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accident, the chance of arms, or Peo speak also as many dificukies. How is it possible in


power on any side-she can therefore easily In such a case, Tuscany, formerly the propoverawe, or corrupt the smaller and weaker erty of the house of Austria, might be given

states. There must be, and i here are, I know, to the king of Sardinia, as an indemnity for ON THE PROBABLE FUTURE STATE many individuals in Italy, and Holland, and the loss of Savoy and Piedmont.

Switzerland, who owe their fortunes and con- As to the Papal dominions, I see no reason OF EUROPE.

sequence to France. The richest and most | why they should not be restored in full sove. It is certainly desirable, for the repose of powerful man at Rome, who now enjoys a reignty to the see of Rome. the world, (which needs repose as much as it dukedon and an immense revenue, was a lac- All danger, arising from the temporal or has ever done), that some permanent balance quey, who is indebted to France and his spiritual power of the Sovereign Pontiff, has of power should be established in Europe. treachery to Italian interests for bis title and long since vanished ; and it is to be desired, Whether this balance shall be formed precise- estates.

that the seat of ancient and modern arts, once ly as it was before the French revolution, or These men (and they are numerous) will be the mistress of the world, respectable even in by making new parties to the compact, and ar- very dangerous, if the feeble and divided gov- her decline, should be enjoyed by a sovereign, ranging the materials in such a manner ernments of ancient times are restored.

who from his profession must be a favourer of will not easily be disturbed, is of very little They can only be repressed by a strong and letters, and who should possess sufficient inimportance. It is a subject, however, of curi. extensive government, over which they can come and territory to preserve the splendour ous speculation ; and although we can arrive hope to do little by their intrigues.

of Rome, and its valuable specimens of the , so depending on

There are fine arts from dilapidation and decay.

These are only a few of the ideas, which more correctly, the pleasure of the Almighty, to restore Spain and Portugal to their former have occurred to me, on the interesting subject yet it is a pleasant occupation to think upon condition ? Will the Spanish nation consent of the future division of power. subjects of so much interest, and to form an- to return to their degraded state ? Will they ticipations as to future events of such uncom- restore to the monarch all his powers, and sur

PAPER MONEY. mon importance.

render the sweets of self government ? Or To the restoration of the old balance of Eu. is it believed, that a compromise can be made, NOTHING but experience can teach the mass rope there seem to be some very serious ob- which shall leave Spain a limited monarchy, of the people the true nature of paper money. jections, and, in effecting it, some as-impor- with its King, Lords, and Commons ?

When a government or a body of individuals tant difficulties. The great number of small Can the Bourbon race, on the throne of issue pieces of paper, which command the states in Germany and Italy rendered the ma- Spain, defend that country against France ? necessaries of life, or other property, the mulchine not only complicated, and therefore lia. Will not the royal and republican parties in titude are ready, at first, to conclude there is ble to' derangement; but it opened an easy road that kingdom quarrel, and one of them again an intrinsick value in them, because they find to the intrigues of the more powerful nations. invite France to take part in the contests? they are received as gold and silver. As, in the science of intrigue, the Frenchman, I confess this is what I fear; and I cannot But ve have had some serious lessons, from causes which are of a permanent nature, look forward to the future state of the Penin- which now render a mistake from such vismust always have the advantage over the sula without great anxiety.

ionary associations impracticable. During the Englishman, Russian, or Austrian; any system, But the most serious difficulties will arise last war, it was in vain a slip of paper was which admits and invites much diplomatick in Italy. This country, the garden of Europe, stamped with tharacters of fair promise. It management, must be unfavourable to the per- once its mistress, with seventeen millions of was found that the government had nothing to manent quiet of Europe France, be her fu.

active, ingenious, and naturally brave inhabi- pay, but another flood of paper ; of course it ture monarch whom he may, will bear with a tants, has long been the object of French cu- sunk to nothing. Since the war, banks came very ill grace, and worse temper, the humilia- pidity, and has more than once enabled her to in fashion. Paper was issued, on the credit of tion to which she is now compelled to submit subdue Germany. It was to the power, which actual deposits of the precious metals. The Those who attribute all or even the greatest Charlemagne acquired from the conquest of intelligent knew their security, and did not part of her ambitious projects to the present Italy, that he was in a great measure indebted refuse it currency. The credulous multitude Emperour, know little of her character, and for the hard bought viciories he afterwards ob- followed, without any inquiry. But owing to still less of her history. Under weak and im- tained in Germany. It may be affirmed also, this credulity, banking principles were abused, becile monarchs, her Richelieus and her Maza. that the wealth and troops, which Bonaparte and we were again deluged with paper, which rins have shown as much ambition, as Bona- drew from Italy, enabled him to afford his pro- could not be redeemed by specie. The losses, in parte ; and if they did nol overthrow the bal. tection to the Rhenish confederacy, built on the which almost every individual has shared, arieance of power in Europe, as was their design, ruins of the ancient Germanick constitution. ing from this fraud, has now macle the theory it was only because they were not favoured How then is Italy to be secure ? Its fron- of paper money familiar. Is the bank good? by such a political convulsion, as was the

