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served by Daniel Falckner, the older brother of in the closing years of the 18th and in the first Justus Falckner. In New York the leader of decades of the 19th century, was not a good the immigrants was Joshua Kocherthal, a

The ravages of two wars left their Lutheran minister from the Palatinate, arriving marks; the problem of transition from German on New Year's day 1701. The Palatinate had to English worship was not always solved in been ravaged with fire and sword under Louis the right way; but above all the rationalistic XIV of France, the inhabitants were obliged to and unionistic tendencies in the European flee in order to save their lives and many of churches bore their fruits also in America and these fugitives found a temporary refuge in left the Lutheran Church in a deplorable state England, where Queen Anne arranged for their of desolation. The founding of the Missouri emigration to America. In 1710 not less than Synod (Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Mis11 ships came to New York carrying some 3,000 souri, Ohio and other States) in Chicago, 26 immigrants. They settled in the Catskill Hills April 1847, had a most significant influence on on the banks of the Hudson; later on many of the external and internal development of the them went westward and moved into the Lutheran Church in the United States. In Schoharie Valley. All were served by the inde- 1839 a colony of Saxon Lutherans numbering fatigable and faithful Kocherthal. In 1734 the about 700 souls had come to America, having Lutheran Salzburgers, driven from their homes left their native land on account of the bad in Austria through persecution, settled in condition of their home church, showing itself Georgia not far from Savannah. Their settle- in the opposition to the Lutheran Confessions ment was named Ebenezer, and their pastors and the prevalence of rationalism, and had were Bolzius and Gronau. Gradually groups of settled in Saint Louis and in Perry County, Mo. German Lutherans were found along the whole Their leader was Martin Stephen and with him Atlantic Coast. In Pennsylvania alone some came a number of earnest and devout pastors 60,000 Lutherans were settled about the year and candidates. When their leader was found 1750, for whose spiritual wants there was, at to be a deceiver he was excommunicated, and first, no adequate provision. Several of these C. F. W. Walther, one of those younger pasPennsylvania congregations joined in sending a tors, a man of remarkable ability as theologian, delegation to London. (Court-chaplain Ziegen- preacher, author and church organizer, came to hagen), and to Halle in Germany (Prof. A. H. the front. In 1844 he began to edit the semiFrancke), representing the needs of the immi- monthly church paper Der Lutheraner, which grants and asking for able clergymen. These rapidly became the organ for confessional negotiations finally resulted in the coming to Lutheranism. About the same time Pastor F. America of Henry Melchior Muehlenberg, the Wyneken had come to America and had spent pious and indefatigable so-called "patriarch of some years in serving the scattered Lutherans the Lutheran Church in America.” He arrived in Indiana and Michigan. Not being able to in 1742, served the congregations that had called take care of the great number of them he him, organized new congregations far and returned to Germany and interested the home wide, built churches (Saint Michael's, Philadel- churches in the work. Especially Pastor W. phia) and in every possible way was active for Loehe of Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, took a very the Church. He was followed by a number of active part in preparing an i sending ministers educated and faithful men from Germany to America; and these three parties, the Saxon (Kurtz, Kunze and others), and thus an era of immigrants (Walther, Loeber, Keyl, . Fuerbringreat activity began among the scattered ger and others), the Lo an pastors (Sihler, Lutheran churches, their number being con- Craemer and others) and Wyneken, combined tinually increased through the coming of more and organized the Missouri Synod, which has immigrants, and the Lutheran Church attain- ever stood for strict confessionalism and ing considerable influence.

