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of the governing body. In 1879 this agitation was put to rest by the constitutional convention, which inserted in the fundamental law of the State the declaration that “the University of California shall constitute a public trust, and its organization and government shall be perpetually continued in the form and character prescribed in the organic act creating the same, passed March 23, 1868, and the several acts amendatory thereof, subject only to such legislative control as may be necessary to insure compliance with the terms of its endowments and the proper investment of its funds.",
In 1896 a proposition looking to a general building scheme was made by Mr. B. R. Maybeck, instructor in architectural drawing, and was introduced in the Board of Regents and fostered there by Regent J. B. Reinstein. The board voted to have prepared a programme “for a permanent and comprehensive plan to be open to general competition for a system of buildings to be erected on the grounds of the University of California at Berkeley.” Before this resolve had been put into effective operation it came to the notice of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst, who was then considering the erection of a building at the University in memory of her husband, the late Senator George Hearst. Accordingly, Mrs. Hearst at once wrote to the board expressing her desire to promote the proposed competition and to defray all the expenses thereof. This offer was gratefully accepted.
Two competitions were held, a preliminary one at Antwerp, and a final one at San Francisco. The preliminary competition opened January 15 and closed July 1, 1898. Of one hundred and five plans presented eleven were selected by the jury for the final contest. The second contest, in San Francisco, resulted in the award of first prize to Monsieur Emile Bénard of Paris; second prize, Messrs. Howells, Stokes and Hornbostel of New York; third prize, Messrs. D. Despradelle and Stephen Codman of Boston; fourth prize, Messrs. Howard and Cauldwell of New York; fifth prize, Messrs. Lord, Hewlett and Hull of New York.
To adapt and carry out the Bénard plan the Board of Regents appointed Mr. John Galen Howard supervising architect of the University. The first structure completed in execution of this plan was the Greek Theatre, the gift of Mr. William Randolph Hearst. The Greek Theatre is an open-air auditorium of unique beauty, lying in the hollow of the hills and surrounded with trees. It is used for great university occasions, and for musical and dramatic representations. The second building to be completed in aceordance with the Hearst plans was California Hall, a solid granite structure, erected through appropriations made by the State legislature. The third building in this scheme is the Hearst Memorial Mining building, the cornerstone of which was laid on November 19, 1902, and the formal opening celebrated on August 25, 1907. A fourth building, the Univer: sity Library, provision for which was made in the will of the late
Charles Franklin Doe of San Francisco, was first occupied in June, 1911. The Boalt Memorial Hall of Law, the fifth building of the series, was formally opened on April 28, 1911. This building is the gift of Mrs. Elizabeth Boalt, widow of the late John H. Boalt of San Francisco. The Hall of Agriculture, the sixth building of the series, is now in course of construction. The Sather Gate and bridge at the Telegraph avenue entrance to the campus, provided by the generosity of Mrs. Jane K. Sather, was completed in 1910. A president's house and central heating station have likewise been erected.
Beginning in 1891 the University has constantly aimed to extend the benefits of its instruction in agriculture farther and farther beyond its own confines. In the year named the custom of holding Farmers’ Institutes throughout the State was begun. So important had this work become that, in 1897, a new department was created, a Department of University Extension in Agriculture. Through these institutes, through bulletins, and through professional visits to farm, garden, orchard, and vineyard, the University constantly stands ready to render aid, advice, and instruction to relieve agricultural emergencies and solve agricultural problems in the State. The acquisition of the farm of seven hundred and seventy-nine acres at Davis, Yolo county, has greatly enlarged the scope of the University's work in agriculture.
The project of accrediting high schools to the University was put into operation in 1884. The main purpose of this movement was, from the first, to aid in unifying the whole system of secondary and higher education throughout the State. Success has in large measure been achieved in this direction, and the work of more thorough co-ordination has penetrated into the elementary schools. From the small number of three accredited high schools in 1884 the list has grown until in 1911 the number is one hundred and eighty-six, including one hundred and fiftyfive public and thirty-one private schools.
Connected with this accrediting system is the University's work as a training school for prospective teachers. By a law of the State, boards of education and examination have authority to issue teachers' certifi. cates of high school grade to graduates of the University who are recommended by the faculty. Within the past few years the standard of preparation of high school teachers has been raised, so that at present a full year of graduate instruction, partly of classroom work and partly of practice teaching, is exacted before a certificate is issued.
University extension lectures were begin in 1891 and continued through succeeding years with increasing encouragement until 1902, when a Department of University Extension was expressly organized. This department has established centers of extension work in various parts of
the State. A corps of instructors has been appointed, whose duties are entirely or mainly devoted to the extension field.
Summer schools in several departments were annually held for a nuinber of years up to 1899, when the work was systematically organized and a summer school of general scope was for the first time held. It has met a great public demand and has been largely attended, not only by teachers of California, but by special students from all parts of the eountry. A marked feature of the summer sessions at Berkeley, and an important element of the University's policy in that regard, is the presence as lecturers of leading men from the Eastern and European universities.