tier is, to be sure, protected by the Alps.; but that is, does it give gold or silver for this, onFrench revolution ; à convulsion, which made these have proved a feeble defence from the demand ? is a point to be ascertained, before a whole nation soldiers, and fit instruments days of Hannibal to those of Bonaparte. the most uninformed will take any bill. for foreign conquest, at the same time that it Piedmont is the most inviting, yet defence- How then, in the name of common sens shattered every monarchy in Europe, and pre- less country in Europe. It has some fortress can our Congress-men be so infatuated, as to pared them for subjection. It would ther- es ; but what are they, in the hands of a mon- ihink of circulating paper, to meet the expena fore be a serious calamity to have Germany arch of a country with a population of one ses of this war, when every citizen in the left in as subdivided, corruptible a state, as it million and an half ? against a nation, who can Union knows, if it is done, it will be because anciently was. The same remark is stil boast thirty millions of subjects !

their substantial means are wholly exhausted ? more applicable to Italy. The Emperour of It appears to me impossible to protect Italy, Instead of gold and silver at Washington, the Germany may overawe, and give something if the feeble government of Savoy is restored security will be the chance that our children. like an unity of will to the Germanick body; to its ancient rights.

will pay the taxes we entail upon them, the but there has not been, and there cannot b:, If Italy is to be protected, luscious and in- disposition of no one knows who, some twenty without founding a new monarchy, any powo viting as it is, it must have a guardian'at least or thirty years hence, to demand such taxes, so preeminent in Italy, as to keep that iurbi- as powerful as Austria.

and appropriate them for the payment of a lent, rebellious people in order.

If Piedmont, Genoa, the Milanese, Ferrara, dead horse. Another objection to the restoration of the Parma, Bologna, and the Venetian territories. The suggestion has struck a general alarm, old balance of Europe is, that France, who, f- should be given to Austria, it would be of little and justly. Every man, who is creditor, ter all her sufferings, will be the most dang- moment what should be done with the rest and hears of paper money, issued by a governrous power in Europe, is surrounded by thee of Italy, because you iculd completely shut ment without funds, but raising an army of fifsmall countries. She does not touch any grat | out French arms, and intrigue.

ty thousand men, te enfrco its measures

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thinks of such a prospect with horror. The that part of my family tear my soul! I call i particular in his attention. If we went to the *Frenchman's option, the worthless Assignat or Frenchmen to the succour of Frenchmen! I play, he would be there ; and either in the the Guillotine, we all remember-and France call the Frenchmen of Paris, of Britanny, of same box, or would certainly come into ours, has already been quoted as a precedent, on Normandy, Champaign, Burgundy and the oth- in the course of the evening. He was fond o the floor of Congress.

er departments to the assistance of their broth-musick, would join me in duets, and was fre.

ers! Shall we forsake them in their misfor-quently bringing me new pieces. I am toleLORD Bacon, in his “ Essay on the great-tune ? Peace and the deliverance of our coun- rably certain I was never in love with him ; ness of kingdoms," speaking of the justifiable try must be our rallying word. At the aspect yet as you are a depository of secrets, it may causes of war, observe. As for the wars of this whole nation in arms, the foreigner not be indecorous to confess, I have thought which were anciently made on the behalf of a will either fly or sign the peace upon the basis such thing might possibly be, if Mr. Vigil were kind or party, I do not see how they may be he himself has offered. It is no longer in con- really determined to accomplish it-but this, well justified. As when the Lacedemonians templation to recover the conquests we had upon my honour, is mere matter of conjecture. and Athenians made wars to set up or pull made."

A year or two passed off, in this kind of down democracies or oligarchies.; or when

Platonick sociability, when a young gentleman wars were made by foreigners, under pretence DOMESTICK. It is very well ascertain- of a neighbouring town, happening to meet of justice or oppression, to deliver the subjects ed that the state of Newhampshire has re- me in company, a few times, he began to shew of others from tyranny and oppression, and the elected Governour Gilman, and a federal Le. himself quite as assiduous to me as I wished. like." gislature.

Vigil evidently disliked him-so did I. He The, United States' frigate Constitution, was kept at a proper distance ; and my friend A GREAT man has compared the northern Capt. Stuart, was cruising off Surinam in continued his unchanging civilities. and southern states to man and wife. He February, and had taken some prizes. The

About six months afterwards I went to might have added then, that we are under pet- Queen of 80 guns has been sent from Barba- spend some time in the country. It was dur. ticoat government. The Buckskins certainly does, in quest of her.

ing the winter, and in a considerable village, wear the breeches.

A considerable British force has marched where balls and parties are decently supported from lake Ontario to the head of lake Erie. through the

A respectable young Reports are circulated of serious alarms at lawyer was always of our circle, and before I GENERAL REGISTER.

