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brother's death, he is said to have written his history.

ANTAR, or ANTARAH, a celebrated Arabian warrior and poet, who flourished about the end of the sixth century of our era, contemporary with Nushirwan, king of Persia. He was son of Sheddad, of the tribe of Abs, a race eminent among the descendants of Adnan, (the generations from whom to Antar are given in a table prefixed by Sir William Jones to his version of the Moallakat); but as his mother was an Ethiopian slave, and his birth consequently illegitimate, his father long refused to allow him to assume the rank of a free-born Arab. But the astonishing deeds of valour performed by Antar, joined to the remonstrances of the other chiefs of the tribe, at length overcame his scruples, and Antar received a place among the warriors of Abs, and soon after, the hand of his cousin Ibla, the object of his early affections. The whole life of Antar, as narrated in the romance compiled by Asmaï (vide ASMAï), and bearing the title of Antarîyah, appears a continual succession of martial achievements. Not only hostile Arabs, but Greeks, Persians, and Ethiopians, feel the almost superhuman force of his invincible arm: his sword Dhami, and his horse Abjer, share in romance the celebrity of their owner: and the title of Abu'l-Faouris (the Father of Horsemen,) conferred on him by common consent, testifies the supremacy of his valour. After much opposition from the Koreish, he succeeded in placing one of his compositions in the sanctuary of the Kaaba, as one of the seven Moallakat, or suspended poems; and by Sir William Jones's translation of this poem, the name of Antar first became known in Europe: but his exploits have since been rendered more familiar by the publication, in 1820, of an English version of the first part of the romance bearing his name, by Mr. Terrick Hamilton. He is said to have fallen in battle, by the hand of a pardoned enemy, shortly after the birth of Mohammed; and of his descendants, no details appear to have been preserved.

ANTELAMI, or ANTELMI, (Benedetto,) a sculptor who flourished at Parma in the latter part of the twelfth century. . Lanzi says that he executed "a bassorelievo, representing the Crucifixion of our Lord, in the cathedral, which, though the production of a rude age, had nothing in sculpture equal to it, that I have been able to meet with, until the period of

Giovanni Pisano." He worked in 1178 and 1196. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. iv. 52.)

ANTELMI, (Joseph,) a French ecclesiastic and antiquary, born in 1648, at Frejus, of which place he was a canon. In 1684, he was appointed grand-vicar and official to J. B. de Verthamon, the bishop of Pamiers, and succeeded in restoring peace to that diocese, which had been much disturbed by the régale, by which the king claimed the temporalities and ecclesiastical patronage of a see, during a vacancy. Antelmi's principal works are-A Treatise de Periculis Canonicorum; a History of the Church of Frejus, 1680; De veris Operibus, &c.; a Disquisition on the genuine works of Leo the Great and Prosper Aquitanus, in 1689; Nova de Symbolo Athanasii Disquisitio, 1693; and some others. He died at Frejus in 1697, leaving the character of a man of acuteness, learning, and integrity; but credulous, and too fond of dealing in conjecture. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTELMI, (Nicolas,) canon and vicar-general of the church of Frejus, in the earlier part of the seventeenth century, and the friend of Peiresc. He wrote some Adversaria, mentioned by Joseph Antelmi.

ANTELMI, (Pierre,) nephew of Nicolas, was born at Frejus, and studied at Paris theology and jurisprudence, taking his doctor's degree in both faculties. He continued for some time a sort of rivalry in the collection of a cabinet of antiquities, which had been commenced by his uncle, against Peiresc; and on his uncle's death, succeeded him in his canonry. He died in 1668. (Biog. Univ.)