through its testimony has had decided influence Synodical Organizations. One of the for good upon the whole Lutheran Church, most important things done by Muehlenberg also in foreign countries, although it severed was the founding of the first Lutheran synod in all connection with the German state churches America, the still existing "Evangelical Lutheran and upholds and emphasizes the principle of Ministerium of Pennsylvania and adjacent absolute separation of church and state. States. It took place 26 Aug. 1748, and Ger- Through the untiring labors of its pastors in man and Swedish pastors participated in the home mission work, and through the attention organization. Before Muehlenberg's death given to the training of the young, in parish (1787) the second Lutheran synod was organ- schools, it has become by far the largest ized through the efforts of his son, Rev. F. A. C. Lutheran synod in America, consisting at Muehlenberg, and his son-in-law, Rev. J. C. present of 23 district synods and extending over Kunze (1786), and in the following decades practically every State of the Union, to Canada other bodies were formed: the North Carolina and even to Brazil and Argentina. About the Synod (the mother of all the southern synods), same time (1839) another band of German in 1803; the synod of Ohio in 1818; the Ten- Lutherans had left Prussia on account of the nessee Synod in 1820. Throughout the 19th Prussian Church Union between the Lutheran century such synodical organization took place, and Reformed churches (1817) and under the partly in consequence of branching off from leadership of J. A. Grabau organized the ihe older synods, sometimes also in opposition Buffalo Synod in 1845. Some years later to them, but chiefly on account of the rapid (1854) the Iowa Synod was founded, also by and remarkable expansion of the Church German missionaries sent by Loehe, after the through the coming of immigrants from Missourians and Loehe had parted on account Europe, especially to the Western States. The of doctrinal differences. Finally, the Scandientire number of synods now in existence is 62. navian Lutherans must be mentioned. Even The internal condition of the Church, however, before the middle of the 19th century a tide of

was

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Scandinavian immigration had set in, leading in the course of time to synodical organization. The most prominent the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Synod of North America, founded in 1853 by H. A. Preus, J. A. Ottesen and others. A controversy on the doctrine of predestination led to a separation and to the forming of the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America, in 1890. Prior to this the Norwegian Hauge Synod had been organized through the influence of E. Eielsen, originally a lay preacher and adherent of Hauge, a theologian of pietistic tendency. The largest Swedish Lutheran body, the Augustana Synod, was founded in 1860. Besides these, the Danes, Finns and Icelanders have their own synods. The Slovak Evangelical Augsburg Confession Synod, organized in 1902, is in sympathy with the Missouri Synod.

General Bodies.- Most of the 62 Lutheran synods in the United States are combined in larger "general organizations. The oldest of these is the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, formed in 1820 through the efforts of the Pennsylvania ministerium, at that time the largest Lutheran synod in America. The General Synod aimed at a union of all Lutherans, but, when the Pennsylvania Synod withdrew in 1823, it comprised for some years only a number of smaller English synods. Gradually it grew, the Pennsylvania Synod again united with it and in 1860 it embraced 26 synods. However, during the Civil War the synods south of the Potomac withdrew, and in 1866 the Pennsylvania Synod again severed its connection on account of the liberal and unionistic standpoint of the general body. The General Synod had formally declared that it stood on common ground with the Union Church of Germany and did not consider the distinctive doctrines separating the Lutheran and Reformed churches essential. It was more intent on fraternal relations with other denominations than on union with Lutherans of strict confessional principles. (S. S. Schmucker and the Definite Platform”). The withdrawal of the Pennsylvania Synod soon led to the organization of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America in Fort Wayne, Ind., 20 Nov. 1867, under the leadership of C. P. Krauth, C. F. Schaeffer, G. F. Krotel, W. J. Mann and others. The confessional basis was stated to be the doctrines of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession in its original sense. A number of Lutheran synods, English and German, joined this General Council, also the Swedish Augustana Synod, not, however, the Missouri Synod, nor the Ohio Synod, because the General Council, though more confessional than the General Synod, did not take a definite standpoint on the so-called "four points": chiliasm, altar and pulpit fellowship, and secret societies. The Iowa Synod maintained friendly attitude toward the General Council, but did not join it. In 1872 the Evangelical Synodical Conference of North America was formed by the Missouri Synod, the Ohio Synod, the Wisconsin Synod (founded in 1849 by Muehlhaeuser and others, joined the General Council, but withdrew in 1869), the Minnesota Synod (founded in 1860, joined the General Council, but withdrew in 1871), the Illinois

