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of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first clags shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every

second year;

(b) Vacancies, How Filled (p. 53).-And if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. Qualifications for Senators (p. 51).-No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

See, also, Sect. 6 of this Article, and Sect. 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

4. President of the Senate (p. 52).-The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they shall be equally divided.

5. Other Officers and President pro tempore (p. 53).The Senate shall choose their other officers and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. Trial of Impeachments (p. 74).—The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in Casa of Impeachment (p. 74).Jadg. ment in case of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from once and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall, neverthe le, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.

Section IV. Elections of Senators and Representatires.

Meetings of Congress. 1. Elections of Members of Congress.—The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and RepreHentatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

2. Congress to Meet Annually (p. 54). -The Congress #hall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day.

Section V. Powers and Duties of Each House of Congress.

1. (a) Power as to Qualifications of Members (p. 55).Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members,

(b) Quorum (p. 53).-And a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

2. (a) Power as to Rules of Proceedings (pp. 49, 52).Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings,

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(b) Power to Punish and Expel Members (p. 55).Punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

3. (a) Journal (p. 55).—Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy;

(b) Yeas and Nays (p. 55).- And the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Adjournment (p. 55).-Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

Section VI. Compensation, Privileges, and Disabilities

of Senators and Representatives. 1. (a) Compensation (p.55).—The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States.

(b) Privileges (p. 55).—They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. (a) Disability to Hold Other Offices (p. 55).—No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time;

(b) Persons Holding Other Offices not to be Senators or Representatives (p. 55). —And no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

See, also, Sect. 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Section VII. Mode of Passing Laws. 1. Special Provision as to Revenue Bills (p. 56).-All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2. Every Bill to Become a Law Must Pass Both Houses (p. 55).—Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall:

And be Presented to the President.—Before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States;

Who may Approve and Sign It.-If he approve, he shall sign it,

Or Veto It (p. 82).—But if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it.

Veto, How Overcome.--If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house, respectively.

A Bill, not Returned by the President, When to Become a Law. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall

have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it,

And When Not.—Unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

3. The Same Rules Applicable to Orders, Resolutions, and Votes of the Two Houses.—Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and the House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the United States; and, before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Section VIII. The Powers Granted to Congress. The Congress shall have power (p. 59) (see Sect. 1 of this Article):

1. Taxation (pp. 60, 62).—To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2. Loans (pp. 60, 63).—To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

3. Commerce (pp. 61, 69).—To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

4. Naturalization (pp. 60, 62, 92, 94, 96); Bankruptcy (pp. 61, 72).—To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

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