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(27) To Enforce Amendments. - The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of (the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments)

See these amendments.

Section IX. Limitations on the Powers Granted to the

United States.

.

1. Slave Trade.-*The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.*

2. Habeas Corpus (p. 124).—The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. Bill of Attainder (p. 125); Ex Post Facto Law (p. 125).—No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

See Sect. 10, Par. 1, this Article, for similar prohibition on the States.

4. Direct Taxes to be in Proportion to Census (p. 62).No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. For provision as to the census, see Sect. 2, Par. 3, this Article.

5. Duties on Exports (pp. 62, 70).—No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.

See Sect. 10, Par. 2, this Article, for similar prohibition on the States.

6. No Commercial Discriminations to be Made between States (p. 70).—No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

7. (a) No Public Money to be Drawn Except as Authorized by Law.-No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law;

(b) Accounts to be Kept.-And a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

8. (a) Titles of Nobility.No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States;

See Sect. 10, Par. 1, this Article, for similar prohibition on the States.

(b) Presents, etc., from Foreign Powers.—And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign State.

Other prohibitions on the powers of the United States are contained in the first eight amendments, and in the Fifteenth Amendment, as follows:

[Freedom of Religion (p. 125), of Speech (p. 125); Right of Assembling (p. 125), of Petition (p. 125).—Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. (First Amendment.)

Right to Bear Arms (p. 124).- A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. (Second Amendment.)

Quartering of Soldiers (p. 124).--No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the

consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. (Third Amendment.)

Searches and Seizures (p. 127); Warrants (p. 127).The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. (Fourth Amendment.)

Trials for Crimes (p. 124); Rights of Life, Liberty, and Property (p. 124).—No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation. (Fifth Amendment.)

Rights of Defendants in Criminal Cases (p. 124).-In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. (Sixth Amendment.)

Trials in Civil Cases.-In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact, tried by jury, shall be otherwise reëxamined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of common law. (Seventh Amendment.)

Bail, Fines, Punishments (p. 124).—Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. (Eighth Amendment.)

Right of Suffrage (p. 95).—The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. (Sect. 1, Fifteenth Amendment.) )

Section X. Powers Prohibited to the States. To understand the force of these prohibitions, the Tenth Amendment should be read, as follows:

[The powers not granted to the United States by the Constitution (those granted are given in Section 8, this Article), nor prohibited by it to the States (as given in this section), are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.)

A. Absolute Prohibitions. 1. No State shall:

(a) Treaty (p. 111).- Enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; For the power to make treaties, see Art. II, Sect. 2, Par. 2.

(b) Letters of Marque (p. 111).-Grant letters of marque and reprisal;

For the power to grant such letters, see Sect. 8, Par. 11, this Article.

(c) Money (p. 111).—Coin money, emit bills of credit, make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; For power of coinage of money, see Sect. 8, Par. 5, this Article.

(d) Bill of Attainder (pp. 111, 125).-Ex Post Facto Law (p. 125).-Pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law;

For similar prohibition on Congress, see Sect. 9, Par. 3, this Article.

(e) Impairing Contracts (pp. 111, 126).—Or law impairing the obligation of contracts;

(f) Titles of Nobility (p. 111).—Or grant any title of nobility.

For similar probibition on the United States, see Sect. 9, Par. 8, this Article.

Other limitations, as follows, are laid on the powers of the States by the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments:

(Prohibition of Slavery.—Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. (Sect. 1, Thirteenth Amendment.)

Privileges and Immunities of Citizens; Rights of Life, Liberty, and Property (p. 123).- No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. (Sect. 1, Fourteenth Amendment.)

Right of Suffrage (p. 95).-The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. (Sect. 1, Fifteenth Amendment.)]

B. Prohibitions, unless by Consent of Congress. 2. Duties on Imports and Exports (pp. 70, 111).—No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

For the power of Congress to lay duties on imports, see Sect. 8, Par. 1, this Article; for the prohibition on Congress as to duties on exports, see Sect. 9, Par. 5, this Article.

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