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ANTELMY, (Pierre Thomas,) French mathematician, born in 1730, died in 1783. He was a professor at the Ecole Militaire, where he made some astronomical observations, inserted in the Memoirs of the Academy. He also translated Agensi's work from the Italian, and Lessing's Fables and Klopstock's Messiah from the German. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTENOR, or AGENOR, a sculptor who lived at Athens in the seventy-sixth Olympiad. He is celebrated for executing the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, designed to replace those in bronze, which had been taken away by Xerxes. Alexander the Great restored the original statues to the Athenians. Pliny (lib. xxxiv. c. 8) attributes these to Praxiteles, which is evidently a mistake, since Xerxes captured Athens in 480 B.C.;

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ANTHAKI, (born in Antioch,) the surname of a christian bishop of Said, who wrote in defence of the doctrines of Christianity against the Mohammedan theologians. An answer was written by one of them, named Takieddin Ahmed Bin Abdalhalim Bin Taimiah, who entitled his work, The True Answer to him who pretends to justify the Religion of the Messiah. The two works appear to have been written at the end of the seventh or beginning of the eighth century.

ANTHEAS OF LINDUS, was, according to his own confession, (says Athenæus, x. p. 445,) a relation of Cleobulus, one of the wise men of Greece. His whole life was given rather to pleasure than philosophy, as a votary of Bacchus, in whose honour he seems to have composed some comedies. He was likewise the inventor of a kind of poetry, where compound words abounded, such as we find in the Dithyrambics of Pratinas, and in the last scene of the Ecclesiazusæ of Aristophanes. ANTHELMÉ, called also Nauthelme, and sometimes Ancelin, descended from the lords of Chignin, in Savoy, after having been provost of the cathedral of Geneva, and sacristan of that of Belley, was in 1139 made prior of the great Carthusian convent of Portes. In 1161, or 1163, he was consecrated bishop of Belley by Pope Alexander III., whose cause he had sustained against the partisans of the anti-pope Octavian. He died on the 26th June, 1178. (Hist. Lit. de France, xiv. 613.) He is known as the author of some epistles printed by Duchesne, Mabillon, and Martene. His zeal in defence of the privileges of the church was so acceptable to the court of Rome, that after his death he was canonized. ANTHEMIUS, grandson of Philip,

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prefect of the East, was in 405 consul and prefect under Arcadius. On the death of Arcadius, Anthemius managed the affairs of the empire during the minority of Theodosius II. with great ability and integrity. In 414, he retired from his dignities, and passed the rest of his life in obscurity. (Biog. Univ. Gibbon.) ANTHEMIUS, (Emperor of the West,) was grandson of the preceding. In 467, when Italy was suffering under the tyranny of Ricimer, Anthemius was received as emperor, giving to Ricimer his daughter in marriage. Ricimer, however, quarrelled with his father-inlaw, and appearing in arms against him, advanced against Rome, which he sacked, and put Anthemius to death in 472. (Gibbon.)

ANTHEMIUS, of TRALLES, in Lydia, a celebrated mathematician and architect, who flourished about A. c. 532. Procopius de Edific. ii. 3, says he designed the temple of S. Sophia, at Constantinople; but as he lived only to lay the foundation, it was completed by Isidorus of Miletus. A fragment of his work, Περι Παραδοξων Μηχανημάτων, was first published by Du Puy, in the Mémoires de l'Academie des Sciences for 1777, accompanied with a French translation and notes. It describes the method of constructing hexagonic burning mirrors, and shows, as Buffon had asserted, and partially proved by experiments detailed in the same Mémoires for 1747, that the story of Archimedes burning the Roman fleet at Syracuse, was not altogether unfounded. Agathias, too, mentions the account of his frightening the rhetorician Zeno by means of an artificial earthquake, produced by the explosion of a steam boiler, or a composition similar to gunpowder.

ANTHERMUS, a Chian sculptor, son of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He and his brother Bupalus, according to Pliny, lib. xxxvi. ch. 5, made a statue of the poet Hipponax, who was remarkable for his ugliness, which caused universal laughter, on account of the deformity of its countenance. The poet was so incensed, and wrote with so much bitterness against the statuaries, that they are said to have hanged themselves.

ANTHEUNIS, (James,) a theologian of Middleburg, lived at the end of the fifteenth century. He was vicar-general at Brussels, in the diocese of Cambray, in the episcopacy of Henry de Bergher. He is author of a work entitled Elegans

Libellus, ac nunc primum impressus de præcellentiâ Potestatis Imperatoriæ, &c. 1502. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

ANTHIPPUS. Of this comic writer nothing is known, except a long fragment quoted by Athenæus, ix. p. 404.

