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traditionally we are apt to point as the favored land of unfettered scholarship. In his annual review of German developments Wm. C. Dreher says (The Atlantic for March):
The event of the year in educational circles was a remarkable demonstration among the university professors in favor of unprejudiced scientific investigation. The movement was occasioned through the appointment of Professor Spahn to a new chair in the University of Strasburg, which was founded for teaching the Catholic view of history. This appointment, with the confessional limitation carried with it, was highly disapproved by the university men. Professor Mommsen wrote a letter, in which he protested earnestly against the appointment of professors, whether Catholic or Protestant, whose freedom as investigators should be circumscribed by obligation of sect or creed. The publication of Mommsen's letter called forth strong indorsements from the professors of nearly every university in Germany. In connection with this movement, the government official having charge of appointments of professors in the Prussian universities was sharply criticized by some professors, while others came to his defense, and the Kaiser also made a demonstration in his favor."
The Pope's Jubilee.
American Catholics united with those of all the rest of the Catholic world in the celebration of the opening of the twentyfifth year of Pope Leo's pontificate. On the actual date, March 3, there were celebrations of the Holy Communion in all churches early in the morning, and at eleven there were held, in all cathedrals solemn pontifical masses of thanksgiving, with the singing of the Te Deum. At seats of provinces the bishops making up those provinces were, for the most part, present at the Archdiocesan cathedrals. It goes without saying that there were great outpourings of Catholic laity, and sermons almost without number upon the remarkable pontificate of Pope Leo- remarkable not alone for its length, being one of the very longest since that of St. Peter, but also for its progressive tendencies and marked influence upon a large part of the world. Should Leo live to complete the year now just begun he will be unique in the history of the papacy, in that he will have seen twenty-five full years as pope, fifty full years as cardinal, and sixty full years as bishop.
Dominican House of Studies.
The Dominicans have purchased four acres of land near the Catholic University at Washington, and upon it will found an American house of studies. Ever since the Dominicans entered upon work in America they have had their cen
tral novitiates at
Somerset, Ohio. The change is said to be made because of the belief that Washington is to become the
center of Catholic education in America. The new novitiate will not be affiliated with the university because rules of the Order of St. Dominic do not permit it. The American province contains some brilliant scholars and they will teach in the new house of studies. The reason for locating beside the university is to enable students. to take special courses not provided by the Dominicans. Organizations already represented around the Washington University include the Paulists, the Marists, the Franciscans, the Society of the Holy Cross, in charge of the great institution at Notre Dame, Indiana, and the Trinity College for women.
POPE LEO XIII.
American Church at Berlin.
The building for the American church at Berlin will soon be completed and the congregation which has grown about the work will have a suitable place of worship. It is a matter of comment that in Berlin there is no other English Protestant church, and the American church, although started some forty years ago, never before had a church building; it has been obliged to have services in halls. The new church is on Nottendorf Platz where property was purchased for forty thousand dollars. The cornerstone of the building was laid last fall, officers of the American embassy taking part in the exercises and a representative of the German
emperor being present. The pastor of the church, the Rev. Dr. J. F, Dickey, was in this country last year raising money for the church and it is believed that he secured enough to complete the building. It is to cost about fifty thousand dollars and will seat six hundred. There are about two thousand Americans resident in Berlin, most of them students.
Salina will also be chosen. This is the western half of Kansas, and is a new jurisdiction. A bishop of Honolulu will be elected, Bishop Willis having resigned and agreed to transfer all properties. Bishop Brent, soon to leave for the Philippines, will take with him, it is said, a comfortable sum of money with which to build a Cathedral and diocesan school, and leave behind him another comfortable sum as endowment of the jurisdiction. He sails from San Francisco early after the adjournment of the House of Bishops.
Protestant Conference in Cuba.
