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SECTION,

(2) Powers essential to an international existence .

78
(3) Powers essential to a general federal government . 78
(4) Miscellaneous powers

78

$3. The Powers Enumerated

79-101

(1) Powers Essential to an Independent Self-Existence

79–86

Taxes

79

Purposes for which taxes may be levied

79

Kinds of taxes which Congress may levy

79

Kinds of taxes which Congress may not levy

79

Citizenship and naturalization

80

Definition of citizenship .

80

Definition of naturalization

80

Money: the powers given to Congress

81-85

The power to borrow money

82

The power to coin money

83

Meaning of coining: regulating the value of money. 83

Mints.

84

The power to punish counterfeiting

85

The federal courts .

86

(2) Powers Essential to an Independent International Existence 87-91

The war power

87

Declaration of war

87

Letters of marque and reprisal

88

Power to raise and support armies .

89

Power to provide and maintain a navy

89

Militia

90

Appropriations for supporting armies.

90

Power to punish crimes .

91

(3) Powers Essential to a General Federal Government

92-95

Commerce .

92

Meaning and extent

92

Commercial powers which the States may not exercise 92

Commercial powers which Congress may not exercise . 92

Commercial powers which the States alone may exercise 92

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.

92

The postal service .

93

Territories.

94

Usual form of territorial government.

94

People in Territories not possessed of national political

rights.

94

Delegates to Congress .

94

Admission of new States

95

The constitutional provision

95

Limitations . .

95

Mode of admission .

95

Guarantee of republican government.

95

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SECTION.

CHAP. XIX.-THE FORM AND NATURE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE

UNITED STATES.

175-179

Meaning of government

175

Different forms of government-

176

(1) Monarchy

176

(2) Aristocracy.

176

(3) Democracy

176

Government of the United States

177-179

A democracy

177

A representative democracy or republic.

177

A federal republic

178

"An indestructible Union of indestructible States"

CHAP. XX.-THE ELEMENTS OF Civil LIBERTY

180-201

$1. The Relations between the Government and the Individual 180-183

Rights and duties between individuals .

180

Rights and duties between government and individuals 181

Rights of the government

182

Duties of the government

183

$ 2. History of Personal Rights in England .

184–192

Relation between English and American history

184

The chief personal rights

185

Tendency of the government to become tyrannical

136

Restraints upon the government

187

Magna Charta

188

The Petition of Right .

189

The Habeas Corpus Act .

190

The Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement

191

America learns England's lesson.

192

$3. Protection of Personal Rights in the United States

193–204

Constitutional guarantees .

193

California Constitution

193

U. S. Constitution .

193

Right of personal security

194

Right of personal liberty

195

Bills of attainder

196

Ex post facto laws

197

Right to reputation

198

Right of religious belief

199

Right of private property

200

Taxation and eminent domain

201

The inviolability of private contracts

202

General warrants

203

Interstate rights of citizens.

204

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