Malden. Our force there is but trifling. returned to Boston, his remarks had excited

A destructive fire was experienced at York- country curiosity, and on my joining my

town, Virginia, on the 3d instant. Thirty- friends, they already began to rally me on my BOSTON, SATURDAY, MARCH 19, 1814. eight buildings, including several valuable expected rustication for life. It was indeed publick edifices, have been destroyed.

not many wecks, before Mr. Norman was in EUROPEAN. The following decree, by at Philadelphia market at 824 per cent.

United States' six per cents have been sold town. On hearing this, my brother broke the the Nero of France, shews the deplorable state

subject, and represented a country life in of that nation. The imagination can readily

such dreary colours to me, and our residence in

Boston so pleasant, that, besides assuring him,

The Envelope, covering the communication in our conceive what cruelty and misery must attend

last page, headed “ Conyersion” was thus inscribed. tbe reports he had heard were idle, I promised, its operation.

“The enclosed is from the pen of a highly gifted fe. PARIS, DEC. 27, 1813. His majesty the

in no event, to go 10 ****** Mr.Norman waitmale, who has devoted the powers of her mind to tie

ed upon me, and has not visited Boston since. I Emperor yesterday passed a decree, directing cause of pure and undefiled religion'. that Commissaries Extraordinary, composed of at We thank our Algebraick Correspondent for his

afterwards ascertained that my brother's obser

vations were all suggested by his friend Vigil. answer to the mathematical question in No. X. It Senators or Counsellors, should be sent into all will be inserted in our next.

I now thought there must be some design parts of the Empire, to accelerate the equip.

in this, in which I was interested. Vigil ment and march of the Conscripts ; to order

brought more songs ; was never absent at the

LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS. levies en masse where danger was imminent ;

theatre ; but month after month elapsed, to appoint Courts Martial before which persons

and not a lisp of partiality, unless such conshall be tried, who are accused of favouring the

duct might be thought to speak.

THE CONFIDANT, NO.VII. enemy, giving them intelligence, or attempting

In the mean time I have been assailed in

To the Confidant. to disturb the publick tranquillity-They are armed with plenary powers : and all the au- Dear Sir,-When I was in my spelling good earnest, with a proposition from a gentle

to whom I know of no objection ;--thorities of the Empire are required to execute book, now some fifteen years ago, I read the

but Mr. Vigil has again been busy with my their proclamations and resolves. story of the “ Dog in the manger” with no lit

brother. He shows a new interest in his atten( Signed) NAPOLEON. tle indignation. Like most children, I set

tions to me; he looks melancholy at times; he Bernadotte, havirg driven the Danes from down the fable for matter of fact, and never

lately took my hand, and said, with an expression the whole of Holstein and a part of Sleswig, knew what the author meant, until I read the

of tender concern, “ Vibrante, don't be rash.” an armistice has been concluded between Den- moral, in a singular character ; with whom,

If he has really got the heart-ache, why mark and Sweden, at the solicitation of the bark and growl as he may, I am about to make

does he not make me his confidant ? If he Danes. you acquainted. You will please to give me

does not mean to claim me himself, does he It is officially stated by a French officer, your advice, if it be within the field of your

imagine I will post on to un certain age, as that not a gun was fired by the Swiss upon speculation, how I had best manage him, or

the French say, merely to be gazed on by whether he is worth the trouble of manage him? I want no body guard, to keep all the the allies, when they entered Switzerland on passing into the east of France. The Count de ment.

rest of the world at a distance; and if I dismiss Talleyrand, minister of France near the Swiss When at college, my brother became

iny present suitor, for the sake of Vigil's long confederacy, left Basle on the 30th of Decem- intimate with a Mr. Vigil; they were class

face, and doleful cautions, there is no knowing ber and has arrived at Paris.

mates, chums, and generally companions, whether ever I shall have such an offer again. The following reply of Bonaparte to the ad. whether at Cambridge or Boston. My brother

Now, Mr. Confidant, if you will inform me dress of the Conservative Senate, well merits took his degrees, went into business, and in a

what all this means ; whether it is insult or to be recorded, as a remarkable specimen of few years married. His friend pursued the same the language and tone of the great Emperour course, except in the last particular, and their afection, you will much oblige your's

VIBRANTE. Soon after this, I

acquaintance continued. Napoleon, at the close of the year 1813. had the misfortune to lose my father ; and as

There sometimes exists an habitual attach« SENATORS, there were others of the family, to keep my

ment between the sexes, totally distinct from “ I am grateful for the sentiments you ex

mother company, at the solicitation of my that affection, which leads to matrimonial conpress towards me. “ You have seen, by the documents which I ed, I took up my residence with him. brother, to whom I was ever tenderly attach- nsions. There are probably few young men,

who have not experienced great satisfaction in have caused to be laid before you, what I have

tle society of ladies, with whom they never

The intercourse between the two friends had done for peace.