Synod and the Norwegian Synod. It was founded on a strict confessional basis as laid down in the Lutheran Confessions, and became

once the largest general organization in America; and although the Ohio Synod left this general body in 1881 on account of a controversy over the doctrines of election and conversion, and also the Norwegian Synod severed its connection in 1883 on account of internal troubles, the Synodical Conference is still the largest general body. In 1886 the Southern synods which had withdrawn from the General Synod at the time of the Civil War formed a new general body, The United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South, comprising eight smaller synods. The jubilee year of the Lutheran Reformation (1917) developed two important combinations. The three Norwegian synods mentioned above joined and formed the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America; and the General Synod, now more confessional than formerly, the General Council, and the United Synod in the South took action and formed a union called The United Lutheran Church in America, which action was formally ratified 15 Nov. 1918. The synods of Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan, which had formed what may be called a general organization in 1892, have rearranged their organization into a general body consisting of six district synods, but retaining their membership in the Synodical Conference.

Church Polity.-According to Lutheran principles the congregation is the unit of church organization, the source of all authority exercised by the Church and the final court of appeal. Congregations combine and organize themselves into synods for conducting the Church work on a larger scale and for the sake of mutual assistance and oversight; but the synods have no power except that which the congregations confer upon them; they are purely advisory bodies. It must be said, however, that while these principles are conceded by most Lutheran organizations, not all bodies conform to them in practice, some of them outside of the Synodical Conference allowing synods a greater power and placing greater weight upon their decisions.

Church Worship.- Because the Lutheran churches in Europe always had great diversity in their forms of public worship the Lutheran Church of America shows no uniformity in this respect, the different bodies having at first followed the usages of their mother churches

greater or less degree. However, a greater uniformity has been brought about since the so-called "Common Service, based upon the consensus of the Lutheran liturgies of the 16th century, was prepared by a committee representing the General Synod, the General Council, and the United Synod in the South. This form of service is used also by a number of congregations in other Lutheran bodies, especially after they had introduced the English language in their services.

Church Work.--All the church bodies named are very active in various forms of educational, missionary and benevolent work. They maintain a high standard of ministerial education and have founded a large number of theological seminaries. They have their own colleges and academies preparing their men for

to

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GENERAL SYNOD-1820

Synod of Maryland..

Synod of West Pennsylvania. 1825]
East Ohio Synod..
1836
Allegheny Synod..
1842

1844

1845

1847

Synod of East Pennsylvania.. 1842]
Synod of Miami.
Pittsburgh Synod.
Wittenberg Synod.
Olive Branch Synod.
Synod of Northern Illinois.
Synod of Central Pennsylvania
Synod of Iowa..

1848

1850

1853

1855

Synod of Northern Indiana.
Synod of Central Illinois.
Susquehanna Synod.
Synod of Kansas.
Synod of Nebraska.
Wartburg Synod..
Synod of California
Rocky Mountain Synod.
German Synod of Nebraska.
Synod of Southern Illinois.
Synod of New York.
Synod of West Virginia..
Total-24 Synods..

GENERAL COUNCIL-1867
Ministerium of Pennsylvania.
Ministerium of New York.
Pittsburgh Synod..
Texas Synod..
District Synod of Ohio.
Augustana Synod..
Lutheran Synod of Canada.
Chicago Synod..

English Synod of the North-

west..

Manitoba Synod.

Pacific Synod..

Synod of New York and New
England..
Nova Scotia Synod.
Synod of Central Canada.
Total-14 Synods...
SYNODICAL CONFERENCE-
1872
Synod of Missouri, Ohio and
other States
Synod of Wisconsin.
Minnesota.
Michigan..
Nebraska.
Slovak Synod...

Total-6 Synods..

UNITED SYNOD-1886
Synod of North Carolina
Tennessee Synod.
Synod of South Carolina.
Synod of Virginia..
Synod of Southwestern Vir-

ginia
Mississippi Synod.
Synod of Georgia.
Holston Synod..

