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Materia Medica and Pharmacology
('linical Pathology
General Medicine, including Clinical Microscopy
General Surgery
Gynecology
Ophthalmoscopy
Obstetrics

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108

Fourth Year.

General Medicine
Pediatrics
Jurisprudence
Diseases of the Skin
General Surgery
Orthopedic Surgery
Genito-Urinary Diseases
Diseases of the Eye
Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and Throat
Obstetrics
Gynecology
Hygiene

418 136 34 68 238 68 68 68 68 34 102 34

Anatomy.
* ROBERT (. Moody, M.D., Assistant Professor of Anatomy.
ANTONIO M. DAL PIAZ, M.D., Instructor in Anatomy.
RICHARD W. HARVEY, M.S., Instructor in Anatomy.
Ruby L. CUNNINGHAM, B.S., Assistant in Anatomy.
EDWARD MILLER, Technical Assistant.

The courses of instruction in anatomy are given in Berkeley. The classes in gross anatomy are divided into small groups in order to avoid the inevitable noise and disturbance which result from a large group of students working together. Material for dissection is prepared in the embalming room, which is equipped with the necessary hydraulic apparatus to inject both the embalming fluids and the color masses for the arteries and veins in any desired pressure. After this process is completed the bodies are preserved in a carbolic solution.

The teaching museum consists of specially prepared corrosions, injections, dissections, and models.

The laboratory for microscopic anatomy is outfitted with microtomes and is supplied with all the stains and reagents necessary for the ordinary and finer methods of microscopic preparation.

The routine work of the department falls into the natural divisions of gross and microscopic anatomy, and some effort is made to have the transition between the two as gradual as possible.

Inasmuch as the process of formal education must end sooner or later, the department endeavors as far as possible to make the students entirely independent. This is further encouraged in the elective system, by which a certain amount of selection is allowed in the regular work of the department.

MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY. The various tissues and organs of the body are studied from the development point of view so that their gradual differentiation from the embryonic to the adult form is taken up. Since function and structure can not be separated in the consideration of the microscopic appearance of tissues and organs, their chief physiological aspects are briefly con

* Absent on leave, first half year, 1911-12. sidered. The study of each group consists of three main steps: (1) For the purpose of orientation, the consideration of their macroscopie appearances, relations, and physiology. (2) The transition from the macroscopic to the microscopic conditions is made with the disseeting microscope and teasing methods, free hand or frozen sections. (3) The more detailed study is made from specimens prepared by methods designed to emphasize their principal microscopic features. In this course the value of comparing the organs of a series of animals is recognized and the student is given numerous comparative specimens. Routine sections are, as a rule, prepared by the technical assistant and are only mounted by the student. In order to familiarize himself with the details of histological technique, each member of the class must present during the year acceptable preparations of different organs made by various methods. This includes the process of fixation, embedding in both parailin and celloidin, and staining by the common methods. On the completion of a group of closely related subjects, the student is required to incorporate the results of his laboratory work in a paper fully covering the ground. The paper must be illustrated with the laboratory drawings and contain an epitome of the student's notes and collateral reading. The drawings are made from preparations of human material wherever this is possible. 101. Histology.

Dr. DAL Piaz. In this course are considered the anatomy of the cell, its variations

in form, the conditions and processes of its proliferation, and the modifications which result in its differentiation into a cell of spe. cialized type. The formation of the embryonic germ layers is then taken up and followed by a detailed study of the different fundamental tissues of the body, as these are composed of cells and cell products and derived from one or the other of the germ

layers. This study is always comparative. First year, 2 laboratory periods, 2 lectures a week, first half year.

4 units. 102. Microscopic Organology.

Dr. DAL PIAZ. The organs are discussed with reference to their form, arrangement,

and the number of the fundamental tissues composing them, with special reference to their structural and functional relations to other organs. In each case the student begins their study with the structures in situ, and special effort is made to bridge the gap between the appearance of the organs in gross and under the

microscope. First year, 2 laboratory periods, 2 lectures a week, first half year.

4 units. 103. Neurology.

Mr. HARVEY. In this course special attention is paid to the macroscopic and micro

scopic architecture of the central nervous system and the organs of special sense. The neurone studied in ('ourse 1 is used as the unit in the construction of the nervous system with a view of tracing the origin, development, and final arrangement of the different pathways for nerve impulses. Considerable attention is given to the consideration of the growth and development of the nervous

system. Second year, 2 lectures, 2 laboratory periods a week, first half year.

4 units.

