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DEPARTMENTS OF INSTRUCTION AT BERKELEY

ANATOMY.

* ROBERT ORTON MOODY, B.S., M.D., Assistant Professor of Anatomy.
ANTONIO MENOTTI DAL Piaz, M.D., Instructor in Anatomy.
RICHARD WARREN HARVEY, M.S., Instructor in Anatomy.
RUBY L. CUNNINGHAM, B.S., Assistant in Anatomy.
EDWARD MILLER, Technical Assistant.

The courses of instruction in anatomy are given in Berkeley. The classes in gross anatomy are divided into small groups in order to avoid the inevitable noise and disturbance which result from a large group of students working together. Material for dissection is prepared in the embalming room, which is equipped with the necessary hydraulic apparatus to inject both the embalming fluids and the color masses for the arteries and veins at any desired pressure. After this process is completed the bodies are preserved in a carbolic solution.

The teaching museum consists of specially prepared corrosions, injections, dissections, and models.

The laboratory for microscopic anatomy is outfitted with microtomes and is supplied with all the stains and reagents necessary for the ordinary and finer methods of microscopic preparation.

The routine work of the department falls into the natural divisions of gross and microscopic anatomy, and some effort is made to have the transition between the two as gradual as possible. Inasmuch as the process of formal education must end sooner or later, the department endeavors as far as possible to make the students entirely independent. This is further enc

ncouraged in the elective system, by which a certain amount of selection is allowed in the regular work of the department.

MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY.

The various tissues and organs of the body are studied from the developmental point of view so that their gradual differentiation from the embryonic to the adult form is taken up. Since function and structure can not be separated in the consideration of the microscopic appearance of tissues and organs, their chief physiological aspects are briefly con

* In residence second half-year only, 1911-12.

sidered. The study of each group consists of three main steps: (1) For the purpose of orientation, the consideration of their macroscopic appear. ances, relations, and physiology. (2) The transition from the macroscopic to the microscopic conditions is made with the dissecting microscope and teasing methods, free hand or frozen sections. (3) The more detailed study is made from specimens prepared by methods designed to emphasize their principal microscopic features. In this course the value of comparing the organs of a series of animals is recognized and the student is given numerous comparative specimens. Routine sections are, as a rule, prepared by the technical assistant and are only mounted by the student. In order to familiarize himself with the details of histological technique, each member of the class must present during the year acceptable preparations of different organs made by various methods. This includes the process of fixation, embedding in both paraffin and celloidin, and staining by the common methods. On the completion of a group of closely related subjects, the student is required to incorporate the results of his laboratory work in a paper fully covering the ground. The paper must be illustrated with the laboratory drawings and contain an epitome of the student's notes and collateral reading. The drawings are made from preparations of human material wherever this is possible.

101. Histology.

First year.

102,

The

Dr. DAL PIAZ. In this course are considered the anatomy of the cell, its variations in

form, the conditions and processes of its proliferation, and the modifications which result in its differentiation into a cell of specialized type. The formation of the embryonic germ layers is then taken up and followed by a detailed study of the different fundamental tissues of the body, as these are composed of cells and cell produets and derived from one or the other of the germ layers. This study is always comparative.

Two laboratory periods, two lectures a week, first halfyear. 4 units. Microscopic Organology.

Dr. DAL Piaz. organs are discussed with reference to their form, arrangement, and the number of the fundamental tissues composing them, with special reference to their structural and functional relations to other organs.

In each case the student begins their study with the structures in situ, and special effort is made to bridge the gap between the appearance of the organs in gross and under the microscope.

Two laboratory periods, two lectures a week, first halfyear, 4 units. Neurology.

Mr. HARVEY. In this course special attention is paid to the macroscopic and micro

scopic architecture of the central nervous system and the organs of

First year.

103.

special sense. The neurone studied in Course 1 is used as the unit in the construction of the nervous system with the view of tracing the origin, development, and final arrangement of the different pathways for nerve impulses. Considerable attention is given to the consideration of the growth and development of the nervous

system. Second year. Two lectures, two laboratory periods a week, first half

year. 4 units.

SYSTEMATIC HUMAN ANATOMY.

The courses in systematic anatomy are given by practical work entirely. There are no lectures, and formal quizzes are given only at the completion of the dissection of a part assigned. Students are urged to work independently as far as possible. Special emphasis is laid upon the importance of visual images rather than word pictures of the various structures of the body. The student dissects from the standpoint of the segment, and to a great extent looks upon the various structures as they are found in the body from the point of view of their comparative relationship and development. Topographical relations are shown by models and frozen or formalin-hardened sections. In order to emphasize the importance of original work, a series of statistical investigations is being constantly carried on by the students through the agency of tabulation charts on which they record the important variations found in their dissections. Special attention is paid to the variations of one particular part of the body.