There has just been held in Cienfuegos the first Protestant conference ever held in Cuba. There were present fifty ordained men, representing Presbyterian, Congregational, Baptist, and Methodist bodies, and
2,223 communicants. The conference proved the close affiliation of all Protestant bodies represented; Roman Catholics have been telling islanders that Protestants warring sects. It showed widespread interest on the part of the people; reports of the conference were published by the newspapers of every part of Cuba. It brought out mayors, members of city councils, lawyers, doctors, leading business men, teachers, and intelligent women; enemies of Protestant effort have been saying that real leaders of thought and action on the island are wedded to the church long dominant there. Six of the addresses at the confer
ence were by native Cubans, and they are said to have been admirable addresses. Every part of Cuba was represented.
Episcopal House of Bishops.
The Episcopal House of Bishops is to meet in Cincinnati this April, the last general convention having authorized a special session. There will be elected a bishop of Porto Rico, the Rev. Dr. Brown of Brazil, who was chosen, having declined with the remark that he did not see the wisdom of leaving big Brazil for little Porto Rico. With the new district will be coupled the islands we are just purchasing from Denmark, upon which there are several flourishing parishes, under the jurisdiction of the English Bishop of Antigua. A bishop of
Cleveland's Group Plan.
assured in Cleveland not only sets an example The grouping of public buildings now to other municipalities, but it reflects a development of artistic sentiment which will be set down to the credit of the whole country. There could scarcely be a more welcome sign of the times to those who have been working and hoping for more beautiful civic expression in American cities.
Cleveland has taken advantage of an unusual opportunity afforded by the fact that its growth to the seventh place among the
cities of the United States demanded a num
ber of new public buildings; a federal building, a county court house, a public library, a city hall, and others. The increased needs were recognized at approximately the same time, but the established buildings occupied sites selected independently, as is usually the
case. The proportions of the task of securing united action in behalf of grouping the new edifices will be recognized by any community which considers what would be involved in such a problem if it were to be undertaken at home. In the case of the public library, for example, temporary quarters had to be built for a term of years pending the selection of a site for a group. Private real estate interests, too, were involved and the option men were enterprisingly alert. United States authorities, county authorities, city authorities, and institutional boards were concerned, and each had its own point of view. Here is a fine exhibition of what public spirit can accomplish; so
many diverse elements have been managed and alined for an ideal of public beauty. Locally, the group plan is said to have been first suggested four years ago in private conversation between three young men, one a newspaper man, and another a member of the municipal society. Thereafter, public sentiment was constantly cultivated through many channels. A Municipal Art Society was organized in 1899, the Chamber of Commerce, among other activities, held public meetings addressed by famous architects. A city hall commission conferred with the representatives of other boards, and the exploitation of plans by architects and individuals has been a stock feature of the local newspapers.
A fair idea of the general group plan is presented by the accompanying map. Lake View Park is a part of the present park sys
The Union Railroad station near it must soon be rebuilt and it is expected that a new station will be so located that it will directly connect with the Court of Honor.
This arrangement, together with projected steamer docks, will afford an unrivaled city gateway. The Chamber of Commerce is the only existing building utilized, but the new government building is in process of erection on the same site occupied by the old one. The site of the new court house at the other end of the Court of Honor has been practically decided upon. Besides the buildings to be grouped at public expense, a music hall, and one or more semi-public structures are in contemplation as a portion of the projected scheme. To make place for the Court of Honor-three hundred and sixty feet wide and twice as long and other proposed buildings, a section of the city popularly known as "the tenderloin" is to be acquired. This change of character in a crowded section of a city of four hundred thousand inhabitants is not the least of the civic advantages to be gained by Cleveland's group plan. The project involves an expenditure of about twelve million dollars.
THE JAPANESE UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN.*
BY ERNEST W. CLEMENT, A. M.
HE most remarkable occurrence in Japan in the opening year of the twentieth century was the establishment of a university for women. What does this mean? It means that the twentieth century is to be the century for women in Japan and perhaps in other parts of the Orient, just as the nineteenth century was the century for women in the Occident. This new university will be the center of women's activity, social, educational, economical (and perhaps political?), in the future. For this reason we desire to inform the reading public of the west concerning the past, the present, and the future of the institution: how it came into being, its present condition, and its outlook.
This university certainly grew out of the needs of the time, the sympathy of the nation at large, and especially the coöperation of the intelligent and thinking classes of the country. Its moving spirit has always been Mr. Jinzo Naruse. His character, his ideas, and his spirit have had a great deal to do in arousing the interest of the people in the higher education of women. It is, therefore, not out of place to relate the principal facts of his life.