The sacrifices required by been of so long standing, I seemed to consider tlink of uniting their fortunes : yet accustomthe preliminary basis proposed to me by the Mr. Vigil another brother; and should per- el to depend on them for much of their pas. enemy, and which I have accepted, I shall haps never thought of him in any other ca

time and social happiness, their feelings revolt make without regret; my life has but one ob- pacity, if officious schemers had not begun to

atthe idea of losing their enjoyment forever. ject, the happiness of France.

Sich a man will feel a degree of jealousy, " However, Bearn, Alsace, Franche Com- It is true, he was always very obliging ; and I tie prospect of any interference-probably a te, Brabant, are entered upon. The cries of thought sometimes inclinca to shew himself very unconfortable sensation, in contemplating




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the sacrifice he is about to make. If he is ofcunning in trade, he does not always conduct brought up, and upon my own views in life. a fair and honourable mind, he will suppress himself in it with that frankness which consti- After having answered these questions, and his emotion—if he is merely selfish, he will tutes its principal basis ; and if we still find in taken part of a dozen cups of chocolate mixed spare no pains to protract his own gratifica modern Greece many of the fine qualities with coffee, I replied with intrepid firmnesss tion ; and perhaps even impose on himseif which do honour to the history of ancient that I could find no other happiness upon specious reasons for his conduct. Such may Greece, it cannot be denied, that superstition,

Greece, it cannot be denied, that superstition, earth, than that of acting ; that an unfortunate be Mr. Vigil. The true nature of his attach- the child of ignorance and slavery, greatly tar- circumstance had made me my own master ; ment, however, may be easily ascertained. nishes their lustre ; and we also discover in and that having a small patrimony of 750 livres Let Vibrante, through her brother, make Vigil their disposition that fickleness, that pliability, a year, I had reason to hope, that in abandonbelieve she is positively engaged. He will of that want of sincerity, in short, that artful turn ing my father's trade, I should lose nothing fer himself, and endeavour to break off the en- of mind which borders on treachery, and of by the change, if I could one day be admitted gagement ; or he is playing the fool, and de- which the Greeks of antiquity have been ac- into the troop of the king's comedians. serves her scorn. cused.

“ Ah, my friend !" cried M. de Voltaire, But this obliquity of character fortunately“ never take that step ! take my advice, act SENSIBILITY.

does not extend, or at least is very much for your amusement, but never make it your THERE is no word so ill understood, and so weakened, among the women of the same business. It is the finest, the rarest, the most often perverted, as Sensibility. The fretful, countries. The Greek females are, in gene- difficult of all talents ; but it is degraded by the violent, nay even the revengeful, will tell ral, distinguished by a noble and casy shape, barbarians, and proscribed by hypocrites. you, that their impatience, anger or resent- and a majestick carriage. Their features, tra

Their features, tra- France will one day esteem your art ; but ment, are merely owing to finer feelings than ced by the hand of beauty, reflect the warm then she will have no longer a Baron, no long. others possess ; and they will brand the silent and profound affections of sensibility ; the se- er a Lecouvreur, no longer a Dangeville. If sufferer with the reproach of obduracy, be- renity of their countenance is that of dignity, you will give up this intention, I will lend you cause the fear of giving pain to his neighbour without having its coldness or gravity ; they | 10,000 francs, to begin your establishment, and prevents the utterance of grief, and the com

are amiable without pretension, decent with you shall pay me when you can. Go, my plaint of injury.

out sourness, charming without affectation. friend, come to me again at the end of the If on such occasions, a faithful friend should If

, to such brilliant qualities, we add, elevation week, think well upon the matter, and give venture to remonstrate, and having conquered of ideas, warmth of expression, those flights me a positive answer. these evil passions in himself, contend that they of simple and ingenuous eloquence wbich at- Astonished, confused, and affected even are conquerable, the clamour against him is uni. tract and fascinate, a truly devoted attachment to tears, by the goodness and generous offer of versal. He is not only pronounced to be obtuse, to persons beloved, exactness and fidelity in this great man, who was said to be avaricious, but cruel-incapable of sympathising, because their duties, we shall have some notion of hard-hearted, and unfeeling, I would have disdaining to flatter, and adding to distress, be- these privileged beings, with whom nature, in poured out my thanks. I began four sentences cause he points out errour. So far from esti- | her munificence, has embellished the earth, without having power to finish one ; at length mating the character which prefers the welfare and who are not rare in Greece. There it is I took leave, stammering, and was about to to the favour of a fellow creature, these peo

that the genius of the artists of antiquity would withdraw, when he called me back, and begged ple of sensibility discard him from their society still have the choice of more than one model.” me to repeat some passages from the parts with calumny, reproach and scorn.

