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(b) Persons Holding Other Offices not to be Senators or Representatives (p. 55). -And no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

See, also, Sect. 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Section VII. Mode of Passing Laws. 1. Special Provision as to Revenue Bills (p. 56).-All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2. Every Bill to Become a Law Must Pass Both Houses (p. 55).-Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall:

And be Presented to the President.-Before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States;

Who may Approve and Sign It.-If he approve, he shall sign it,

Or Veto It (p. 82).—But if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it.

Veto, How Overcome.-If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house, respectively.

A Bill, not Returned by the President, When to Become a Law. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall

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have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it,

And When Not.-Unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

3. The Same Rules Applicable to Orders, Resolutions, and Votes of the Two Houses.—Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and the House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the United States; and, before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Section VIII. The Powers Granted to Congress. The Congress shall have power (p. 59) (see Sect. 1 of this Article):

1. Taxation (pp. 60, 62).—To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2. Loans (pp. 60, 63).—To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

3. Commerce (pp. 61, 69).—To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

4. Naturalization (pp. 60, 62, 92, 94, 96); Bankruptcy (pp. 61, 72).-To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

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5. Coin (pp. 60, 63, 64); Weights and Measures (pp. 61, 73).—To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

6. Counterfeiting (pp. 60, 63, 65).-To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

7. Post Offices (pp. 61, 70).—To establish post offices and post roads;

8. Patents and Copyrights (pp. 61, 73).—To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

9. Courts (p. 60).-To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; See, also, Sect. 1, Art. III.

10. Piracies, etc. (p. 68).—To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the laws of nations;

11. War (pp. 61, 66, 67).—To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;*

12. Army (pp. 61, 67, 68).–To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

13. Navy (pp. 61, 67).–To provide and maintain a navy;

14. Military and Naval Rules (pp. 61, 67).—To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

15, 16. Militia (pp. 61, 68).—To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;

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To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

17. (a) Federal District (pp. 61, 74). — To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States;

(b) Other Places (pp. 61, 74).–And to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and

18. To Carry Out Powers Granted to the United States (p. 59).—To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Other powers given to Congress in various parts of the Constitution are as follows:

[(19) To Fix the Time of Choosing Electors and of Casting Electoral Vote (p. 77).—The Congress may determine the time of choosing Electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States. (Sect. 1, Par. 4, Art. II.)

(20) To Arrange the Presidential Succession (p. 79).The Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President; and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed or a President shall be elected. (Sect. 1. Par. 6, Art. II.)

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(21) To Regulate Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (p. 88).—In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. (Sect. 2, Par. 2, Art. III.)

(22) To Declare the Punishment of Treason (p. 74).The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted. (Sect. 3, Par. 2, Art. III.)

(23) To Authenticate State Records (p. 127).-Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. (Sect. 1, Art. IV.)

(24) To Admit New States (pp. 61, 71).—New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. (Sect. 3, Par. 1, Art. IV.)

(25) To Govern the Property and Territory of the Union (pp. 61, 71).—The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. (Sect. 3, Par. 2, Art. IV.)

(26) To Propose Amendments and Call Convention (p. 45).-The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary,

shall propose

amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments. (Art. V.)

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