The University of California is an integral part of the public educational system of the State. As such it completes the work begun in the publie schools. Through aid from the State and the United States, and by private gifts, it furnishes facilities for instruction in literature and in seienee, and in the professions of art, law, medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy. In the Colleges of Letters, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Commeree, Agriculture, Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, and Chemistry, these privileges are offered without charge for tuition, to all residents of California who are qualified for admission. Non-residents of California are charged a tuition fee of ten dollars each half-year. In the Professional Colleges, except that of Law, tuition fees are charged. The instruction in all the colleges is open to all qualified persons, without distinction of sex. The ('onstitution of the State provides for the perpetuation of the University, with all its departments.
The government of the University of California is intrusted to a corporation styled THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, consisting of the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor, the Speaker of the Assembly, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the President of the State Board of Agriculture, the President of the Mechanics’ Institute of San Francisco, and the President of the University, as members ex officio, and sixteen other regents appointed by the Governor and approved by the Senate. To this corporation the State has committed the administration of the University, including management of the finances, care of property, appointment of teachers, and determination of the internal organization in all particulars not fixed by law.
The instruction and government of the students are intrusted to the FACULTIES OF THE SEVERAL COLLEGES and to the ACADEMIC SENATE.
The Faculty of each college consists of the President of the University and those professors and instructors, and only those, whose departments are represented in it by required or elective studies.
The Academic Senate consists of the members of the Faculties and the instructors of the University, the President and professors alone having the right to vote in its transactions. It holds regular meetings twice a year, and is created for the purpose of conducting the general administration of the University, memorializing the regents, regulating in the first instance the general and special courses of instruction, and receiving and determining all appeals from acts of discipline enforced by the Faculty of any college; and it exercises such other powers as the regents may confer upon it.
The Academic Senate has created certain standing committees, among which are:
1. The Academic Council, composed of the President and the professors, lecturers, and instructors in the Academic Colleges, the President and professors alone having the right to vote in its transactions. Of this committee the President of the University is ex officio chairman, and the Recorder of the Faculties secretary.
It regulates provisionally, or (where the functions to be exercised are executive) supervises, such matters relating to undergraduate and graduate students and their work as are not reserved by law to the separate Faculties at Berkeley, but in which they are all concerned.
2. The University Council, composed of the President of the University, five members of the Joint Faculties of Letters, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences, one member from each of the Faculties of Commerce, Agriculture, Chemistry, Mining, Civil Engineering, Mechanics, one member of the Lick Astronomical Department, two members of each of the Faculties of Law, Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Art, the Dean of the Faculties, and the Dean of the Graduate School, regulates provisionally, or, where the functions to be exercised are executive, supervises those matters in which an academic and professional college or colleges are jointly concerned, and considers the wants of any or all such colleges, and makes recommendations concerning the same to the Academic Senate in such matters as are not committed above to the Academic Council.
In all matters not expressly delegated to the Senate or to the several Faculties, the Regents govern, either directly or through the President or Secretary.
SITE AND CLIMATE OF BERKELEY.
The principal seat of the University is at Berkeley, a city of about 43,000 inhabitants, on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay directly opposite the Golden Gate. It is thirty-five minutes' ride by train and ferry from San Francisco and twenty-five minutes' ride by electric car from the business center of Oakland. The site of the University comprises about five hundred and twenty acres, rising at first in a gentle and then in bolder slopes from a height of about two hundred feet above the sea level to one of nearly nineteen hundred feet. It has a superb outlook over the bay and city of San Francisco, over the neighboring plains and mountains, the ocean, and the Golden Gate.
The climate of Berkeley is exceptionally well suited for uninterrupted university work throughout the year. The weather during the month of August is generally cool, so that it is possible to begin the academic year earlier than in Eastern universities, and thus divide it at the Christmas holidays into two equal half-years. Commencement is held about the middle of May.
Berkeley is a healthful locality; the slope of the town site makes perfeet drainage possible; the climate is at once mild and invigorating.
The thermometer rarely mounts above 75°. With high temperatures the humidity is invariably low, so that the heat is not oppressive. Heat prostrations are practically unknown. Very low temperatures are never reached. Within the last twenty years the lowest recorded temperature was 24.9o. A very slight fall of snow occurs about every eight or nine years. At such times the snow barely covers the ground and disappears within a few hours. The mean temperature during the winter months is about 48o.
The rainy season is well defined, and extends from December to March, inclusive. A characteristic feature of this season is that rain will fall for three or four days in succession, after which there will follow a week or more of fair weather. There may be light rains in October, November, and April.
From April to September of each year the winds are from the west and southwest; i.e., from the Pacific Ocean. They are cool and damp, and seldom have a velocity of more than fifteen miles an hour.
During the remainder of the year, the same general conditions prevail, except that occasionally there is a strong northwest wind, which is rather cool, or a strong northeast wind, dry and warm.