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each man under the guidance of his Maker forms for himself, and not one man for another? To know what constitutes mine or your happiness is the sole prerogative of him who created us, and cast us in so various and different moulds. Did your slaves ever complain to you of their unhappiness amidst their native woods and deserts ? or rather let me ask, Did they ever cease complaining of their condition under you their lordly masters, where they see indeed the accommodation of civil life, but see them pass to others, themselves unbenefited by them? Be so gracious, then, ye petty tyrants over human freedom, to let your slaves judge for themselves, what it is which

makes their own happiness, and then see whether they do not place it ( in the return to their own country, rather than in the contemplation

of your grandeur, of which their misery makes so large a part; a return so passionately longed for, that, despairing of happiness here, that is, of escaping the chains of their cruel task-masters, they console themselves with feigning it to be the gracious reward of heaven in their future state."-Sermon, 1766.


Now, whether we consider the crime with respect to the individuals concerned in this most barbarous and cruel traffic, or whether we consider it as patronised and encouraged by the laws of the land, it presents to our view an equal degree of enormity. A crime, founded on a dreadful pre-eminence in wickedness; a crime which, being both of individuals and the nation, must some time draw down upon us the heaviest judgment of Almighty God, who made of one blood all the sons of men, and who gave to all equally a natural right to liberty ; and who, ruling all the kingdoms of the earth with equal providential justice, cannot suffer such deliberate, such monstrous iniquity, to pass long unpunished."-Sermon before the Cambridge University.



stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the

land of Egypt.-Exodus. CHAP. I, verse 27. So God created XIX, 11. Ye shall not steal, neither man in his own image: in the image of deal falsely, neither lie one to another. God created he him ; male and female 13.4 Thou shalt not defraud thy neigh ) created he them. [Nottyrants and slaves.] bor, neither rob him the wages of him

IV, 9. And the LORD said unto Cain, that is hired shall not abide with thee all Where is Abel thy brother? And he night until the morning. said, I know not: Am I my brother's 18. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as keeper?

thyself. 10. And he said, What hast thou 33. And if a stranger sojourn with done ? the voice of thy brother's blood thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. crieth unto me from the ground:

34. But the stranger that dwelleth with 11. And now art thou cursed from the you shall be unto you as one born among earth, which hath opened her mouth to you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; receive thy brother's blood from thy for ye were strangers in the land of hand.

Egypt; I am the LORD your God. XXXVII, 28. And (they] sold Joseph XXIV, 21. And he that killeth a man, to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of he shall be put to death. silver; and they brought Joseph into 22. Ye shall have one manner of law, Egypt.

as well for the stranger, as for one of XLII, 21. And they said one to an- your own country: for í am the LORD other, We are verily guilty concerning our your God. brother, in that we saw the anguish of XXV, 10. And ye shall hallow the his soul, when he besought us, and we fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughwould not hear; therefore is this distress out all the land unto all the inhabitants come upon us.-Genesis.

thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you; XX, 1. And God spake all these and ye shall return every man unto his words, saying,

possession, and ye shall return every man 2. I am the LORD thy God, which have unto his family. brought thee out of the land of Egypt, 35. And if thy brother be waxen poor, out of the house of bondage.

and fallen in decay with thee, then thou 3. Thou shalt have no other gods be- shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a fore me.

stranger, or a sojourner; that he may 13. Thou shalt not kill.

live with thee. 14. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 36. Take thou no usury of him, or in15. Thou shalt not steal.

crease: but fear thy God; that thy 16. Thou shalt not bear false witness. brother may live with thee.-Leviticus.

17. Thou shalt not covet.—[See the XV, 11. For the poor shall never whole chapter]

cease 'out of the land : therefore I comXXI, 16 And he that stealeth a man, mand thee, saying, Thou shalt open thine and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, hand, he shall surely be put to death. and to thy needy, in thy land.

26. And if a man smite the eye of his 14. Thou shalt not oppress an hired servant, or the eye of his maid, that it servant, that is poor and needy, whether perish;

he shall let him go free for his he be of thy brethren, or of thy strangers eye's sake.

that are in thy land within thy gates: 27. And if he smite out his man-ser- XXIII, 15. THOU SHALT NOT vant's tooth, or his maid-servant's tooth; DELIVER UNTO HIS MASTER he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake. THE SERVANT WHICH IS ES

XXIII, 9. Also thou shalt not oppress CAPED FROM HIS MASTER UNa stranger: for ye know the heart of a TO THEE.