ANTHOINE, (Nicolas,) a fanatic, who was burnt at Geneva in 1632. Educated in the faith of the Roman Catholic church, he afterwards embraced Calvinism, and ended in professing Judaism. However, for a time he concealed his apostasy, and officiated as protestant minister at Divonne, in Gex, until suspicion was aroused by his constant neglect of the New Testament. The fear of being denounced drove him completely mad; and in this state he broke away, and arrived at Geneva, where notwithstanding the representations of his friends, he was sentenced to death. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.) See life of PAUL FERRI.

ANTHOINE, (Antoine Ignace, baron de St. Joseph,) an eminent merchant of Marseilles, was born in 1749. For some time he was at the head of a commercial house in Constantinople; and during the years 1781-2-3, was engaged in arranging the terms of commercial intercourse between France and Russia, in which his views were readily taken up and appreciated by the courts of Versailles and St. Petersburg. He founded an establishment at Cherson, and contributed mainly to the present facilities enjoyed by France in her commercial relations with the countries on the Black Sea. In 1781 he was rewarded by Louis XVI. with letters of nobility. He filled some offices connected with public trade under the directory; and after the eighteenth Brumaire, was admitted into the legion of honour. He was mayor of Marseilles from 1805 to 1813, and effected great improvements in that town. He died in 1826. An Essai Historique sur le Commerce et la Navigation de la Mer Noire, reprinted in 1820, is by him. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

ANTHONY, (St.) one of the most celebrated personages of the Eastern and Romish calendars; was born at Heraclea, in Upper Egypt, in a. D. 251. His parents were noble and rich; and while young he was left, with his sister, possessed of their whole property. According to his biographer, he had shown little inclination to letters; but he had been early imbued with the piety which characterised his parents, and his zeal increased with his age; so that when still little more than a youth, on hearing the exhortation of Christ to the young man to

sell his property and distribute it to the poor, read in the church, he returned home and imitated it literally, reserving only a small portion of his riches for the support of his sister. Monks were at this time few and scattered. But in a solitary spot in the neighbourhood of Heraclea, an old man led the life of an anchorite, and Anthony resolved to imitate him. He accordingly sought a convenient place in the neighbourhood of his native town, where he adopted an austere course of discipline, and devoted his time to prayer and the study of the Scripture. After residing at this place some time, he left it to seek a still more lonely asylum among the dead in the catacombs. At the age of thirty-five, he quitted the tombs, and retired still further into the desert, where he took up his residence among the ruins of a deserted castle on a mountain. Here he remained during twenty years; and the fame of his sanctity drew around him crowds of devotees, whom he collected together into monasteries. When the persecution under Maximinus raged in Egypt, Anthony quitted the desert to encourage the martyrs by his presence and exhortations. When he returned, he left his former abode, which had become populous, to seek solitude, and advancing still further into the desert, settled on another mountain; but wherever he went, he was followed by crowds of people, until the whole desert was covered with monasteries; and at the death of the saint, the number of monks who had adopted his rule of life, are said to have amounted to fifteen thousand. During his life St. Anthony directed all these foundations, and visited them frequently, either in person or by his letters. In 355, he was persuaded a second time to quit the desert, and repair to Alexandria, by the prayers of St. Athanasius, in order to clear himself from the imputation which the Arians had cast upon him of being of their creed. He lived to the great age of one hundred and five years, and died A. D. 356, on his return from this visit. His festival is celebrated on the 17th of January.

