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2. Qualifications for Representatives (p. 48).-No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

See, also, Sect. 6 of this Article, and Sect. 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

3. Apportionment of Representatives (p. 48).—* Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons.' *

This provision has been superseded by the following clause of the Fourteenth Amendment:

[Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States, according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and VicePresident of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.?]

Census (p. 48). The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the 1 Clauses between ** are obsolete or superseded. 2 Clauses in [] are interpolated from other parts of the Constitution.

Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.

Number of Representatives (p. 48).—The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; *and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.*

4. Vacancies, How Filled (p. 51).—When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. (a) Officers of the House (p. 58).-The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers;

(b) Impeachments (p. 74).-And shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Section III. Senate. 1. (a) Number of Senators (p. 51).—The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State,

(b) How Elected (p. 51).-Chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years;

(c) Voting in the Senate (p. 52).- And each Senator shall have one vote.

2. (a) Senators Divided into Three Classes (p. 51).—. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence

of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every

second year;

(b) Vacancies, How Filled (p. 53).-And if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. Qualifications for Senators (p. 51).—No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that. State for which he shall be chosen.

See, also, Sect. 6 of this Article, and Sect. 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

4. President of the Senate (p. 52).—The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they shall be equally divided.

5. Other Officers and President pro tempore (p. 53). — The Senate shall choose their other officers and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. Trial of Impeachments (p. 74).-The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of Impeachment (p. 74).-Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.

Section IV. Elections of Senators and Representatives.

Meetings of Congress. 1. Elections of Members of Congress.—The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

2. Congress to Meet Annually (p. 54). -The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day.

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Section V. Powers and Duties of Each House of Congress.


1. (a) Power as to Qualifications of Members (p. 55).Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members,

(b) Quorum (p. 53).-And a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

2. (a) Power as to Rules of Proceedings (pp. 49, 52).Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings,

(b) Power to Punish and Expel Members (p. 55).Punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

3. (a) Journal (p. 55).—Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; (b) Yeas and Nays (p. 55).–And the yeas and nays

b) of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Adjournment (p. 55).–Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

Section VI. Compensation, Privileges, and Disabilities

of Senators and Representatives. 1. (a) Compensation (p. 55).—The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States.

(b) Privileges (p. 55).—They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. (a) Disability to Hold Other Offices (p. 55).-No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time;

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