Organized

1855

1867

1867

1868

1871

1876

1891

1891

1891

1900

1908

1912

1748

1773

1843

1851

1857

1860

1861

1820 115 131

158
72
153

150

54

125

78

48

1871

1891

1897
1901

1902

1903
1909

1803

1820
1824

1829

1842
1855

1860

Ministers

1861

195744535

93

53

72

145

44

90

59

34

55

50

36

46

25

52

44

49

48

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Congregations

1847 2,743 3,094
1850 315 362

1860

48

1860

1904
1902

43
22
30

53

61

92

29

32

73

31

81

46

54

1,779 2,631

52

30

23
115

17
143
38
1,857

580

155

192

10

14
92

74

64

3,201 3,689

53

58

241

56

26

16

56 135

75

75

58

21
79

76

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75

58

70

10

31

29

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the theological courses and giving a general
education. They prosecute intensively home
mission work, conducting such work also among
the Indians and negroes in the United States,
and maintain foreign mission fields in the dif-
ferent parts of the globe. The American
Lutheran Church is indeed a polyglot church
proclaiming the gospel in no less than 20 lan-
guages. All of the larger bodies have their own
publishing houses for the printing of their
church papers and the dissemination of Lutheran
literature. The statistics of 1917 report 27
theological seminaries, the largest among them
being Concordia Seminary at Saint Louis, Mo.
(Missouri Synod, 344 students); Concordia
Seminary at Springfield, Ill. (Missouri Synod,
127 students); Augustana Seminary at Rock
Island, Ill. (Augustana Synod, 101 students);
Norwegian Seminaries, combined in 1917, at
Saint Paul, Minn. (88 students); Lutheran
Seminary at Mount Airy, Philadelphia (Gen-
eral Council, 58 students); Lutheran Seminary
at Maywood, Chicago (General Council, 52
students); Wartburg Seminary at Dubuque,
Iowa (Iowa Synod, 48 students); Lutheran
Seminary at Wauwatosa, Milwaukee, Wis.
(Wisconsin Synod, 42 students); Wittenberg
Seminary at Springfield, Ohio (General Synod,
38 students); Lutheran Seminary at Columbus,
Ohio (Ohio Synod, 38 students); Theological
Seminary at Gettysburg, Pa. (General Synod,
34 students); Luther Seminary at Saint Paul,
Minn. (Ohio Synod, 30 students). The num-
ber of Lutheran colleges in 1917 was 41; of
academies 58, a number of them coeducational;
of ladies' colleges 7. The General Synod con-
ducts foreign mission work in India and
Liberia; the General Council in India, Burma,
Japan; the Missouri Synod in India and China;
the different Scandinavian bodies in India,
China, Natal, Madagascar; the Ohio Synod in
India. Missions among the American Indians
are conducted by the Scandinavians, the
Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Synod;
among the negroes by the Synodical Confer-
ence and by the Ohio Synod. The statistics
for 1917 enumerate 66 orphanages, 46 homes
for the aged, 7 homes for defectives, 9 dea-
coness mother-houses, 50 hospitals, 18 immigrant
and seamen's missions, 12 miscellaneous insti-
tutions, 13 home finding and children's friend
societies. There are 13 official Lutheran pub-
lishing houses, the more important ones being
located in Philadelphia (General Synod and
General Council); Saint Louis (Missouri
Synod); Rock Island (Augustana Synod);
Minneapolis (Norwegian Syncd); Chicago
(Iowa Synod); Columbus, Ohio (Ohio Synod);
Milwaukee (Wisconsin Synod); Columbia, S.
C. (United Synod in the South). The number
of Lutheran periodicals goes well into the
hundreds.

General Statistics.- The Lutheran Church
is the fourth largest denomination in the United
States coming after the Roman Catholics,
Methodists and Baptists. The statistics here-
with given are obtained from official sources and
are published in the 'Lutheran Church Year
Book for 1918. The several bodies are ar-
ranged according to the year of their organiza-
tion. The latest developments in the organi-
zation of general bodies mentioned above must
not be overlooked in the following tables.

Total-8 Synods.

INDEPENDENT SYNODS
Joint Synod of Ohio and other
States.

Buffalo Synod.

