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TO THE TEACHER.

The plan of this book is that of a gradual development from the known to the unknown, from the near to the distant, from the local to the general, from the concrete to the abstract. The plan is designed, furthermore, to tell only what cannot readily be observed, the purpose being to stimulate observation and inquiry. It is intended that a substantial basis of knowledge shall be gained before general reflections are indulged in. It will be seen, therefore, that the farther we go away from the home of the pupil, the greater the detail of information given him. The questions in the earlier chapters are intended to supply the place of text. The pupil is, accordingly, required by observation and inquiry to build up his own text. The questions in succeeding chapters are more in the nature of questions on the text. The teacher is, of course,

. expected to enlarge upon these questions indefinitely.

It is assumed that the teacher will be progressively more exacting in the answers required of the pupils. The repetition of questions in the book will thus serve as a means both of review and of extending the knowledge of the subject-matter. Thus, on the topics of elections and suffrage, the pupil will get his first rudimentary knowledge from the election of school trustees; this knowledge will be enlarged and reinforced by successively studying the methods and conditions of elections in city, county, State, and nation. Similarly, again, in regard to taxation. These two topics, especially, are regarded as of fundamental importance, and should be insisted upon and developed with the utmost care, patience, and per

But here, as always and everywhere, the teacher should conceal the lesson to be taught behind the interest aroused in the subject.

severance.

Parts I., II., and III. are designed to give the essential and indispensable knowledge of our government called for by the authorization of this book. They must be studied in course from beginning to end. Part IV. is different in its nature, and is designed, on the one hand, to give a compact and general view of the few subjects that seemed to need such treatment; and, on the other hand, to furnish such comment, reflection, and generalization as all children ought to be trained in after they have obtained sufficient and accurate data. This part may be used or not at the discretion of the teacher. It is thought it may be advantageously studied in the higher grammar grades, in connection with United States history. It has not seemed necessary to add any questions to the chapters in Part IV. The questions here should be such as are suggested by the text, leading out into new fields. Valuable lists of such suggestive questions may be found in Fiske's Civil Government.

Further aid of exceptional value may be had by the teacher in the complete topical outline, in the critical notes, and in the well selected bibliographical references of Mrs. Davidson's Reference History of the United States.

The topical analysis and index of this book will, it is hoped, prove of material assistance in review exercises. REFERENCE BOOKS.

In civil government the books really valuable for school use are very few. It is believed that a greater service will be done by mentioning some dozen books which do not repeat one another, and which will be in constant demand, than to give a large and heterogeneous list. All of the books mentioned below should be in every school building.

For the pupil, Macy and Fiske will be found especially readable. They are well fitted to illustrate given topics. Bryce is conspicuous for its manifold merits. It gives a complete exposition of our government; it embellishes this exposition with felicitous illustrations; and its value is enhanced by its profound generalizations and reflections. There are many chapters, or portions of chapters, which may be read to a class.

Andrews and Cooley are the best manuals on the Federal Constitution: they supplement each other admirably. Andrews is the more elementary, gives more data, and is less legal. Cooley is the more advanced, and is eminently a work on constitutional law. There is scarcely a point that can be raised that will not be found solved in the latter book. Lamphere is a storehouse of useful information in regard to the organization of the various departments of the government. It will be in constant demand in any school-room. Wilson affords views for comparative study of government, and includes an admirable short treatise on the government of the United States. Ford presents thoughtful discussions on the functions of the Federal and State governments, on the electorate, and on the civil service. Mrs. Davidson offers the results of a markedly successful experience as a teacher of American history in a work which will serve as a valuable guide to all who desire to bring into connection the history and the government of our country. Johnston's book is a masterly sketch: perhaps the best production of the most judicial of the writers on American history. The books by Desty will be found convenient manuals.

LIST OF BOOKS.

OUR GOVERNMENT: How iT GREW, WHAT IT DOES, AND How it DOES IT. By Jesse Macy. Revised edition. Ginn & Company. Boston: 1890.

Civil GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES, CONSIDERED WITH SOME REFERENCE TO ITS ORIGINS. By John Fiske. Houghton, Mifflin & Company. Boston: 1890.

THE AMERICAN COMMONWEALTH. By James Bryce. Two volumes. Second edition. Macmillan & Company. New York: 1890.

MANUAL OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. By Israel Ward Andrews. Revised edition. American Book Company. Cincinnati and New York: 1887.

PRINCIPLES OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW IN THE UNITED STATES. By Thomas M. Cooley. Little, Brown & Company. New edition. Boston : 1891.

THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT: ITS ORGANIZATION AND PRACTICAL WORKINGS. By George N. Lamphere. Lippincott & Company. Philadelphia : 1881.

THE AMERICAN CITIZEN'S MANUAL. By Worthington C. Ford. G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York: 1882.

THE STATE: ELEMENTS OF HISTORICAL AND PRACTICAL POLITICS. By Woodrow Wilson. D. C. Heath & Company. Boston: 1889.

REFERENCE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. By Hannah A. Davidson. Ginn & Company. Boston: 1891.

THE UNITED STATES: ITS HISTORY AND CONSTITUTION.. By Alexander Johnston. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York: 1889.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (with annotations). By Robert Desty. Bancroft-Whitney Company. San Francisco.

THE CONSTITUTION OF CALIFORNIA (with annotations). By Robert Desty. Bancroft-Whitney Company. San Francisco.

THE SCHOOL LAW OF CALIFORNIA. Compiled by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Sacramento.

CALIFORNIA BLUE Book, or STATE ROSTER. An official Directory of the State and County Governments. Compiled by the Secretary of State. Sacramento.

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