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named above except upon the completion of at least one year of residence at this University, devoted to such a course of study as the Academic Council regards as a proper year's work; upon passing successfully an examination; and upon complying with such other regulations as stated below. At least one half-year must elapse between formal advancement to candidacy for a degree and the conferring of the degree. Two summer sessions may be rated as the equivalent of one half-year for purposes of residence; and registration in summer sessions, with satisfactory completion of the work undertaken therein by a student may be accepted as satisfying to that extent the residence qualification for a higher degree.

('andidates for degrees may, at the discretion of the Academic Council, be given credit for residence at other universities, provided at least one year is passed in residence at this University.

Every Graduate Student not a candidate for a degree must be in actual attendance on at least one regularly authorized course of instruction. Every candidate for a Bachelor's or Master's degree while in residence must be in actual attendance on at least one regularly authorized course of instruction; and this attendance must amount to at least four hours a week; otherwise such students will be considered to have withdrawn from candidacy. The number of hours necessary to make up a year of study is stated below.

The minimum requirement is one year's work for the Master's degree, two years' study for the degree of Juris Doctor, and two years' study for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy; but this is understood to apply to students only whose undergraduate course has been substantially equivalent to the corresponding course in the University of California; otherwise a longer period of study will usually be necessary. include, to the extent considered desirable by the Academic Council, when the student's preliminary training falls materially short of this standard, subjects which had as their purpose the general culture of the candidate, in addition to such courses of instruction or research as may be elected for the prosecution of the special and advanced studies leading directly to the degree.

The above statement of the minimum time requirement for the Master's and the Doctor's degree is understood to apply to students who can give substantially their whole time to study. For those who pursue their graduate studies while engaged in other occupations, a proportionately longer time will be necessary.

No candidate will be credited with a year of work in residence until the full period of an academic year has been devoted to the studies

This may

approved by the Academic Council as constituting a year's work for the degree sought; and, in case of candidacy for a Bachelor's or Master's degree, the standard by which a year's work is estimated is that represented by, or equivalent to, a course of nine hours per week during one year (eighteen units), confined to the special advanced studies leading to the degree. The requirement of a thesis for any advanced degree is not included in the eighteen units. The satisfaction of the time requirement supplies only partial evidence of proper quality in the candidate's per. formance. Greater weight will be attached to actual attainments than to years of residence.

Every Graduate Student who is a candidate for a higher degree must file with the Recorder, at least three calendar months before the time proposed for examination, a detailed schedule of studies on which the candidacy is based. This schedule must bear the approval of the subcommittee in charge of the candidate's work.

The minimum period of candidacy for a degree shall be one half-year.



Graduate Students may be recommended as candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Letters, or Bachelor of Science on com pleting at least twenty-four units during one or more years of attendance upon such courses of instruction as are regularly pursued by seniors in the l'niversity of California, and on performing such additional work and passing such examinations as may appear necessary to the Academic Council. In all cases candidates must satisfy the graduation require. ments of thirty-six units of advanced studies in the colleges of general culture, or their equivalent in the Colleges of Applied Science; not all of which, however, need have been done while in residence at this University. No person will be recommended for a Bachelor's degree who shall not have satisfied substantially, at the time of procedure to the degree, the conditions imposed upon undergraduate students at


University of California.


Amount of work required.-Eighteen units, and in aldition thereto a
Grade and distribution of work.—The courses must be graduate courses

At least four of the eighteen units must * Concerning M.S. in the Colleges of Engineering, see page 117.

or undergraduate major



consist of a strictly graduate seminar or research course or courses in the major subject. All of the eighteen units may be confined to one subject; or there may be two subjects, a major and a minor; or three subjects, a major and two minors. Provided the foregoing requirements be met, the work may be distributed in any way that shall be satisfactory to the instructors in charge; and these instructors constitute the committee which will supervise the student's work throughout the period of candidacy.

Residence (attendance) required. The student must be in residence one year. Two summer sessions may be rated as the equivalent of one half-year for purposes of residence. A student is not regarded as student in residence unless he is actually attending regularly authorized university exercises at least four hours, or laboratory periods, per week. While ordinarily all of the work for the Master's degree is expected to be done in residence, graduates of this University or other approved candidates may complete a part of their work in absence, subject to the foregoing requirement that at least eight of the required eighteen units be resident work.

Thesis.—The thesis must be typewritten or printed; if typewritten the page must be 8142 x 10 inches, and record ink must be used. The thesis must be approved by the committee in charge of the candidate's work and must be filed by the committee with the l'niversity Librarian before the degree can be conferred.