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16. He shall dwell with thee, even of oppressors, which they shall receive of among you, in that place which he shall the Almighty. choose, in one of thy gates where it 14. If his children be multiplied, it is liketh him best: thou shalt not oppress for the sword; and his offspring shall him.

not be satisfied with bread. XXVII, 19. Cursed be he that per- 15. Those that remain of him shall be verteth the judgment of the stranger, buried in death; and his widows shall fatherless, and widow: and all the peo- not weep. ple shall


18. That which he labored for shall 26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not he restore, and shall not swallow it down: all the words of this law to do them: and according to his substance shall the restiall the people shall say, Amen.

tution be, and he shall not rejoice therein. XXVIII, 15. But it shall come to 19. Because he hath oppressed and pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the hath forsaken the poor; because he hath voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to violently taken away an house which he do all his commandments and his stat- builded not: utes, which I command thee this day, XXXI, 13. If I did despise the cause that all these curses shall come upon of my man-servant, or of my maid-serthee, and overtake thee.

vant, when they contended with me; 37. And thou shalt become an aston- 14. What then shall I do when God ishment, a proverb, and a by-word, riseth up? and when he visiteth, what among all nations whither the Lord shall shall I answer him? lead thee.

15. Did not he that made me in the 41. Thou shalt beget sons and daugh- womb make him ? and did not one fashters, but thou shalt not enjoy them: for ion us in the womb ? they shall go into captivity. 43. The stranger that is within thee

DAVID. shall get up above thee very high, and thou shalt come down very low.

IX, 12. When he maketh inquisition 44. He shall lend to thee, and thou for blood, he remembereth them; he forshalt not lend to him: he shall be the getteth not the cry of the humble. head, and thou shalt be the tail.

17. The wicked shall be turned into 45. Moreover, all these curses shall hell, and all the nations that forget God. come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, 18. For the needy shall not always be and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; forgotten: the expectation of the poor because thou hearkenedst not unto the shall not perish for ever. voice of the Lord thy God, to keep his X, 2. The wicked in his pride doth commandments and his statutes which persecute the poor; let them be taken in he commanded thee.

the devices that they have imagined. 46. And they shall be upon thee for a XII, 5. For the oppression of the poor, sign, and for a wonder, and upon thy for the sighing of the needy, now will I seed for ever.- Deuteronomy.

arise, saith the LORD; I will set him in

safety from him that puffeth at him. JOB.

6. The words of the LORD are pure

words: IV, 8. Even as I have seen, they that 25. With the merciful thou wilt shew plow iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap thyself merciful; with an upright man the same.

thou wilt shew thyself upright; XV, 20. The wicked man travaileth 26. With the pure thou wilt shew thywith pain all his days, and the number of self pure; and with the froward thou wilt years is hidden to the oppressor. shew thyself froward.

21. A dreadful sound is in his ears; 27. For thou wilt save the afflicted in prosperity the destroyer shall come people; but wilt bring down high looks.

XLIX, 1. Hear this, all ye people; 22. He believeth not that he shall re- give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world. turn out of darkness, and he is waited 2. Both low and high, rich and poor, for of the sword.

together. 23. He wandereth abroad for bread, 7. None of them can by any means saying, Where is it ? he knoweth that redeem his brother, nor give to God a the day of darkness is ready at his hand. ransom for him;

XX, 13. This is the portion of a 8. (For the redemption of their souls is wicked man with God, and the heritage precious, and it ceaseth for ever:)

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LXXII, 4. He shall judge the poor Thou art righteous; him shall the people of the people, he shall save the children curse, nations shall abhor him: of the needy, and shall break in pieces XXX, 8. Open thy mouth for the the oppressor.

dumb in the cause of all such as are ap12. For he shall deliver the needy pointed to destruction. when he crieth; the poor also, and him 9. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, that hath no helper.-Psalms.

and plead the cause of the poor and

needy.- Proverbs. SOLOMON

IV, 1. So I returned, and considered

all the oppressions that are done under III, 1. And Solomon made affinity the sun: and behold, the tears of such as with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and took were oppressed, and they had no comPharaoh's daughter, and brought her into forter ; and on the side of their oppressors the city of David.

there was power; but they had no com3. And Solomon loved the LORD, forter. walking in the statutes of David his V, A. If thou seest the oppression of father.—1 Kings.

the poor, and violent perverting of judg. VI, 38. Then hear thou from the ment and justice in a province, marvel heavens, even from thy dwelling-place, not at the matter: for he that is higher and do according to all that the stranger than the highest regardeth; and there be calleth to thee for: that all people of the higher than they. earth may know thy name, and fear thee, 18. Behold that which I have seen; it as doth thy people Israel.-1 Chronicles. is good and comely for one to eat and

I, 24. Because I have called, and ye drink, and to enjoy the good of all his refused; I have stretched out my hand, labor that he taketh under the sun all and no man regarded;

the days of his life, which God giveth 25. But ye have set at nought all my him; for it is his portion. counsel, and would none of my re- VIII, 11. Because sentence against an proof:

evil work is not executed speedily, there26. I also will laugh at your calamity; fore the heart of the sons of men is fully I will mock when your fear cometh ; set in them to do evil.—Ecclesiastes.