SYSTEMATIC HUMAN ANATOMY. The courses in systematic anatomy are given by practical work entirely. There are no lectures, and formal quizzes are given only at the completion of the dissection of a part assigned. Students are urged to work independently as far as possible. Special emphasis is laid upon the importance of the visual images rather than word pictures of the various structures of the body. The student dissects from the standpoint of the segment, and to a great extent looks upon the various struetures as they are found in the body from the point of view of their compara. tive relationship and development. Topographical relations are shown by models and frozen or formalin-hardened sections. In order to em. phasize the importance of original work, a series of statistical investigations is being constantly carried on by the students through the agency of tabulation charts on which they record the important variations found in their dissections. Special attention is paid to the variations of one particular part of the body. 104. Osteology.

Dr. DAL PIAZ and Miss CUNNINGHAM. Each student is loaned a skeleton and is required to model representa

tives of each type of bones and to become familiar with the de. tailed characters and differential peculiarities of each bone in the

body. First year, first half-year. M Tu Th F, 1-5, first 8 weeks. 2% units. 105. Head and Neck. Assistant Professor Moody, Dr. DAL Piaz, Mr. HARVEY and Miss

('U'NNINGHAM. First half year, first 8 weeks for second-year students only, M W F.

1-5; Tu Th. 8-12; second 8 weeks for first-year students, M Tu W Th F, 1-5. Second half-year, 16 weeks, M Tu W Th F, 8-12. 31. units.

106. Arm and Thorax. Assistant Professor MOODY, Dr. DAL Piaz, Ur. HARVEY and Miss

CUNNINGHAM. First half year, first 8 weeks for secondyear students only, M W F,

1-5; Tu Th, 8-12; second 8 weeks for first year students, M Tu W Th F, 1-5. Second half-year, 16 weeks, M Tu W Th F, 8-12. 31153 units.

107. Leg and Abdomen. Assistant Professor MOODY, Dr. DAL Piaz, Mr. HLARVEY and Miss

CUNNINGHAM. First half year, first 8 weeks for second-year students only. M W F.

1-5; Tu Th, 8-12; second 8 weeks for first-year students, M Tu W Th F. 1-5. Second half-year, 16 weeks, M Tu W Th F, 8-12. 31.3 units.

108. Regional and Topographical Anatomy and Normal Physical Diag. nosis.

Assistant Professor MOODY. Second half-year. Living models, special dissections and sections of the body are used

in this course to enable the student to become more familiar with structural relations and to assemble information obtained in pre. ceding dissections. The normal heart and lung sounds and the mapping out of organs by percussion are studied on the living

models. 224 units. WF 8-12. Prerequisite: courses 105, 106, and 107.

109. Special Anatomy for Physicians and Advanced Students.

Assistant Professor MOODY. Hours arranged to suit applicants.

210. Research.

Assistant Professor MOODY. Students and others who are sufficiently prepared will be allowed to

undertake research upon original problems under the direction of the head of the department. The course also gives opportunity for those wishing to gain experience in special Histological Technique and in the construction of papers for publication. If the results obtained merit it, they will be published. To cover the cost of material expensive to obtain, chemicals, etc., a laboratory fee of $5 will be charged. Hours optional.

2. Histological Technique.

Mr. MILLER. Designed for those wishing to further familiarize themselves with

the general and special methods of obtaining, fixing, embedding, sectioning, staining, and mounting material for microscopical examination. The course is optional. It cannot be substituted for work required in the Medical Department. Hours to be arranged. Laboratory fee to cover cost of material, $10.

PHYSIOLOGY.

SAMUEL STEEN MAXWELL, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Physiology.
T. BRAILSFORD ROBERTSON, Ph.D., D.Sc., Associate Professor of Phys-

iological Chemistry.
THEODCRE (. BURNETT, M.D., Instructor in Physiology.
ARTHUR RUSSELL MOORE, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physiology.
L. R. BEAUCHAMP, Technical Assistant.
('. B. BENXETT, A.B., Assistant in Physiological ('hemistry.

1. The instruction in Physiology includes:

(a) Systematic lectures covering the general field.

(b) Laboratory work in which the student repeats many of the fun. damental experiments and observations.

(C) Written reports upon subjects specially assigned. In the preparation of these reports the student is expected to consult the original literature, and not to depend upon text-books and summaries.

(d) Written tests and oral recitations. These are held at frequent intervals, with or without previous notice. 2. Experimental Biology and General Physiology.

Associate Professor ROBERTSON and Dr. BURNETT. Dynamies and general theory of life-phenomena. Lectures 2 hours, laboratory 6 hours, second half year. Freshman

year; 4 units, MF 1-5.

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