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by the State in religious matters. All our institutions shall be non-sectarian in their character. While the government is prohibited from showing any special favors to any one form or sect of religion, our Constitutions guarantee to every individual the right of religious belief and worship according to his own conscience.

200. Right of Private Property.-As to the enjoyment of property, the Federal Constitution, reinforced by the Constitution of each State, provides that property shall not be taken from the individual owner without due process of law. Under this right a man may acquire, use, and dispose of his property in such manner as he sees fit so long as he does not thereby violate any law or injure any other individual.

201. Taxation and Eminent Domain.—But a man's private property may be subject to taxation by the government in order that a government may have means of paying its debts and providing for the public welfare. It is also subject to the right of eminent domain. This latter right means that the State is regarded as the ultimate owner of all property within its boundaries and may assert its ownership whenever necessary. The State exercises this right when it requires the owner of property to give it up for a public use. But the Constitution requires that in such case adequate compensation. must be made to the owner.

202. The Inviolability of Private Contracts.-The Federal Constitution prohibits any State from passing any law which shall impair the obligation of contracts. This means, for instance, that when the Legislature of a State has granted a charter to a corporation, it shall not violate that charter arbitrarily; or that the Legislature shall not revoke a grant of land, or shall not, by its laws, cause

one man to lose a rightful claim which he may have against another man.

203. General Warrants.-General warrants for the arrest of persons, the search of houses, or the seizure of papers are prohibited. Warrants for these purposes must be issued only on probable cause, supported by oath, and must describe the place to be searched or the person or thing to be seized. This is a recognition of the old English principle that "a man's house is his castle;" that is to say, that his house may not be invaded arbitrarily. This principle is extended to the protection of a man's correspondence while going through the post office.

204. Rights of Citizens of One State in Other States.-The Federal Constitution also provides that the citizens of one State shall enjoy equal rights in every other State. It provides, too, that all public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of one State shall be as much respected by another State as are its own records and proceedings. These provisions prevent any discrimination being made by one State against the citizens or laws of another State.




Purpose of the Constitution.-We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.



Section I. Congress.

Legislative Powers (pp. 47, 59).—All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section II. House of Representatives.

1. (a) Election of Representatives (p. 49).-The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States,

(b) Who May Vote for Representatives (p. 49).—And the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

2. Qualifications for Representatives (p. 48).-No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained. the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

See, also, Sect. 6 of this Article, and Sect. 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

3. Apportionment of Representatives (p. 48).-* Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons."


This provision has been superseded by the following clause of the Fourteenth Amendment:

[Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States, according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and VicePresident of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State."]

Census (p. 48).-The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the

1 Clauses between ** are obsolete or superseded.

2 Clauses in [] are interpolated from other parts of the Constitution.

Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.

Number of Representatives (p. 48).-The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.*

4. Vacancies, How Filled (p. 51).-When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. (a) Officers of the House (p. 58).—The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers;

(b) Impeachments (p. 74).-And shall have the sole power of impeachment.

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1. (a) Number of Senators (p. 51).-The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State,

(b) How Elected (p. 51).—Chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years;

(c) Voting in the Senate (p. 52).—And each Senator shall have one vote.

2. (a) Senators Divided into Three Classes (p. 51).—. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence

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