27. When your fear cometh as deso- 5. I am black, but comely, O ye daughlation, and your destruction cometh as a ters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, whirlwind; when distress and anguish as the curtains of Solomon. cometh upon you:

6. Look not upon me, because I am 31. Therefore shall they eat of the black, because the sun hath looked upon fruit of their own way, and be filled with me; my mother's children were angry their own devices.

with me; they made me the keeper of the II, 3. Let not mercy and truth forsake vineyards; but mine own vineyard have thee; bind them about thy neck; write I not kept.-Songs. them upon the table of thine heart : 4. So shalt thou find favor and good

ISAIAH. understanding in the sight of God and

I, 4. Ah sinful nation, a people laden 31. He that oppresseth the poor re- with iniquity, a seed of evil-doers, chilproacheth his Maker; but he that hon- dren that are corrupters ! they have fororeth him hath mercy on the poor. saken the Lord, they have provoked the

32. The wicked is driven away in his Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are wickedness; but the righteous hath hope gone away backward. in his death.

11. To what purpose is the multitude 34. Righteousness exalteth a nation: of your sacrifices unto me ? saith the but sin is a reproach to any people.

LORD: XXII, 22. Rob not the poor, because

16. Wash you,

make you

clean; put he is poor; neither oppress the afflicted away the evil of your doings from before in the gate;

mine eyes: cease to do evil; 23. For the LORD will plead their 17. Learn to do well; seek judgment;' cause, and spoil the soul of those that relieve the oppressed; judge the fatherspoiled them.

less; plead for the widow. 23. These things also belong to the 18. Come now, and let us reason towise. It is not good to have respect of gether, saith the LORD: persons in judgment.

V, 15. What mean ye that ye beat my 24. He that saith unto the wicked, people to pieces, and grind the faces


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let them go.

the poor

of the poor? saith the Lord God of sen ? to loose the bands of wickedness, hosts.

to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the 18. Woe unto them that draw iniquity oppressed go free, and that ye break with cords of vanity, and sin as it were

every yoke? with a cart-rope.

7. Is it not to deal thy bread to the 20. Woe unto them that call evil good, hungry, and that thou bring the poor and good evil; that put darkness for that are cast out to thy house? when light, and light for darkness; that put thou seest the naked, that thou cover bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! him; and that thou hide not thyself from

23. Which justify the wicked for re- thine own flesh ?
ward, and take away the righteousness
of the righteous from him!

25. Therefore is the anger of the LORD
kindled against his people.

XXXIV, 10. Now, when all the 26. And he will lift up an ensign to princes, and all the people, which had the nations from far, and will hiss unto entered into the covenant, heard that them from the end of the earth; and be- every one should let his man-servant, hold, they shall come with speed swiftly. and every one his maid-servant, go free,

X, 1. Woe unto them that decree un- that none should serve themselves of righteous decrees, and that write griev- them any more; then they obeyed, and ousness which they have prescribed ;

2. To turn aside the needy from judg- 11. But afterward they turned, and ment, and to take away the right from caused the servants and the handmaids,

of my people, that widows may whom they had let go free, to return, be their prey, and that they may rob the and brought them into subjection for serfatherless!

vants and for handmaids. 3. And what will ye do in the day of 17. Therefore thus saith the Lord, Ye visitation, and in the desolation which have not hearkened unto


in proclaimshall come from far? to whom will ye ing liberty, every one to his brother, and flee for help? and where will ye leave every man to his neighbor: behold, I your glory?

proclaim a liberty for you, saith the LORD, XXXIII, 1. Woe to thee that spoil- to the sword, to the pestilence, and to est, and thou wast not spoiled; and deal- the famine; and I will make you to be est treacherously, and they dealt not removed into all the kingdoms of the treacherously with thee! when thou shalt earth. cease to spoil

, thou shalt be spoiled; and III, 34. To crush under his feet all the when thou shalt make an end to deal prisoners of the earth, treacherously, they shall deal treacher- 35. To turn aside the right of a man ously with thee.

before the face of the most High, 15. He that walketh righteously, and

36. To subvert a man in his cause, the speaketh uprightly; he that despiseth the Lord approveth not.—Lamentations.

gain of oppressions, that shaketh his
hands from holding of bribes, that stop-

peth his ears from hearing of blood, and
shutteth his eyes from seeing evil.

XXXIV, 4. The diseased have not 16. He shall dwell on high; his place yet strengthened, neither have ye healed of defence shall be the munitions of rocks; that which was sick, neither have ye bread shall be given him, his waters shall bound up that which was broken, neither be sure.

have ye brought again that which was XLII, 22. But this is a people robbed driven away, neither have ye sought that and spoiled; they are all of them snared which was lost; but with force and with in holes, and they are hid in prison-houses: cruelty have ye ruled them. they are for a prey, and none delivereth; 15. I will feed my flock, and I will for a spoil, and none saith, Restore. cause them to lie down, saith the Lord

23. Who among you will give ear to God. this? who will hearken, and hear for the 16. I will seek that which was lost, time to come?

and bring again that which was driven LVIII, 1. Cry aloud, spare not; lift away, and will bind up that which was up thy voice like a trumpet, and shew broken, and will strengthen that which my people their transgression, and the was sick; but I will destroy the fat and house of Jacob their sins.

the strong; I will feed them with judg6. Is not this the fast that I have cho- ment.

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