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form the operations himself under supervision. The course begins with lectures on elementary pharmacy, the laboratory work beginning with the simpler pharmaceutical processes, the operations being first explained in the lecture room. By teaching theoretical and practical pharmacy simultaneously, as far as possible, both are better understood and their study made more interesting.

Beginning with a notice of the pharmacopoeias of Western nations, the systems of weights and measures in use by them, and the apparatus employed for weighing and measuring, the student passes on to the subject of specific gravity and the methods of estimating the same. Then follows a consideration of the application of heat to pharmacy, and of the measurement of heat by different thermometers. After this the simpler operations of pharmacy are taken up, such as solution, evaporation, distillation, sublimation, precipitation, filtration, dialysis, crystallization, etc. Comminution is then explained-slicing, bruising, grinding, and pulverizing, in mills, in mortars, and by other means; also sifting, elutriation, filtration, clarification, and decoloration.

The various processes of extraction employed in pharmacy are then considered, such as infusion, decoction, maceration, digestion, percolation or displacement, repercolation, expression, etc.

Then the practical operation of these processes is shown in the preparation of the official waters, syrups, infusions, decoctions, tinctures, followed by mixtures, emulsions, ointments, cerates, oelates, etc. The manufacture of suppositories, pills, triturates, troches, and efferescing granular salts concludes the work of the year.

SECOND OR SENIOR YEAR.

Didactic and Operative.

Professor Nish. The Senior course is a continuation of the work begun in the Junior year, but gradually leads on to operations requiring more skill and care. It includes lectures and reviews, followed by laboratory work on the manufacture of chemical syrups, the official liquors, solid and fluid extracts, scale salts, spirits, resins, glucosides, alkaloids, etc., so that when the course is completed, the student has made one or more of almost every type of preparation in the United States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary.

As this work proceeds, the processes of percolation, distillation, etc., are operated by the students, and each process is explained. The student is required to know the reason for every detail of each process. The menstrua employed in galenical preparations being

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dependent upon the chemical constituents contained in the drugs operated upon, this course forms a complement with that on organic materia medica and pharmacognosy.

The pharmacy of the new synthetic remedies receives due attention. In the lectures on pharmacy is included a consideration of the inorganic materia medica, so that nearly all the official drugs and preparations in the pharmacopoeia are noticed, and the student is instructed in the nature, preparation, and uses of practically all the more important official drugs, chemicals, and medicaments.

Assay Work.--Several laboratory sessions are devoted to the processes of assaying. Students are required to make gasometric estimations of solutions of hydrogen dioxide and of spirit of nitrous ether; also alkaloidal assays of such drugs as opium, cinchona, nux vomica, belladonna, hydrastis, etc.

The work of preparing some of the standard toilet articles, with the capping and wrapping of the containers, is carried out in the laboratory.

Prescription Work. The course includes about twelve lectures as well as the actual dispensing of prescriptions. These deal with all the details of the management of the prescription counter, the subject of incompatabilities being fully considered. Many difficult or obscure prescriptions are submitted to the students, who are called upon to deal with them as they deem best. Their knowledge of weighing, measures, percentages, doses, etc., as well as their skill in compounding, are tested by this work in the laboratory.

BOTANY, MATERIA MEDICA, AND PHYSIOLOGY.

FIRST OR JUNIOR YEAR.

Courses 1 and 5 are continuous lecture and recitation courses during the first year. Courses 2, 3, and 4 are continuous laboratory courses during the first year.

1. General Pharmaceutical Botany.

Professor Carey. A course of lectures on the domains of botany, referring especially to the cell and cell-contents; general morphology, and physiology of cells, tissues, and organs; the absorption, assimilation, and storing of food-substances; occurrence and formation of cell-contents; ascent of cell-sap; phyto-syntax; symbiosis; movements of plants; pollination and fertilization of plants; origin of domestic plants; influence of cultivation, etc.

2. Microscopy.

Professor CAREY. Study of the optical properties of mirrors and lenses, and the mechanism and manipulation of the compound microscope; comparison of the more important miscroscopes now in use; the properties and uses of micro-reagents; the cutting of sections and preparation of microscopic mounts. This course is a necessary preparation for courses 3 and 4.

3. The Histology of the Cryptogams.

Professor CAREY. Laboratory course in the study of the histology of types of cryptogamous plants, as algae, fungi, lichens, liverworts, mosses, and ferns. Special attention is given to the evolution and biological relationship of the plant groups referred to as revealed by their structure. The evolution and modification of cells, cell-contents, tissues, and organs; alteration of generations and sporeformation are also considered.

4. The Histology of the Phanerogams.

Professor CAREY. The laboratory course is a continuation of course 3, and consists of the study of the histology of coniferous, monocotyledonous, and dicotyledonous plants. Special attention is next given to cellmodification and cell-contents, so as to prepare the student for the intelligent study of the histology of vegetable drugs. Suitable micro-chemical reagents are employed to aid in differentiating cells, tissues, and cell-contents.

5. Vegetable Organography and Taxonomy. Professor CAREY.

A course of lectures and recitations on the gross structure of plant organs, special attention being given to leaf-modification, phyllotaxy, inflorescence, flowers, fruits, and seeds. The principles of classification and nomenclature are explained. This course is intended to prepare the student for an intelligent study of the gross structure of vegetable drugs and the identification and classification of the more common plant forms.

This course is supplemented by field excursions for the purpose of studying the local flora, especially from the ecological and economic standpoint. Each student is required to analyze a number of flowering and fruiting plants. Special attention is given to taxonomy.

6. Materia Medica.

Professor CAREY. Lectures and recitations on the history, character, gross structure and properties of drugs. Two sessions each week.

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