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As to the method of these chapters, each begins with a statement of the principle of the Labor Section with which it deals. This is followed, in order to show what further interpretation has been given the principle, by a summary of the draft conventions and recommendations on the subject adopted by the International Labor Conferences. An outline of the legislation is given next, the legislation of the competent authorities, Dominion or provincial, being treated in the order in which they gave attention to the subject. Each of these chapters concludes with a summarized statement of the development of the legislation. Readers impatient of the detailed treatment are referred to the summaries. Those interested in the text of the labor laws should consult the annual and quinquennial volumes on labor legislation issued by the Department of Labor of Canada since 1915.

It is impossible to mention by name the many who have contributed to this study. Professors Samuel McCune Lindsay and Robert L. Schuyler of Columbia University read the manuscript and made helpful suggestions for its improvement. Mr. Tom Moore, president of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, was kind enough to read and criticize Chapter V, and Mr. J. G. O'Donoghue, K.C., solicitor of the Congress, offered criticisms on Chapters II and V. Mr. W. C. Clark, Economist of S. W. Straus & Co., formerly of Queen's University, has contributed a number of valuable suggestions.

The author has had the advantage of reading an excellent manuscript on the Canadian labor movement by Dr. H. A. Logan of Randolph-Macon Woman's College and of the use of the valuable library of the Department of Labor at Ottawa. He wishes especially to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mrs. Stewart for countless hours of assistance. In so detailed a study errors are bound to occur, and for these the author alone is responsible.

B. M. S. EVANSTON,

ILLINOIS.

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CHAPTER I

CANADA AND THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION

“The nations of the world by the Peace Treaty have adopted principles which until now were but ideals. As Canada is just entering the stage of greatest development, we have an opportunity unique among the nations for growth in harmony with those new principles.” (From the report of the Royal Commission on Industrial Relations, Canada, 1919.)

In beginning this study of the development of Canadian legislation in the fields covered by the nine methods and principles of the Labor Section of the Treaty of Versailles, it will be necessary to outline the Labor Section of the Treaty, to give the salient facts concerning the establishment of the International Labor Organization and to trace briefly its history, especially in its bearing on Canada. As the study proposes to show the extent to which Canadian labor legislation has conformed to the international standards adopted at Versailles, it will be essential to indicate the interpretation placed upon them by the draft conventions and recommendations of the International Labor Conferences.

The Covenant of the League of Nations pledged the signatory powers to the improvement of labor conditions by international regulation. Article 23 of the Covenant states :

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the members of the League will endeavor to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labour for men, women and children, both in their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary international organizations.

::On January 25, 1919, the Peace Conference at Paris ap-
pointed a Commission on International Labor Legislation
to inquire into the conditions of employment from the inter-
national aspect, and to consider the international means neces-
sary to secure common action on matters affecting conditions of
employment, and to recommend the form of a permanent agency
to continue such inquiry and consideration in cooperation with
and under the direction of the League of Nations.

The Commission prepared a plan for an International Labor Organization, based on a scheme submitted by the British delegates to the Conference, and suggested certain methods and principles for regulating labor conditions. The Labor Section of the Treaty (Part XIII, Articles 387-427) developed from the Commission's report. The opening paragraphs indicate the spirit in which the task was approached:

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Whereas the League of Nations has for its object the establishment of universal peace, and such a peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice;

And whereas conditions of labour exist involving such injustice, hardship and privation to large numbers of people as to produce unrest so great that the peace and harmony of the world are imperilled; and an improvement of those conditions is urgently required: as, for example, by the regulation of the hours of work, including the establishment of a maximum working day and week, the regulation of the labour supply, the prevention of unemployment, the provision of an adequate living wage, the protection of the worker against sickness, disease and injury arising out of his employment, the protection of children, young persons and women, provision for old age and injury, protection of the interests of workers when employed in countries other than their own, recognition of the principle of freedom of association, the organization of vocational and technical education and other measures ;

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