St. Anthony is regarded as the patriarch of the monks. He is known popularly for the numerous contests which he is said to have sustained against the evil one, many of them more fantastic than terrible, and all too trivial to be repeated; but they have frequently furnished matter to the imagination of the artist. His body was transferred from its first resting

place to Alexandria in 561, and from thence to Constantinople about a century later. At the end of the tenth century it was again removed, and was deposited in a Benedictine priory near Vienne, in France. The life of St. Anthony was written by his friend Athanasius, and was translated into Latin by Evagrius. Both the original and the translation are given in the Benedictine edition of Athanasius, tom. i. p. 793. The Latin of Evagrius, with a collection of collateral documents, and accounts of the different translations of the body of the saint, will be found in the Acta Sanct. of the Bollandists, Mens. Jan. vol. ii. p. 121, &c. Many of St. Anthony's letters, addressed to the different monasteries of the Thebaid, and written in Coptic, are preserved. Some were translated into Greek and Latin, and a few have been printed in the Bibliotheca Patrum. Seven only of those printed by Abraham Echellensis in 1641, are said to be genuine. Two of the originals, in the language of the Thebaid, were inserted by Mingarelli in his Ægyptiorum Codicum Reliquiæ, in 1785.

ANTHONY, (Derick,) whom Walpole, in the Anecdotes of Painting, ed. 1782, vol. i. p. 205, calls Anthony Deric, was the chief graver of the mint and seals to King Edward the Sixth, and the queens Mary and Elizabeth. His father, William Anthony, was a native of Cologne, and may also have had an office in the Mint, as this his son was born at St. Catherine's, by the Tower. His appointment, by letters patent, to his office, is noticed by Walpole. See for the other particulars here given, Harl. MS. 5810, f. 17, b.

ANTHONY, (Dr. Francis,) a famous empiric and chemist, born 1550, was the son of an eminent goldsmith in London. He took the degree of M.A. in the university of Cambridge, and afterwards applied himself with great industry to the theory and practice of chemistry. He went to London, and in 1598 published his first treatise on a medicine drawn from gold. Not having obtained a license to practise medicine from the College of Physicians, he was summoned by them, and fined, and on refusing to pay his fine, was committed to prison, from which, however, he was discharged in 1602. Nevertheless he continued his practice with great reputation; but was attacked by Dr. Gwenne, and other antagonists, whom he answered by publishing a defence of himself and his Aurum Potabile, in 1610.

This excited new adversaries, and the controversy about Aurum Potabile grew very warm; increasing the hostility of the faculty towards the doctor, and at the same time, his practice. His character in private life seems to have been irreproachable. Unaffected piety, untainted probity, great modesty, and boundless charity, procured him many friends, and enabled him to sustain the animosity of the regular members of the medical profession. He died in 1623. (Biog. Brit.)

ANTHONY, (John,) son of the preceding, continued his father's practice, and made a handsome living by the sale of the Aurum Potabile. He was author of Lucas Redivivus, or the Gospel Physician, (printed in 1656.) He died in 1655. ANTHROPOGRAPHUS. See DIONY

SIUS.

ANTIBOUL, (Charles Louis,) a French lawyer, and member of the Gironde party, was deputy to the national convention for the department of the Var. He was executed in 1793. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTIC. See Bosc.

ANTICLIDES, of ATHENS, was the author of the Nooro, a prose work, founded upon an older poetical one, but with this difference, that while the lastmentioned related to the events which befel the Grecian chiefs on their return from Troy, the work of Anticlides had reference to the fortunes of other leaders of other expeditions: amongst which those of the generals that served under Alexander held a prominent place. The work must have been a voluminous one, for the sixteenth book is quoted by Athenæus, xi. p. 466. He compiled likewise an archæological glossary for the purpose of explaining words connected with particular customs, and half forgotten traditions. To this author, and not to Anticles, Plutarch probably alludes in ii. p. 1136.

ANTICO, (Lorenzo,) in Latin, Antiquus. An Italian grammarian of the beginning of the seventeenth century, who taught grammar at Padua. His works are, De Eloquentiâ compendiarii libri tres. Venice, 1594. De Institutione Grammaticæ Commentarii tres. Padua, 1601. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTIDAMAS, of HERACLEA, is known only from a reference in Fulgentius, who says that he wrote a history of Alexander, and some treatises on morals.