[Sonnini.] which I had already performed. Without conBut what is sensibility? Is it merely a

sideration, I aukwardly enough began to deperception of evil ? of LE KAIN-the Garrick of France. claim the famous couplet of Gustavus, in the

second act. · Nothing from Piron !' he cried not the kind affections, love, joy, piely, as excelled as a maker of surgical instruments. properly feelings of the mind, as pride, envy, After the peace of 1748, a number of young from Racine. Luckily I recollected that be

do not like bad verses. Repeat all you know and hatred ? and which best deserve the name of fine feelings?

societies, and established three theatres, of ing at Mazarin college, I had learnt all the Never was a mind possessed of them, and which that at the hotel de Jabac was founded tragedy of Athalie, having heard it frequently thus boasted of the possession No; they by Le Kain. The regular actors had indu- rehearsed by the scholars who were to repreare evinced in words and actions of benevo

ence enough to prevent those performances. sent it. I began the first scene, playing alterlence, not in empty declamation, and self ap. The Abbé Chauvelin, a Jansenist, interested nately the part of Abner and of Soub. But I plauding vanity. himself in behalf of the aspirants, and made de Voltaire cried, with divine enthusiasm,

had not half gone through my task, when M. Fiends may as justly arrogate to themselves them play Le Mauvais Riche, a comedy by the praises of sensibility, as these tormentors M. D'Arnaud : this was in 1750. The piece truly astonishing, the whole piece is written

" Ah, my God! what fine verses! and, what is of mankind, who, being always discontented did not succeed. Voltaire had been invited to truly astonishing, the whole piece is written and unhappy, sagaciously discover the fault to

the representation by the author : and, either with the same warmth, the same purity, from be in their neighbours : and having quarrelled from tenderness towards M. D'Arnaud, or

the first scene to the last. The poetry is inwith the arrangement of things in this world, from pure good humour towards the actors,

imitable. Adieu, my chi:d !' said he, emmodestly arraign the wisdom of another-but it who took all imaginable pains to support a fee

bracing me. It is I who prophecy that you is owing to their sensibilities. ble and uninteresting work, this great man

will have a heart-lending voice, and that you Talk not of sensibility distinct from virtue, appeared sufficiently pleased, and inquired ear

will one day be the delight of Paris ; but, for reason and benevolence ; it is the selfishness nestly who it was that had played the part of God's sake ! never go upon a publick stage.'' of a feeble mind ; it is the tenderness of an unsound heart.

[Anonymous.] son of a goldsmith, who acted for his amuse. MUTILATION OF THE SCRIPTURES.

ment, but wished to make it his profession. 66 The sacred books, whether Hebrew or MODERN GRECIANS.

He then expressed to M.D'Arnaud a desire to Greek, came from the pen of their writors, 6 The man of these charming parts of become acquainted with me, and begged him and were, in the hands of those for whom they Greece is of a handsome stature ; he carries to engage mę to visit him the next morning. were originally composed, without any division his head high, his body erect, or rather inclin- “ The pleasure,” says Le Kain, “ which of this sort. The first need of any thing like ed backward than forward : he is dignified in this invitation gave me, was even greater than such a division, was after the Babylonish caphis carriage, easy in his manners, and nimble my surprise : but what I can never paint, is tivity ; the Jews had then mostly forgotten the in his gait ; his eyes are full of vivacity ; his that which passeu in my soul at the sight of original Hebrew; and when it was read in the countenance is open, and his address agreea- this man, whose eyes sparkled with fire, and synagogue, it was found necessary to have an ble and prepossessing ; he is neat and elegant wit, and imagination. In addressing myself interpretation into Chaldee, for the use of the in his cloathing ; he has a taste for dress, as to him, I felt myself penetrated with respect, common people. To make this interpretation for every thing that is beautiful ; active, in- enthusiasm, admiration, and fear. I experien- intelligible and useful, the reader of the Hedustrious, and even enterprising, he is capable ced all these feelings at once, when M. Vol. brew used to pause at short distances, while of executing great things; he speaks with taire had the goodness to put an end to my the interpreter pronounced the same passage ease, he expresses bimself with warmth ; he embarrassment, by opening his paternal arms in Chaldee ; such pauses became established, is acquainted with the language of the pas- to me, and biessing God for having created a and were marked in the manuscripts, forming sions, and he likewise astonishes by his natur- being who had moved and affected him by re- a sort of verses like those in our present bi. al eloquence ; he loves the arts, without dar- citing bad verses ! He afterwards asked me bles. This division into verses was confined ing to cultivate them, under the brazen yeke many questions concerning my situation, that 10 the Hebrew scriptures, and to the people which hangs heavy on his neck ; skilful aud of my father, the way in which I had been for whose use it was contrived; no such divis

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ion was made in the translation of the seven time. A singular destiny, to which no other Reformation, a term against which no objecTy, nor in the Latin version ; so that the bible, book has been subjected! For in all other tion is ever made, would, if words continued to used in the Greek and the western churches, works, the index or concordance, or whatever retain their primitive signification, convey the was without any such division, either in the may be the subsidiary matter, is fashioned so, same idea. For it is plain that to re-form old or new testament.