Master's Degree for Students in the Professional Colleges.--- Bachelors of Arts, Letters, or Science of this University who are pursuing regular courses leading to a degree in a professional college of this University will be recommended to the appropriate Faculty for an appropriate master's degree under the following conditions:

(a) The candidate, already a bachelor, must have finished creditably two years of the curriculum of the professional college.

(b) He must have received credit, in addition to his work for the professional degree, for a seminar or research course of the value of four units; and such seminar or research course must be approved by the Academic ('ouncil; and he must present a dissertation or thesis subject to the usual regulations for the master's degree.


CONDITIONS FOR THE DOCTOR'S DEGREES. A candidate for the degree of Juris Doctor must hold a Bachelor's degree from one of the colleges of general culture or the College of Commerce of this University, and must have taken among the advanced insisted on in all cases.

studies required for such degree fifteen units in the department of Jurisprudence according to the regulations of that department, or must have pursued successfully a course of study equivalent to that represented by such degree together with such advanced studies in Jurisprudence. A course of study extending over a period of at least two years must be selerted by the candidate from, a curriculum approved by the Academic ('ouncil. A dissertation must be presented not later than the first day of the examination period appointed for the final examinations for the degree of Juris Doctor.

A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy must hold a Bachelor's degree from one of the colleges of this University, based upon a curriculum that shall have included the requirements of the Junior Certificate of some one of the colleges of general culture or must have pursued successfully a course of study equivalent to that represented by such a

. A reading knowledge of French and German will be

A course of study must be selected by the applicant from the groups below, and approved by the Academic Council, embracing one principal and one, or two, subsidiary subjeets, and extending over a period of at least two years [see page 112], the last one of which ordinarily must be spent in continuous residence at this University. But recommendation for the degree is based rather on the attainments of the candidate than on length of time of study; and in many eases, owing to the nature of the subjects or other circumstances, more than two years' time will be found necessary. The work offered as the basis for the principal subject must be equivalent to that classed as “* primarily for graduates." A thesis chosen by the candidate and bearing on the principal subject of the course, and of such a character as to show power to prosecute independent investigation, must be presented to the Academic Council for approval, at least three months previous to the final examination for the degree and must receive the approval of that body before the degree is recommended. Special emphasis will be laid upon this last requirement, and the degree will in no case be given merely for the faithful completion of a course of study, however extensive.

The division of time, study, and research among the principal and subsidiary subjects for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy must be approved by the sub-committee in charge of the student. Ordinarily. then there are two subsidiary subjects, at least a fourth of the candi date's work, and when there is but one, at least a third, should be given to each of the subsidiary subjects. At least one subsidiary subject must

department of the University other than that of the

be taken in a principal subject.

Every candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy must present

to the Academic Council, not later than the first day of May in each year, a detailed written report, signed by the instructors, of the studies actually pursued during the year, and must furnish evidence satisfactory to the Academic Council that the work has been of proper quality and scope. Any candidate failing to comply with this requirement will be considered to have withdrawn from candidacy.

The degree of Doctor of Philosophy will not be conferred until the candidate shall have passed a special examination in each of the subjects presented for the degree, of such a character and at such time as may be determined by the sub-committee in charge, and subsequently thereto shall also have passed a public oral examination in the general field of his work, conducted by the sub-committee with special emphasis upon familiarity with contemporary research.

The work for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy is grouped under the four following headings, but the lists given in each group not intended to be exhaustive.

I. Intellectual and Moral Philosophy. II. History and Political Science. III. Philological Science. IV. The Natural Sciences.

Technical studies may be included in the minor subjects when specifically approved for graduate study in connection with the major subject by the appropriate degree committee.



At the Lick Observatory graduate instruction in Astronomy is offered by the Director and the Astronomers, in connection with the investigations in which they are engaged, or which may be specially assigned to the students by the Director. Graduate instruction at the Lick Observatory is restricted, as a general rule, to students qualified to be on the footing of astronomical assistants, All undergraduate instruction in Astronomy and such graduate instruction as is not carried on at the Lick Observatory is conducted at Berkeley.

Applicants for admission to the Lick Observatory must first qualify before the Academic Council as graduate students of the University. Applicants are advised to file their applications with the Recorder of the Faculties, at Berkeley, before May 1st. After admission as graduate students, their applications for admission to the Lick Observatory are referred to a standing committee of the Academic Council, consisting of the President of the University, the Director of the Lick Observatory, the Director of the Students' Observatory, and the heads of the departments of mathematics and physics.

As many graduate students as can be furnished accommodations at Mount Hamilton, without expense to the University, may pursue astronomical studies at the Lick Observatory; and in return for the accom

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