Mr. Naruse is perhaps well known to American readers in Christian circles as the author of "The Modern Paul of Japan (Mr. Paul Sawayama). It was by Mr. Sawayama's guidance that Mr. Naruse be
*This article is compiled from notes kindly furnished the author by Prof. T. Murai, of the university.
came a Christian. And, as the former worked with a self-sacrificing spirit for religion, so has the latter worked for education and poured out his whole spirit into the work. From the time when Mr. Naruse became a Christian he realized the importance of female education, and he determined to devote his life to this cause. Not long after he wrote a small book entitled "Duties of Women," which was very popular and is still having a wide sale. Then in connection with Mr. Sawayama he established a girls' school in Osaka, called Baik
wa Jo Gakko, and taught there several years. Then, upon invitation of some friends in Echigo, he established in Niigata another girls' school (Niigata Jo Gakko), of which he was principal.
Some ten years ago he began to think about establishing a university for girls, and went to America to inspect female institutions of learning. There he spent three years, going from place to place, and thus made a thorough observation and study of colleges for women in the United States of America. Before taking this tour, however, he had spent a year in Andover Theological Seminary, and another year in Clark University. Both Professor Tucker of Andover (now president of Dartmouth College), and President G. Stanley Hall of Clark, took a great interest in him and his purposes, and assisted him in many ways. He has visited almost all the colleges for women in the north.
It was in 1894 that he came back to Japan
and, called to be principal of Baikwa Jo Gakko, Osaka, accepted the offer. While he was there he wrote a substantial work on the subject of the education of women. In this he gave expression to his ideas and ideals, and especially to his long-cherished plan of starting a university for women. This book attracted national attention and was unexpectedly accepted and approved by the public. Thus he was encouraged to start the enterprise, in which his special friends were such men as Marquis I., Marquis Saionji, Counts Okuma and Itugaki, and Mr. (now Baron) Utsumi, then mayor of Osaka, now minister of home affairs.
Among the first promoters of the enterprise were well-to-do persons of Osaka, such as Mr. Dogura and Mrs. Hirooka (of the Mitsui family). These two raised five thousand yen each and instructed him to use the money freely in promoting the enterprise. They even stated that if he failed and the money was spent in vain, they would not mind it. Thus the movement was started in Osaka; but it was not long before prominent men of Tokyo, among them Shibusawa, Mitsui, and Iwasaki, became interested and active supporters.
On April 24, 1896, the first meeting of the promoters was held in Tokyo. At this time an executive committee was chosen to carry out the plans. Count Okuma was made chairman, and Messrs. Shibusawa (Tokyo) and Sumitomo (Osaka), treasurers.
At first it was quite smooth sailing, but afterwards many difficulties arose which need only be mentioned. The first enthusi
asm cooled off; hard times came on; local feeling in both Osaka and Tokyo became strong; those interested included many kinds of people with diverse ideas which it was difficult to harmonize. But in all these difficulties Mr. Naruse was patient and persevering, the very incarnation of patience," and by his tact was able to prevent the utter failure that seemed imminent.
About two years ago the funds for the school began to be raised. The idea was, and still is, to secure three hundred thousand yen, of which half should be used for property (land and buildings) and half for endowment. It was also decided not to begin to build unless one hundred thousand
yen had been raised. The money was obtained quite rapidly; and in this Mr. Naruse's skill and tact were remarkable. Many not in sympathy with the idea of higher female education (Baron Kato, ex-president of the Imperial University, was one) were won over by Mr. Naruse's presentation of the cause. The problem of location was thoroughly discussed in Osaka, and at last it was unanimously agreed that Tokyo, being the capital of the empire, was the most convenient place, because the institution was not local for either Tokyo or Osaka alone, but was national-for all Japan. In this connection it is worthy of notice that Mr. Sumitomo of Osaka doubled his subscription. of five thousand yen, and other wealthy people of Osaka increased their contributions so that more than fifty thousand yen was raised there. By this the Tokyo men were greatly stimulated; the Mitsui family