as io be subordinate to the original work; but means to make anew. In the present use, It was, however, found necessary, in after in the bible alone, the text and substance of however, it does not convey the saine meaning times, to make a division and subdivision of the work is disfigured in order to be adapted in the same extent, nor indeed does it imply the sacred books ; but it was for a very differ- to the concordance that belongs to it ; and the the operation of the same principle. Many ent purpose ; it was for the sake of referring to notion of its being perused, is sacrificed to are reformed on humun motives, many are them with niore ease and certainty. We are that of its being referred to. In consequence partially reformed ; but only those who, as told that Cardinal Hugo, in the 13th century, of this, the bible is, to the eye, upon the open- our great poet says, are “reformed altogethmade a concordance to the whole of the Latin ing of it, rather a book of reference, than a er,” are converted. There is no complete bible, and that for this purpose of reference, book for ptrusal and study ; and it is much to reformation in the conduct effected without a he divided bath the old and new testament into be feared, that this circumstance makes it revolution in the heart. Ceasing from some chapters, being the same that we now have. more frequently used as such ; it is referred sins ; retaining others in a less degree ; or 'These chapters he subdivided into smaller to for verifying a quotation, and then returned adopting such as are merely creditable ; or portions, distinguishing them by the letters of to the shelf. What book can be fundamentals Aying from one sin to another ; or ceasing the alphabet ; and, by those means, he was ly understood, if consulted only in such a de- from the external act without any internal enabled to make references from his concord- sultory way! Those who extend their read change of disposition, is not christian reformaance to the text of the bible. The utility of ing, but still regulate thcir efforts by the chap- tion. The new principle must abolish the old such a concordance brought it into high re- ters, are not more likely to see the scriptural habit, the rooted inclination must be subdued pute ; and the division into chapters, upon writings in the true view.”

by the substitution of an opposite one. The which it depended, was adopted along with

natural bias must be changed. The actual it, by the divines of Europe.

offence will no more be pardoned, than cured,

FOR THE BOSTON SPECTATOR. This division into chapters was afterwards

if the inward corruption be not eradicated. in the fiftcenth century, adopted by a learned


To be “ alive unto God through Jesus Chrisı” Jew, for the same purpose of reference, in Among the many mistakes in religion, it is

must follow the “ death unto sin." There making a concordance to the Hebrew bible. commonly thought that there is something so

cannot be new aims and ends where there is This was Rabbi Mordecai Nathan, who carried unintelligible, absurd, and fanatical in the not a new principle to produce them. We shall the contrivance a step further ; for instead of term conversion, that those who employ it run not choose a new path until a light from Heaven adhering to the subdivisions of Cardinal Hu- no small hazard of being involved in the ridic direct our choice and “guide our feet.” We go, he made others, much smaller, and distin- cule it excites. It is seldom used but ludi. shall not “run the way of God's command. guished them, not by letters, but by numbers. crously, or in contempt. This arises partly

crously, or in contempt. This arises partly ments,” till God himself enlarge our heart. This invention was received into the Latin bi. from the levity and ignorance of the censure,

We do not, however, insist that the change bles, and they make the present verses of the but perhaps as much from the imprudence and required is such as precludes the possibility old testament. In doing this, he might possi- enthusiasm of those who have absurdly confin- of falling into sin ; but it is a change which bly have proceeded upon the old subdivisions ed it to real or supposed instances of sudden

fixes in the soul such a disposition as shall long before used for the interpretation into or miraculous changes from profligacy to pie- make sin a burden, as shall make the deChaldee. We see, therefore, that the present ty. But surely, with reasonable people, we

sire of pleasing God the governing desire division of the old testanient into chapter and run no risk in asserting that he, who beirig of a man's heart ; as shall make him bate verse, is an invention partly Christian and awakened by any of those various methods

the evil which he does, as shall make the partly Jewish, and that it was for the sole pur- which the Almighty uses to bring his crea

lowness of his attainments the subject of his pose of reference, and not primarily with a tures to the knowledge of himself, who seeing deepest sorrow. A christian bas hopes and view to any natural division of the several sub- the corruptions that are in the world, and feel | fears, cares and temptations, inclinations and jects contained in it.