104. Osteology.

Dr. DAL Piaz and Miss CUNNINGHAM. Each student is loaned a skeleton and is required to model in clay each

bone in the body. First year. Four half-days a week, first half-year. 23 units.

105. Head and Neck. Assistant Professor MOODY, Dr. DAL Piaz, Mr. HarvEY, and Miss

(UNNINGHAM. First half-year, first 8 weeks for second-year students only. MWF, 1-5;

Tu Th, 8-12; second 8 weeks for first-year students, M Tu W Th F, 1-5. Second half-year, 16 weeks, M Tu W Th F, 8-12. 31 units.

106. Arm and Thorax. Assistant Professor Moody, Dr. DAL Piaz, Mr. HARVEY, and Miss

CUNNINGHAM. First half-year, first 8 weeks for second-year students only, MWF, 1-5;

Tu Th, 8-12; second 8 weeks for first-year students, M Tu W Th F, 1-5. Second half-year, 16 weeks, M Tu W Th F, 8-12. 313 units.

107. Leg and Abdomen.
Assistant Professor MOODY, Dr. DAL PIAZ, Mr. HARVEY, and Miss

CUNNINGHAM.
First half-year, first 8 weeks for second-year students only, M W F, 1-5;

Tu Th, 8-12; second 8 weeks for first-year students, M Tu W Th F,

1-5. Second half-year, 16 weeks, M Tu W Th F, 8–12. 313 units. 108. Regional and Topographical Anatomy and Normal Physical Diagnosis.

Assistant Professor MOODY.
Second half-year.
Living models, special dissections and sections of the body are used in

this course to enable the student to become more familiar with struc-
tural relations and to assemble information obtained in preceding
dissections. The normal heart and lung sounds and the mapping out
of organs by percussion are studied on the living models. 27 units.

W F, 8-12. Prerequisite: courses 105, 106, and 107. 109. Special Anatomy for Physicians and Advanced Students.

Assistant Professor MOODY.

Assistant Professor Moody. Students and others who are sufficiently prepared will be allowed to

undertake research upon original problems under the direction of the head of the department. The course also gives opportunity for those wishing to gain experience in special Histological Technique and in the construction of papers for publication. If the results obtained merit it, they will be published. To cover the cost of material expensive to obtain, chemicals, etc., a laboratory fee of $5

will be charged. Hours optional. 2. Histological Technique.

Mr. MILLER. This course is designed for those wishing to further familiarize them

selves with the general and special methods of obtaining, fixing, embedding, sectioning, staining, and mounting material for microscopical examination. The course is optional. It cannot be substituted for work required in the College of Medicine. Hours to be arranged. Laboratory fee to cover cost of reagents and material, $10.

210. Research.

PHYSIOLOGY.
SAMUEL STEEN MAXWELL, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Physiology.
T. BRAILSFORD ROBERTSON, B.S., D.Sc., Associate Professor of Physiological

Chemistry.
ARTHUR RUSSELL MOORE, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physiology.
THEODORE C. BURNETT, M.D., Instructor in Physiology.
L. R. BEAUCHAMP, Technical Assistant.
C. B. BENNETT, M.S., M.A., Assistant in Physiological Chemistry.

The courses in Physiology are given during the first and second years of the Medical Course.

The instruction in Physiology includes:
(a) Systematic lectures covering the general field.

(b) Laboratory work in which the student repeats many of the fundamental experiments and observations.

(c) Written reports upon subjects specially assigned. In the preparation of these reports the student is expected to consult the original literature, and not to depend upon text-books and summaries.

(d) Written tests and oral recitations. These are held at frequent intervals, with or without previous notice.

103. Biochemistry. Associate Professor ROBERTSON and Mr. BENNETT. Chemistry of the constituents of living matter; chemical dynamics of

life-phenomena; chemical physiology of the blood, digestion, and

metabolism. Lectures 5 hrs., laboratory 15 hrs., first year, second half-year. 12 units.

104. Physiology. Associate Professor MAXWELL and Dr. BURNETT. Physiology of the muscle, nerve, central nervous system, and sensation,

circulation, respiration, and secretion. Lectures 5 hrs., laboratory 15 hrs., second year, first half-year. 12 units.

106. Pharmacology.

Associate Professor ROBERTSON. Lectures 2 hrs., laboratory 3 hrs., second year, first half-year. 3 units.

Tu, 1-5; Th, 1-2.

GRADUATE COURSES.

211a. Advanced Physiology.

Associate Profesosr MAXWELL. Laboratory three afternoons a week with occasional lectures; first half

year. 4 units.

2113. Advanced Chemical Biology. Associate Professor ROBERTSON. Laboratory three afternoons a week with occasional lectures; second

half-year. 4 units.

212. Research Work in Physiology.

Associate Professor MAXWELL.

213. Research Work in Physiological Chemistry.

Associate Professor ROBERTSON.

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