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The University of California (founded in 1860) is by the terms of its charter an integral part of the educational system of the State. At Berkeley are its Colleges of Letters, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Commerce, Agriculture, Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, and Chemistry; at Mount Hamilton is its graduate Astronomical department, founded by James Lick; in San Francisco are its Colleges of Art, Law, Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy. The University's endowment is capitalized at about eleven million dollars; its yearly income is about seven hundred thousand dollars; it has received private benefactions to the amount of nearly five million dollars. The University is indebted to Mrs. Phæbe A. Hearst for permanent building plans, upon a scale appropriate and comprehensive. At Berkeley there are one hundred and seventy-five officers of instruction distributed among thirty-six departments; twenty-seven hundred students; a library of over one hundred thousand volumes; an art gallery; museums and laboratories; also the agricultural experiment grounds and station, which are invaluable adjuncts of the farming, orchard, and vineyard interests of the State. In San Francisco there are one hundred and fifty officers of instruction, besides demonstrators and other assistants, and five hundred and seventy-five students. Tuition in the academic departments of the University, during regular sessions, is free to residents of California; non-residents pay a fee of $10 each half-year. Instruction in all of the colleges is open to all qualified persons, without distinction of sex.
The General Library, kept in the Bacon Art and Library Building, now contains over one hundred and fifteen thousand volumes, and has been arranged with a view to making it especially valuable as a reference library. It receives currently a very large number of periodical publications. By a recently constructed addition to the building, six seminary rooms have been provided.
The various departments of instruction have separately kept collections of books, useful for ready reference and class-room work.
The Library and Reading-Room of the Department of Agriculture, situated in Agricultural Hall, receives the publications of the Experiment Stations of the United States and other countries, as well as pamphlets on agricultural subjects published by various Governments and Commissions. About one hundred and forty dailies, weeklies, and monthlies are regularly received.
MUSEUMS AND LABORATORIES.
The Psychological Laboratory is well equipped for instruction and for original research. Eleven specially designed rooms on the second and third floors of the Philosophy Building, are set aside for this use.
The laboratory includes a demonstration room, well lighted and furnished for class instruction, and thoroughly wired for the electric control of apparatus, as well as for lighting and lanternprojection; this and other rooms may be darkened when necessary. A special experimental dark-room may also be used as a silent room, being protected by double walls, floors and doors. Besides a photographic dark-room and an apparatus room for storing instruments and materials, there are five rooms for special experimentation.
The laboratory has its own electric station, with a switch-board provided with terminals of from four to eight wires from each room in the laboratory, and also connected with the dynamos of the electrical building of the University. A circuit independent of the switch-board provides light throughout the laboratory.
The equipment includes the more important psychological instruments of late pattern from the best makers. There is a good collection of models and casts of the brain and sense-organs, and an assortment of materials for demonstration and experiment, together with a shop for the construction, by those working in the laboratory, of the simpler contrivances for special problems.
The Physical Laboratory occupies the entire basement floor of South Hall, and of East Hall, and thus secures favorable conditions as regards stability and evenness of temperature. There are set apart rooms for elementary and for advanced work, for photometry, for spectroscopic research with a Rowland grating, for dynamos, and for a workshop. The apparatus includes many instruments and standards for fundamental measurements from makers of the best reputation, and the laboratory employs a competent mechanician in order to increase the equipment from original designs. It offers good facilities to students who wish to pursue the study of physics beyond the limits of the prescribed course, whether for the sake of physics itself, or in connection with other subjects, like electrical engineering, astrophysics, the practical uses of polarized light, and physical chemistry. Such students may make special arrangements for using the laboratory.
The Students' Observatory (Berkeley Astronomical Department). The equipment of the observatory consists of the following instruments: An eight-inch reflector, gift of the Hon. Wm. M. Pierson; a sixinch refractor; a five-inch refractor, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Herman Oelrichs; a six-inch photographic telescope with a three-inch guiding telescope, all equatorially mounted with driving clocks; a three-inch Davidson combination transit-and-zenith telescope; a spectroscope; a Repsold measuring engine for measuring astronomical photographs; a Gærtner microscope for measuring spectrograms; an electro-chronograph; a Harkness spherometer; a level-trier; sextants; chronometers; a Howard clock; all the necessary electric connections for recording time and determining longitude by the telegraphic method; a set of meteorological instruments with which observations are regularly recorded and forwarded to the United States Weather Bureau in Washington, D.C.; two seismographs, having both time and electric connections, one of the Ewing and one of the Gray type, and two duplex seismographs.
For particulars concerning the organization and aims of the undergraduate and graduate instruction in the various branches of astronomy in the Berkeley Astronomical Department, consult the "Special Announcement to Students,” issued in 1901 by the Lick and Berkeley Astronomical Departments.