God in ing those with which his own heart abounds, desires, as well as other men. The new testament still remained without is brought, whether gradually or more rapidly, changing the heart does not extinguish the any subdivision into verses, till one was at from an evil heart of unbelief to a lively faith passions, Were that the case, the christian length made, for the very same purpose of a in the Redeemer ; from a life, not only of life would cease to be a warfare. cor.cordance, about the middle of the sixteenth gross vice, but of worldliness and vanily, to a century. The author of this was Robert Ste

life of progressive piety ; whose humility phens, the celebrated printer at Paris. He fol keeps pace with his progress ; who, though

POETRY lowed the example of Rabbi Nathan, in subdi- his attainments are advancing, is so far from viding the chapters into small verses, and counting himself to have attained, that he numbering them ; and he printed an edition presses onward with unabated zeal, and eviden

SCULPTURE. By Dodsley. of the Greck testament so marked. This di- ces, by the change in his conduct, the change Lep by the Muse, my steps pervade vision soon came into general use, like the that has taken place in his heart-such a one former one of the old testament, from the same is as sincerely converted, and the effect is as

The sacred haunts, the peaceful shade recommendation of the coincidence that de. much produced by the same divine energy, as

Where Art and SCULPTURE reign. pended upon it ; and Latin testaments, as well if some instantaneous revolution in his charac-i see, I see, at their command, as bibles, were ever after distinguished into ter bad given it a miraculous appearance. The The living stones in order stand, chapters and verses.

doctrines of scripture are the same now as And breathe through every vein. It remained for the translators of the when David called them “ a law converting English bible to push this invention to an ex- the soul, and giving light to the eyes.” This

the soul, and giving light to the eyes.” This Time breaks his hostile scythe ; he siglıs tremity. The beginning of every chapter had is perhaps the most accurate and comprehen- To find his pow'r malignant fed ; been made a fresh paragraph in all the printed sive definition of the change for which we are Ah! what avails my dart, he cries, bibles ; but the verses were only marked by contending, for it includes both the illumina- Since these can animate the dead ? : the number, either in the margin or in the tion of the understanding, and the alteration body of the matter ; such minute subdivisions in the disposition.

Since waked to mimick life again in stone, did not then seem fit to be made into distinct If then this obnoxious expression signify

The patriot seems to speak, the hero frown paragraphs. But the English translators, who nothing more nor les than hat change of such are thy works, 0 SculprURE ! thine to show, bad fled to Geneva, during the persecution of character which consists in turning from the Queen Mary, and who published there a new

In hardest rock, a feeling sense of wo! world to God, however the term may offend, translation, famous afterwards under the name there is nothing ridiculous in the thing. Now, of the Geneva bible, separated every one of as it is not for the term we contend, but for

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR the verses, making each into a distinct para- the principle conveyed by it ; so it is the prin

JOHN PARK, graph. This new contrivance was soon re- ciple and not the term, which is the real ceived with as much approbation as the pre-ground of objection ; though it is a little in

BY MUNROE & FRANCIS, ceding ; and all bibles, in all languages, began consistent that many who would sneer at the

NO. 4 CORNHILL. to be printed in the same manner with the idea of conversion, would yet take it extremeverses distinguished into paragraphs ; and so ly ill if it were suspected that their hearts

Price three dollars per annum, half in advance. de practice has continued to the present were not twned to Gąde

Subscribers may be supplied with the preceding










opinion and a concert of measures for the this state are cither natives, or immediately protection of that interest,

descended from New England. The city of The following particulars, at the present New York is necessarily the market town for NO. V.

moment, distinguish the northern division. a considerable part of Vermont, Massachu

Three fourths of all the native seamen of the setts, and Connecticut. Powerful causes, of a THE INTEGRITY OF THE UNITED STATES United States belong to this quarter ; they are permanent nature, must therefore unite and MUST BE PRESERVED

drawn from every part of the country ;-they | identify the policy of New York with that of I have said that the jcalousies of the south- prosecute commerce from will. Connected their eastern neighbours. ern states, in which originated in a great iowns extend from Passamaquaddy to Troy, The second Division, comprising the westmeasure the policy pursued by Mr. Jefferson and to Hartford upon the Connecticut riva crn country, is at present, and must remain in and Mr. Madison, “ cannot be expected to sub.

er. The merchants in these towns own six a situation almost entirely dissimilar to the side ;" and proposed to inquire the causes of tenths of the tonnage of all vessels belonging first. It embraces a great extent of country in those jealousies.

to the United States : and this proportion is in various climates. A comparatively small part In pursuing this interesting subject, I shall creasing by the settlement of the District of only is accessible by vessels from the sea. The avail myself of extracts from a manuscript es

Naine, which must, in some future time, be vast regions, which depend on the lower ports say, by a very distinguished character. It has

come the seat of maritime power in America. of the Mississippi for foreign commerce, are been in my possession several years, and, from Thc fishery, a business which supports a great intersected, in different directions, by mounthe moment I read it, the whole system of number of seamen in time of peace, and which tains which are inaccessible, except in particu. Jeffersonian policy, appeared perfectly obvi- furnishes a resource for manning a navy, in lar places :others are separated by extensive ous ;-and to this day, I have found it a satis time of war, without an inconvenient interrup- and barren deserts. Even the rivers, which fafactory key to all the grand measures the ad; tion of commerce, is here exclusively prosecu-cilitate commerce by their elevated and per. ministration have adopted. It is full of useful ted. A greater proportion of the productions pendicular banks, not unfrequently disunite information, and, though written eleven years of agricultural labour are consumed at home the inhabitants of neighbouring districts. One ago, the state of the Union, at this day, will be in the northern, than in the middle and south- third of the western country, south of the found, in the anticipations of the writer, so

ern states ;~-commerce is more various, and Ohio, will probably remain, for ages, uninhabcorrect, that his remarks apply even inore for. embraces more extensive

and complex combi- ited-a considerable proportion of the remaincibly, than when they were penned.

