé MetalAnnealing, is the softening process brought

work: a Scheme of Sheet Metal Work for about by bringing the metal to red heat, then

Schools and Amateurs (London 1905); "quenching” in “pickle” or water. In the case of

Maryon, H., Metal Work and Enamelling) copper the quenching can be done at red heat, but with brass or silver the metal should cool

(London 1912), down somewhat. The first process in produc


Technical Art Expert. ing repoussé work is to get a copy of the required design on to the metal; for which there REPPLIER, rép'lēr, Agnes, American are several processes, but the simple methods essayist: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1 April 1855. She of pasting the drawing on the metal or tracing is of French descent and was educated at the it on to the surface with carbon paper and convent of the Sacred Heart, Torresdale. Her stylus, or a needle point, are commonly used for essays are characterized by lightness of touch, flat work. For hollow ware surfaces the work a keen sense of the humorous side of a theme has to be done by freehand generally, using and not a little irony. She published Books <dividers) for tracing the measurements. In and Men (1888); Points of View) (1892); the case of flat work, the blank is placed face In the Dozy Hours) (1894): Essays in Idledownward, the design being on the reverse side, ness! (1893); Essays in Miniature (1892); on a board which is faced with a composition (Varia) (1897); and Philadelphia: the Place which will yield to the blows of the tool yet and the People (1898); "The Fireside Sphinx

VOL. 23-25



(1901); Compromises (1904); (In Our Con- parties have rendered the regulation practically vent Days! (1905); A Happy Half Century) valueless by manipulation in naming the can(1908); Americans and Others' and 'The didates. For instances, in districts largely Cat (1912), etc. She also compiled a Book Democratic, the Democratic party makes but of Famous Verse (1892), and was a contribu- two nominations and the Republicans one, thus tor to the Saturday Evening Post.

ensuring the election of two Democrats and one REPRESENTATION. See MINORITY AND

Republican in a very large preponderance of PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION.

Another method advocated for the re

form of present methods is known as the REPRESENTATION, (1) the authorized imited vote, which has been used in Engacting by one person in behalf of another, as land, and also in Pennsylvania in choosing in a legislative assembly; also, the system of Supreme Court judges, county auditors and choosing such representatives. Representation other officials and in New York for the selectin a modified form was known in ancient times, ing of members at large to the Constitutional and the principle was extended by the Church, Convention of 1867. By this method each voter in its ecumenical councils. The Germanic na- has less votes than there are offices to be filled. tions, however, were the first to adopt political For example, where there are three offices, the representation, having employed it in their voter has only two votes. This method, in a popular assemblies. Later it spread to Great modified form, is in effect in a number of Britain and still later to the United States, in countries, among them Portugal and Spain. which latter country it developed into the rep- Another method, known as the transferable resentative democracy which still endures. vote) or «Hare system,” is complicated but much Representation to-day is found not only in favored by advocates of the minority system. republics, as the United States, but in monarch- By this method a voter indicates his choice ies also, as Great Britain. In republics, how- (ist, 2d, etc.) by number, after voting for as ever, representatives are less restricted in their many candidates as he desires. The total numpower than in monarchies, it being usual in the ber of votes cast is divided by the number of latter to place a check in the form of an ap- offices to be filled, and the quotient gives the pointed or hereditary upper house to control "quota," or number of votes necessary to elect legislation. In early times representation was a candidate. At the first count of votes, only largely by classes, and to-day this principle is the first choices are reckoned and those that restill carried out to some extent in England. ceive at least a quota are declared elected. After There is much conflict of opinion as to this, if all the offices are not filled, the remainwhether national representative should ing votes of the candidates who have been defollow closely the wishes of his constitu- clared are transferred to the candidate having ents solely or whether he should, in case second choice, and the process is continued until of conflicting interests, prefer to use his powers all the offices are filled. Tasmania adopted this in a manner that would most benefit the entire method, for all elections in 1907, and it is in country. The latter view appears to dominate, use also in Moravia, Denmark and Iceland. but it is nevertheless a fact that representatives, Another method, in use in Switzerland and elseespecially those seeking re-election, are largely where in Europe, is known as the "free-list” influnced by the wishes of their constituency. system. Under it any organized party may

Majority, Minority and Proportional nominate as many candidates as it desires, but Representation.- In the United States the not to exceed the total number of places to be majority generally rules, and no provision is filled. Any voter may cast as many votes as usually made for giving the proportionate rep

there are candidates to be elected, but not more resentation to the minority that it would seem than one for any candidate. The total vote in all justice to require. It often happens, cast is then divided by the number of places owing to the system of representation in vogue to be filled, and this gives the quota of repin the United States, that a party which casts resentation. The total vote cast by each party less than 40 per cent of the votes in a Congres- divided by this quota gives the number of repsional or other election may have all the repre- resentatives to which each party is entitled. sentation while the parties casting the remainder For example, if 20 representatives are of the votes have no representation what- be elected, with 1,000,000 voters in the dis

In Illinois an attempt was made to trict, the Democrats polling 400,000, the Repubremedy this by the constitution of 1870, licans 350,000 and the Socialists 250,000, the which provided for what is known as the quota is found by dividing the total votes cast “free vote. This system, as applied in this (1,000,000) by the number of representatives to State, affects the election of members of the be chosen (20), equalling 50,000. This would lower house of the legislature only, and by give the Democrats eight representatives, the the provisions of the constitution each voter Republicans seven and the Socialists five. may cast as many votes for each candidate as Other systems are in use which are modificathere are representatives to be elected or he tions of those above described. may apportion such votes, or equal parts (2) In law, an oral or written statement of thereof, among the candidates, if he so desires, fact, as one made incidentally or collaterally to and those receiving the largest number of a contract. Whether express or implied, a votes shall be elected, three representatives be- material false representation made by one party ing chosen in each district. The chief objec- to a contract, if acted upon and believed by the tion to this method is that at best it gives only other party to his injury, will render such conminority and not proportional representation, tract void; (3) the principle by which the lineal gives it solely to a very large minority and descendants of a deceased person inherit or take ignores third parties entirely. Another objec- part of the estate which their ancestor would tion is that the politicians of the two leading have inherited if he had survived.






REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. for many years after independence, and in one Representative government in the modern mean- of the States — Rhode Island - a landholding ing of the term was unknown to the ancients. qualification for foreign-born citizens existed Kings, chiefs and administrative officers were until a few years ago. Excepting some peculiar often elected by popular vote or acclamation, restriction intended to prevent negroes from but neither in ancient Greece nor Rome did a voting in certain Southern States, nearly all body exist even remotely resembling a Con male citizens of adult age now possess the right gress, a Parliament or a Reichstag. States to vote. The second decade of the 20th century which were not absolute despotisms were govs saw the extension of the suffrage to women in erned, as a rule, by a council of magistrates and many States of the Union and the passage of a popular assembly, in which latter all persons the Federal amendment to the Constitution, in with civic rights took part, and which was very 1918, by which all women in the United States much like a New England town meeting; but are énfranchised ends the long struggle in other there is no instance of the popular assembly of States and confers the voting power on milancient times developing into a representative lions, making for a really representative governbody. The Roman Senate was composed of ment. See SUFFRAGE. magistrates and ex-magistrates and resembled In the Hanseatic towns, in Switzerland, the the American Senate of to-day only in name. Italian free cities, and other republics of the This ancient system, which appears from the Middle Ages, representative government had no standpoint of to-day both unwieldy and un- real existence so far as the common people ruly, was well enough fitted, however, for the were concerned, and the parliaments of modern, so-called republics in which it prevailed, and in Europe are not derived from the institutions of which all power was reserved to the central those states. The American Revolution gave city, whether Athens, Thebes or Rome. The the impulse and inspiration needed to awaken citizens in public assembly stood for the state, the people of Europe to a sense of their rights and were the state, and did not think it neces- and wrongs and the constitutions granted by sary to delegate their powers to representatives. monarchs on the Continent to their subjects When civic rule in Rome gave place to imperial- adopted as models a mixture of the English and, ism, the public assembly ceased to exist, while American systems. Every European country the Senate was retained to register the decrees at present has a congress or parliament in of the Cæsars, and offer honorable retirement which the people are represented by deputies to those who had gained imperial favor.

elected according to law. Japan has a similar Representative government, as we know it system, and representative government, which to-day, is not derived, therefore, from any Ro- 100 years ago was practically confined to the man or Greek institution. It is essentially an United States and England, is now coextensive outgrowth of that love of liberty inherent alike with civilization in every continent. See Dein Saxon, Norman and Celt, and reached its MOCRACY; GOVERNMENT; and consult Beard, present development through centuries of Charles A., American Government and Polstruggle and of political and social evolution. itics. (New York 1910); Commons, John R., The English Parliament, with its combination Proportional Representation (2d ed., ib. of mediæval House of Lords and 20th century 1907); Garner, J. W., Introduction to Political House of Commons, has grown gradually from Science (1910); McLaughlin, A. C., and Hart, beginnings dating back almost to the Norman A. B., Cyclopedia of American Government Conquest. The barons asserted their rights (3 vols., New York 1914); Stubs, W., Conagainst tyrannical kings, and the necessities of stitutional History of England (London 1897). the kings compelled them to recognize the well

REPRESENTATIVES, Election of. See to-do classes outside the nobility, who had the wealth of which the royal exchequer stood

ELECTIONS; ELECTORAL QUALIFICATIONS; CONbadly in need. Taxation gave birth to representation, and at length it became a recognized

REPRESENTATIVES, House of. See principle that Englishmen would not stand taxa- HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES; CONGRESS OF THE tion imposed without their own consent through

UNITED STATES ; SENATE, UNITED STATES; representatives in Parliament assembled. It ASSEMBLY, LEGISLATIVE; LEGISLATURE. was not, however, until far into the 19th cen- REPRESENTATIVES, State. See ELECtury that the common people of England were

TORAL QUALIFICATIONS. permitted to have a voice in public affairs, and not until 1885 that the suffrage was bestowed

REPRIEVE, in law, a temporary, suspenon virtually all male subjects of adult age in

sion of the execution of a sentence after conthe United Kingdom. The Parliament of to

viction of a crime, as by a governor or a soverday, therefore, represents the English people;

eign; also, the instrument granting such suspenless than half a century ago it represented only

sion. The term to-day is usually applied with the privileged classes.

reference to sentences of death only. Reprieves Representative government in the United

are usually granted by the chief executive of States inherited its spirit from England, but not

a nation or state, among some of the reasons its form. The American system is of native

being: newly-discovered evidence affecting origin. It developed from town-meeting to

favorably the case of the condemned, pregassembly, and when the new States adopted new

nancy, insanity occurring after sentence of fundamental laws, the upper house was called a

death and to allow time for the determination senate, after the ancient Roman Senate, while

of facts after a pardon has been requested. the right of originating measures of taxation

Sometimes the court which tried the prisoner was reserved to the popular branch of the leg

may grant a reprieve. islature. In the United States, also, however, REPRISALS, in international law, (1) the right or privilege of voting was generally forcible seizure and retention of the goods of restricted to taxpayers and property-owners an enemy in retaliation or as satisfaction.

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