Visitors are received at the Students' Observatory on the first Friday of each month, in the evening from eight to ten o'clock. Tickets of admission should be procured in advance at the observatory.
The Chemical Laboratories are large and commodious, well lighted and well ventilated, and offer excellent facilities for the study of chemistry. They comprise the following: An Elementary Laboratory for beginners; a Qualitative and a Quantitative Laboratory, each containing all the usual appliances; an Organic Laboratory for special and advanced studies in organic chemistry; a well-equipped laboratory for Physical Chemistry; a laboratory for Physiological Chemistry; and two large Research Laboratories. Special rooms are devoted to volumetric analysis, gas analysis, spectrum analysis, and electrolysis. Ample facilities are provided for chemical analysis and for investigations in foods, drinking waters, mineral waters, poisons, etc. A chemical museum, with a large collection of chemical products and apparatus, is open daily for inspection and study.
A Botanical Garden furnishes abundant material for the classes in botany, and affords favorable opportunities for original studies and experimentation. About three and one-half acres are under cultivation. Over 2,000 species of plants, one-half of these California species, are being grown, and this number is being constantly increased through the donations of friends and the efforts of the various members of the Botanical Department.
The Botanical Laboratories are well lighted and equipped with the necessary instruments and reagents for work in morphology, histology, and physiology both of flowering and flowerless plants. Special facilities are provided for students desiring to pursue research work.
The Conservatory is situated on the slope between the Botanical Garden and the Students' Observatory. The structure has five subdivisions, arranged for different temperatures, according to the needs of different classes of exotics. The Conservatory, in connection with the old plant houses (which are now used as propagating houses) is used for the important work of plant introduction which has been carried on by the Department of Agriculture for a number of years. In the Conservatory a large collection of exotic plants is kept for illustration in horticultural and botanical introduction. All of the decorative plants used at the University functions are supplied from the Conservatory collection.
The old propagating houses, lately improved by the building of an addition to the potting rooms, now serve as a horticultural laboratory.
The Botanical Collection of the niversity contains the following:
I. A Phænogamic Herbarium of about fifty thousand sheets of mounted specimens and nearly as much unmounted material which is gradually being incorporated.
The plant collection of the State Geological Survey, made by W. H. Brewer and H. N. Bolander from 1860 to 1867, was divided into five nearly equal sets, one of which was retained as the property of the State of California and passed into the care of the University, forming the nucleus of this Herbarium. This set has been recently enriched by seventeen hundred specimens from the Brewer set, donated by Prof. W. H. Brewer of Yale University. To this nucleus have been added the large and valuable collections which have been made in various portions of the State by instructors and advanced and graduate students, and donated to the department.
Furthermore, there has been acquired by gift during the last twenty years a large number of important collections, the more recent of these being the following: The herbarium of Rev. R. W. Summers, presented by Regent Phoebe A. Hearst; the herbaria of Dr. W. C. Blasdale, of Dr. E. R. Drew, and Mr. T. H. Barber; the San José State Normal School Herbarium; and many thousands of specimens from the resident collectors of California, Oregon, and Washington.
II. A Cryptogamic Herbarium, containing over eight thousand sheets, particularly illustrating the California species. The large collections of the lower cryptogams, belonging to Professor Setchell, are deposited with the Botanical Department and are accessible to advanced students.
III. A Botanical Museum is being gradually formed. It contains, at present, a valuable collection of native woods, fibers, barks, cones, acorns, and fruits, besides a large number of drugs and an economic collection. This material is available for class and research work, and is constantly being added to by donations from all parts of the world.
The Mineralogical Laboratory is provided with a large collection of minerals, and is well equipped with the necessary apparatus for research work in crystallography both as regards goniometric work and the determination of physical constants.
The Petrographical Laboratory contains a large collection of rocks, and several thousand thin sections. It is supplied with all necessary apparatus for instruction in petrography and for detailed research.
The Rudolph Spreckels Physiological Laboratory. Undergraduate instruction is given in the east wing of the building erected for the University by Mr. Rudolph Spreckels, of San Francisco.
There are laboratory facilities for about fifty students. The central part and west wing of the building are reserved for research. The central part corresponds in its arrangement with the traditional physiological laboratory, and offers all the facilities for work in special physiology. The west wing is reserved for work in general and biological physiology, and special provisions are made for the investigation of marine animals.
The Department Library, situated in the central part of the building, contains complete sets of all the important physiological journals, and the more important monographs on physiological and related subjects.
The Museum of Geology and Mineralogy comprises an extensive suite of minerals and ores illustrating the chief phenomena of crystals, and of economic deposits. There are, besides, many crystallographic models, and relief maps geologically colored. There is a similarly extensive suite of petrological specimens affording an almost complete illustration of the subject of Petrology; and many specimens illustrative of the more interesting features of structural geology.