nations ; of course, the relations and dependen- | der is, at present, insalubrious ; in all this re" What is the nature of the revolution, by cies of the different classes of people upon gion, slavery is established:

In that part which the democratick party succeeded the

each other are less disturbed by wars and the which is accessible from the sea, labour will be federalists, in the administration of the federal | vibrations of foreign markets.

performed only by slaves. Of the population government ? By what influence was it ef

The consequences of compact population, of Kentucky, consisting at present of 220,000 fected ? Are there different local interests in diversificd industry, commercial enterprise, and persons, 10,000 are slaves. At least one third the United States ? If such interests exist, laws wisely adapted, in general, for the pro- of the white families own no real property— what are their different powers and the means tection of property, have produced a compara- these consist of persons, who have been reduby which they must be supporied ?

tively great accumulation of money and other ced by improvidence, or by deceptions in reI will briefly state my sentiments, respecting personal effects in this quarter. The people spect to titles; or foreigners, who have been althese questions, with reference to four great of the northern states can alune afford io hold lured thither by a spirit of adventure, without divisions of our country ;-the first compre- annuities, or to lend money at a moderate a definite object. Contrary to what has been hending New England and New York--the rate of interest.

rate of interest. Besides the capitals employ the usual progress of population in new counsecond, the country connected with the waters ed in cominerce and manufactures, they have tries, the settlements have commenced near of the Mississippi -the third, the states south of invested great sums in bank stock, bridges, the heads of rivers'; the streams have been the Potowmack-and fourth, the residue of the turnpike roads, canals, and other publick estab- loaded with adventurers, to whom a descent Union. It is, I trust, easy to shew, that great lishments--they are the principal proprietors was easy and a return difficult, if not impractidistinctions, founded in physical and moral of that part of the funded debt of the United cable, in consequence of their poverty. The causes which are immutable, discriminate the States, which has not been transferred to for- consequences have been, that the tendency to three first divisions; and that peculiar circum- eigners. Exclusive of the sums owned by a commercial stagnation, and the dependence stances attend the fourth, which will, probably, states and publick corporations, the credits to of the upper upon the lower country, bave for some time infinence their policy.

individuals, south and west of New York, to continually increased; while, unfortunately, the The first division comprises a country, the United States, cannot be estimated higher state of society has been most immature in which, if not the most sertile by nature, is most than five millions of dollars. In the northern those districts, where the greatest political uniform in quality of any contiguous tract of states, the number of creditors, in proportion to influence could be exerted, and where, for the equal extent in the United States ;-having the amount of their credits, is much greater general good, law and order ought to be most the least barren or inaccessible ground ;-be- than in the middle and southern states. firmly established. ing the best supplied in every part with the

With the exception of New York, the habits The western rivers can at p:esent be only means of water transportation ;-and posses, and institutions of the northern states are in considered as affording the means of exportasing, in the number and relative situation of comparably more democratick than elsewhere. tion ; for, without pronouncing what improve excellent harbours, advantages for acquiring We are accustomed to transact important af- ments the ingenuity of man is capable of deand maintaining maritime power, exceeding fairs in town meetings and other popular as- vising, it may be asserted that the productions every other, and all other parts of the Ameri- semblies, which, if attempted in the other of the western comtry will for a long time, can continent, however united or combined.

states, would either be found utterly impracti- not always, be exported in river boats, apie: This country is the most populous ; its insti- cable, or would be so ill conducted, as soon posited or sold at some port in the Mjoussippi tutions are calculated to preserve a numerous

to produce great anarchy and confusion. As accessibit by vessels from the sea. population. Property here is most equally di- democracy is now the order of the day, we said, that the Western people wy build sea vided ; the influence of slavery is too slight experience a present advantage, from being vessels, and export their own roduce to for; to be estimated ; the publick industry is able to endure more of what is required by the eign countries;-as such vesols cannot ascend greatly diversified ; all or most of the varie- temper of the times, and to suffer less than the river to any consig-rable distance, this ties of this industry exist in every part of the

our neighbours. Of the remote consequences project does not provid for the means of imcountry: the manners, habits, and principles connected with our present habits, I forbear to portation, the great stsideratum of the western of the people are not essentially dissimilar :

express an opinion.

country. The pwject, however, is impractithere exists, therefore, in this district, a Com

New York has generally been considered cable; as it presupposes what is improbable, a mon Interest ; and the circumstances, which distinctly from New England ; it is however regular market, at all times, for a great num have been stated, facilitate a communication of certain, that a great majority of the people of ber of posseis; and a constant drain of muri-

as been

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