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FINAL REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION IN THE MATTER OF THE REFERENCE BY THE UNITED STATES AND THE DOMINION OF CANADA RELATIVE TO THE POLLUTION OF BOUNDARY WATERS.

1. INTRODUCTION.

Under the terms of Article IX of the treaty of January 11, 1909, between the United States and Great Britain, the following questions were submitted by the Governments of the United States and of the Dominion of Canada to the International Joint Commission under date of August 1, 1912, for examination and report upon the facts and circumstances connected with the pollution of boundary waters, and for such conclusions and recommendations as might be appropriate: 1. To what extent and by what causes and in what localities have the

boundary waters between the United States and Canada Original reference. been polluted so as to be injurious to the public health and

unfit for domestic or other uses? 2. In what way or manner, whether by the construction and operation of suitable drainage canals or plants at convenient points or otherwise, is it possible and advisable to remedy or prevent the pollution of these waters, and by what means or arrangement can the proper construction or operation of remedial or preventive works, or a system or method of rendering these waters sanitary and suitable for domestic and other uses, be best secured and maintained in order to insure the adequate protection and development of all interests involved on both sides of the boundary and to fulfil the obligations undertaken in Article IV of the waterways treaty of January 11, 1909, between the United States and Great Britain, in which it is agreed that the waters therein defined as boundary waters and waters flowing across the boundary shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health or property on the other?

The expression “ boundary waters" is used in the treaty with Definition of bound a special meaning, being therein defined as ary waters.

follows:

For the purposes of this treaty, boundary waters are defined as the waters from main shore to main shore of the lakes and rivers and connecting waterways, or the portions thereof, along which the international boundary between the United States and the Dominion of Canada passes, including all bays, arms, and inlets thereof, but not including tributary waters which in their natural channels would flow into such lakes, rivers, and waterways, or waters flowing from such lakes, rivers, and waterways, or the waters of rivers flowing across the boundary.

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