1885
1890

Eielsen's Synod (Norwegian). 1846
Synod of Iowa and other States 1854
Danish Lutheran Church.... 1871
Icelandic Synod
Suomi Synod (Finnish).
United Danish Lutheran
Church..
Lutheran Free Church (Nor-
wegian)..
Norwegian Lutheran Church
of America.
Other bodies and independent
tongregations...

Total-10 Synods.
Summary total-62 Synods.

257 484 53.226

1818 685
1845

138,542
7.395

916
36 49
6 26 1,232
576 1,056 125,458
74 112 14,463
16 55 4,598
40 151 16,511
1896 143 185 14,996
198 420 20,536
1917 1,247 3,378 300,000

1897

92 257 33,925
3,113 6,605 692,119
9.788 15,266|2,448,412

Bibliography.-- Of the large literature only the inaugural act of the Lutheran Reformation, a small selection is given. The sources are, as so much so, that 31 October is to this day celea rule, mentioned in the general works. brated by Lutherans in all lands as the Festival

Histories of the Lutheran Church in Amer- of the Reformation. And the thesis quoted ica: Græbner, A. L., History of the Lutherans above is perhaps the most concise exhibition of in America (German, Vol. I, up to 1820; Saint Lutheranism extant. The thesis is, as a whole Louis 1892); Hazelius, E. L., History of the and in all its parts, a positive doctrinal stateAmerican Lutheran Church 1685–1842) (Zanes- ment. Doctrine, positive doctrine, is, and was ville 1846); Jacobs, H. E., History of the from the beginning, of first importance, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United groundwork, the very life, of Lutheranism. States) (Vol. IV of the American Church The first and foremost task of the Lutheran Series, New York 1893; trans. into German by Church is the promulgation and maintenance of Fritschel, G. J., with additions, Guetersloh sound doctrine. Preaching, in the Lutheran 1896); Neve, J. L., Brief History of the Church, is not primarily exhortation but teachLutheran Church in America (Burlington ing, and doctrinal preaching is considered the 1916; German ed., Burlington 1915).

chief element of "Lutheran public worship. Histories of Individual Bodies: Bergh, J. A., Even the better part of Lutheran hymnology is (The Norwegian Lutheran Church in North

preponderatingly doctrinal. The great bulk of America (Norwegian; Minneapolis 1914); Luther's voluminous writings is doctrinal, and Bernheim, G. D., History of the German Set- no other church has so extensive a doctrinal tlements and of the Lutheran Church in North

literature as the Lutheran Church. Even its and South Carolina! (Philadelphia 1872); controversial theology partakes of this charDeindoerfer, J. D., History of the Evangelical

acter. It is true, the Lutheran Church in all its Lutheran Synod of Iowa and other States

best periods was eminently an ecclesia militans (German; Chicago 1897): Finck, W. J.,

(a militant church); but the subjects at issue Lutheran Landmarks and Pioneers in America)

were again doctrinal. Perhaps the most mas(Philadelphia 1913); Henkel, S., History of terful polemical work in Lutheran, if not in all the Evangelical Lutheran Tennessee Synod

Protestant theology, Chemnitz' (Criticism of (New Market 1890); Hochstetter, C.,, History the Decrces of the Council of Trent (Examen of the Evangelical Lutheran Missouri Synod'

Concilii Tridentini), is also one of the richest (German; Dresden 1883); Nicum, J., History storehouses of doctrinal theology. of the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of

But doctrine is knowledge communicated. New York and Adjacent States (German;

Teaching presupposes or implies a master and New York 1888); Ochsenford, S. E., Docu

a disciple or a number of disciples. And of the mentary History of the General Council of the

Master Luther says in his thesis: "Our Lord Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America)

and Master Jesus Christ. No councils nor (Philadelphia 1912); Peter, P. A., and Schmidt,

synods, no traditions of the Church, no Fathers, W., History of the Joint Synod of Ohio and

early or late, not Luther himself, not any of other States) (Columbus 1900); Schmauk, T.