ANTIDOTUS, a Greek painter, pupil of Euphranor, lived in the 104th Olympiad, 364 years B. C. He was more

remarkable for the laborious finishing of his pictures, than for invention. His colouring was cold, and his outline hard and dry. Among the few pictures of his which have been noticed, were a Warrior ready for Combat; a Wrestler; and a Man playing on the Flute. He is most celebrated for having been the master of Nicias of Athens. He is mentioned in Pliny, lib. xxxv. ch. 11. (Bryan's Dict. Biog. Univ. Lemprière's Clas. Dict.)

ANTIDOTUS, a comic writer, of whose plays only three fragments have been preserved by Athenæus.

ANTIGENES, one of Alexander's generals. He was put to death by Antigonus, about 315 B. C. (Q. Curt. v. c. 14.)

ANTIGENES. One of this name is found amongst the historians of Alexander, mentioned by Plutarch; and another is the grammarian quoted in Apollon. Lex. Homer, where, however, Villoison has edited Apxnyevns, because he says in Prolegom. p. 20, that the latter name is found in Eustathius.

ANTIGENIDAS, a musician of Thebes, the pupil of Philoxenus, and the master of Ismenias, whom he taught to despise the applause of the populace, as we learn from Cicero, Brut. 11. Either he or another Theban musician of the same name was the master of Alcibiades.

ANTIGNAC, (Antoine,) a French song writer of some reputation, born 1772, died 1823. He left-Chansons et Poësies Diverses. Paris, 1809. L'Epicurien Français, ou les Dîners du Caveau Moderne. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)

ANTIGONUS, (Gonatas,) son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, was king of Macedon. In 272 B. C. he was expelled from his kingdom by Pyrrhus; but on his death, Antigonus regained it, and died, after reigning thirty-four years, B. c. 243, leaving his son Demetrius to succeed him.

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ANTIGONUS, one of Alexander's most celebrated generals. In the division of the provinces, after the king's death, he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia; but he afterwards increased his power, and during his life was master of all Asia Minor, as far as Syria. After the naval battle near the island of Cyprus, in which Demetrius, his son, defeated Ptolemy's fleet, Antigonus assumed the title of king. His power was now so great that Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus, united to destroy him, and he died of wounds received in battle 301 B. c. in his eightieth year.

ANTIGONUS, (commonly called Carystius, to distinguish him from others of the same name,) was born at Carystus in Euboea, and is supposed to have flou rished during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about B. c. 250, Ol. 132, 3. (See H. Dodwell, Dissert. de Ætate Peripli Hannonis, § 21. Vossius, de Histor. Græc. lib. i. cap. 12.) Nothing is known of his life, except that he wrote-1. Ioтopiwv Пapadoέwv Evvaywyn, Historiarum Mirabilium Collectio. 2. Biot; or, Lives of the Philosophers, often quoted by Athenæus and Diogenes Laertius. 3. йept Zwwv, De Animalibus, (Hesych. in Ito.) 4. Пept Acģews, De Dictione. (Athenæus, Deipnos. lib. iii. p. 88; lib. vii. pp. 297, 303.) 5. An Epic Poem, called AvTinarpos, of which two lines are quoted by Athenæus, Deipnos. lib. iii. p. 82. Of these, the first only is still extant, and consists of one hundred and eighty-nine chapters, of which a great part is taken from the work, De Mirabilibus Auscultationibus, attributed to Aristotle, and also from that by Callimachus (of which only a few fragments remain) entitled, OavμATWV тWV εις άπασαν την Γην κατα Τοπους οντων Συναγωγή, Miraculorum quæ sunt in singulis totius Orbis Terrarum Locis Collectio. As might be expected from the title, the work contains a great many fables and absurdities, together with much that is curious and worth reading. He tells us that bees are generated by the putrid carcase of an ox, wasps by a horse, scorpions by a crocodile (cap. 23), and snakes by the spinal marrow of a man (cap. 96); that horses have a bony heart (cap. 75); that all animals, except man, when bitten by a mad dog, become mad themselves (cap. 102); that the chamelion assumes the colour of the ground, tree, leaves, &c., on which it happens to be walking (cap. 30); that the crocodile is the only animal that

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