these, nor all of these together, must be acE., History of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania

knowledged as empowered to establish articles 1638–1820 (Philadelphia

1903); Spaeth, A., Jacobs, H. E., and Spieker, G. F.,

of doctrine which every disciple is bound to

accept. For the Master is also the LORD. He Documentary History of the Evangelical

comes with authority: His teaching is not Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and

human but divine. Christian doctrine is not Adjacent States 1748–1821' (Philadelphia 1893).

a product of evolution, nor of human specuBiographies: Guenther, M., Walther, C. F.

lation, nor of self-consciousness of the Church, W., A Biography) (German ; Saint Louis 1890);

but the truth of God set forth by the FounMann, W. J., Life and Times of H. M.. tain of divine truth, who has said, “I am Muehlenberg) (Philadelphia 1877); Spaeth, A., the Truth.” He is the one and only auCharles Porterfield Krauth' (2 vols., New

thoritative teacher in the Church. There is no York 1898; Philadelphia 1909).

such thing as an evolution or perfectibility of Goneral: Bente, F., What hinders the

Christian doctrine. Here the ancient αυτος έφη Union of the Lutheran Synods in America ?)

"He hath said it," is in its place. Here man (German; Saint Louis 1917); Jacobs, H. E.,

has no alternative but either to accept or to and Haas, J. A. W., "Lutheran Cyclopedia

reject. Here to add or to modify is to adulter(New York 1899); Lenker, J. N., (Lutherans in

ate, and to take away or to yield is to deny. All Lands! (Milwaukee 1894; German ed.,

Such is the Lutheran concept of the primary Sunbury 1901); Morris, J. G., Bibliotheca

source of Christian doctrine. Lutherana' (Philadelphia 1876); The Distinctive Doctrines and Usages of the General

But the means also whereby such communiBodies of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in

cation of divine knowledge to man is effected is the United States) (Philadelphia 1893; new

indicated in Luther's thesis when he says: “Our ed., 1914). See LUTHERANISM.

Lord and Master Jesus Christ, saying, Repent Ludwig E. FUERBRINGER,

ye. Here he refers to an express dictum of Professor of Theology, Concordia Theological

Holy Scripture. Christ and the Spirit of Christ Seminary, Saint Louis, Mo.

taught man in the 16th century and teaches

man in the 20th century in and through the LUTHERANISM. The first of the 95 written Word. Not by awaiting direct revelatheses which Martin Luther affixed to the door tions, not by following the traditions of the of the castle-church of Wittenberg on 31 Oct. Church or the definitions or decrees of its rep1517, read as follows: «Our Lord and Master, resentatives, are we disciples of Christ, but Jesus Christ, saying, Repent ye, would have the by searching the Scriptures which were written whole life of believers to be repentance. This aforetime for our learning. What is clearly academic act has been generally looked upon as taught in Scripture, that and that only is Chris

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tian doctrine. That the Bible is the only and deed, while they stand, insurmountable barriers sufficient source of Christian doctrine is the between the conflicting theologies. But the formal principle of Lutheranism.

chasm which separates them is far deeper and The material principle of Lutheranism, the wider, a difference of the very fundamental cardinal doctrine, around which all other doc- principles which affects a multitude of particutrines radiate, because it is the central doctrine lar doctrines. The formal principle of Lutherof Scripture, is also indicated in the thesis. anism is, as we have seen, that of the exclusive Luther there describes the subjects and disciples authority and absolute sufficiency of the canonof their Lord and Master Christ as believers. ical Scriptures in matters of faith. The mateAccording to the Lutheran concept of Christian- rial principle of Lutheranism is the scriptural ity and the Christian Church it is faith that doctrine of justification. Lutheranism holds constitutes a Christian and a member of the that Christ, the only head and foundation of the Church of Christ, which is simply the whole Church, vested all the rights and powers of the number of all believers. Christianity, as dis- Church, the keys of heaven, the power of re tinguished from all other religions, is that re- mitting and retaining sins in His name as His ligion according to which salvation is not by agent, the government and discipline of the works of righteousness which we have done, Church, in the local congregation of believers. but by what God has done in Christ, reconciling Lutheranism maintains that Christ, the only the world unto Himself. And faith is simply mediator between God and man, has instituted the acceptance of this reconciliation. Not as a an office in the Church, the ministry of the work of obedience, with any merit of its own, word, for the public administration of the but only as the acceptance of the merits of means of grace, that this office is conferred on Christ, faith is saving faith. It is justifying its incumbent by Christ's authority through the faith inasmuch as, in view and consideration of call of the congregation, and has no power but the merits of Christ accepted by faith, God in the power of the word as set forth in the ScripHis judgment pronounces the believer righteous. tures, all ministers being equal in rank among And this doctrine, that God justifies the sinner themselves. Lutheranism looks upon the Lord's by His grace, for Christ's sake, through faith, Supper as a means of grace, whereby Christ, by is the material principle of Lutheranism, the virtue of His words of institution pronounced in cardinal doctrine of Lutheran theology. This the night in which He was betrayed, gives to all doctrine is looked upon by the Lutheran Church communicants His body and blood, really presas doctrina stantis et cadentis ecclesie, the doc- ent, not by transubstantiation or the change trine with which the Church stands and falls. into another substance, nor by consubstantiation

On the other hand, the doctrine of justifica- or the formation of a new substance, but by tion, while the central and ruling doctrine, is sacramental union, to be eaten and drunk in, not the only doctrine of Lutheranism. Accord- with and under the consecrated bread and wine, ing to our thesis, Christ would have the whole for an assurance of the forgiveness of our sins, life of believers to be repentance. This, too, is procured by His sacrifice on Calvary. a doctrinal statement. Repentance, μετάνοια, Lutheranism also holds and teaches a docis a change of heart and mind in man. In his trine of predestination, not, however, a decree natural fallen state man is wholly evil, spiritu- of damnation, but only an election and predesally dead in sin, unable to will or to do that tination of the children of God to eternal salwhich is spiritually good. He cannot, there- vation by faith in Christ Jesus, who is the refore, work his

own restoration, nor contribute deemer not only of the elect, but of all manthereto. But God, prompted by His universal kind, and by whom the decree of election is grace, and because of the merits of Christ, the determined as by its meritorious cause, and not redeemer of all mankind, through the gospel, an accessory means of execution. Thus, the ever e{ficacious and ever irresistible means likewise, the gospel and the sacraments, accordof grace, quickens the sinner into spiritual life, ing to the Lutheran concept, are the ordained translating him, by the bestowal of faith, from means, whereby the same universal grace, aca state of wrath and enmity against God into a cording to which God earnestly desires the salstate of grace and communion with God. This vation of all men, and, by the power of His is the Lutheran doctrine of conversion or re- Spirit in all cases efficaciously, but in no case generation in the stricter sense of the terms. In irresistibly, exerted through such means of a wider sense, in which repentance also stands grace, .calls, converts or regenerates, sanctifies in our thesis, it includes the preservation and and preserves to eternal life all those who do growth of spiritual life and its activity in works not wilfully and obstinately resist the saving of the spirit, or sanctification. For while the

grace of God. Lutheran Church maintains that man's salva- Having thus briefly portrayed the nature and tion is in no sense, manner or measure, his own principles of Lutheranism, we proceed to a sumwork, but wholly and solely the work of God, mary sketch of its rise and progress and its and hence denies the necessity of good works spread in the era of the Reformation. unto salvation, it strenuously asserts that good The cradle of Lutheranism was Saxony in works are necessary fruits and evidence of Germany. Here, at Wittenberg, the great Refaith.

former taught and preached and wrote under There have been Syncretists (Unionists) the protection of the Elector Frederick the within the pale of the Lutheran Church, Wise, and hand in hand with his successors who held that the real obstacles to mutual John and John Frederick. The effects of his recognition between the Lutheran Church 95 theses far exceeded the expectations of their and others were only two — the doctrines author. When Luther published this manifesto, of predestination and of the Lord's Sup- he had no thought of the establishment of a per.

But by these assertions Syncretism new church. The very name of Lutherans was exhibits itself thoroughly un-Lutheran not adopted by the free choice of those who in letter and spirit. These differences are in- bore it, but was solemnly inflicted upon them

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