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FREE MINERS. A “ Free Miner" must be over 16 years of age. His certificate may be for one year ($5), or three years ($15), and is not transferable. He may enter and mine Crown lands or, on making compensation, lands occupied for other than mining purposes. To recover wages must have Free Miner's Certificate.

RECORD, &c., OF CLAIMS. Claims must be recorded ($2.50), and re-recorded annually ($2.50). Transfers must be in writing and registered. Free miners may hold any number of claims by purchase, but only two by pre-emption, except in certain cases. Claims may be officially laid over, and leave of absence granted in certain cases, but the rule is that every full claim must be worked either by owner or agent. A Free Miner can, by record, get a fair share of water necessary to work claim.

NATURE AND SIZE OF CLAIMS. Claims, as far as possible, rectangular and must be staked. Sizes are, “bar diggings ” 100 feet wide at high-water mark, and thence extending into the river to its lowest water level. · Dry diggings ” 100 feet square.

“Creek claims” 100 feet long, measured in the direction of the general course of the stream, and shall extend in width from base to base of the hill or bench on each side, but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet apart the claim shall be 100 feet square.

“ Bench claims
100 feet square.

" Mineral claims," that is, claims containing, or supposed to contain, minerals (other than coal) in lodes or veins, 1500 feet long by 600 feet wide.

To one discoverer .

300 feet in length.
To a party of two discoverers.

600 do. To a party of three discoverers. 800

do. To a party of four discoverers


do. And to each member of a party beyond four in number, a claim

of the ordinary size only. The above increase of size applies to dry, bar, bench, creek, or hill diggings, not to quartz claims or minerals in lodes or veins.

A new stratum of auriferous earth or gravel situated in a locality where the claims are abandoned, shall, for the above purpose, be deemed a new mine, although the same locality shall have been previously worked at a difierent level; and dry diggings discovered in the vicinity of bar diggings shall be deemed a new mine, and vice

A discoverer's claim shall be reckoned as one ordinary claim. Creek discovery claims shall extend 1000 feet on each side of the centre of the creek or as far as the summit,


7 Further details as to the Mining Laws of the Province are held over for a second edition of part of this hand-book at an early date, as the Legislature, which is now in session, has under consideration important proposals to amend the laws relating to the discovery, opening and working of minerals (other than coal) in lodes or veins, and also of coal.

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The eastern boundary of the province leaves the Rocky mountains at the intersection of 55° latitude and 120° longitude, and runs north along the latter.

The line between the province and the United States territory of Alaska, which was bought by the United States from Russia in 1867, has not been accurately determined on the ground. It is described, so far as applies, in the following extract from the convention of 1825, between Russia and Great Britain :

"Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called the Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54° 40' North Latitude, and between the 131st and 133rd degrees of West Longitude (meridian of Greenwich), the said line shall ascend to the north, along the channel called the Portland channel, as far as the point of the continent, where it strikes the 56th degree of North Latitude. From this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of West Longitude (of the same meridian), and, finally, from the said point of intersection of the said meridian, in its prolongation, as far as the Frozen Ocean.

With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding articles, it is understood : 1st. That the island called the Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia. 2nd. That whenever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 55th degree of North Latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of West Longi. tude shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia, as above mentioned, shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom.”



OF His EXCELLENCY GOVERNOR-GENERAL THE MARQUIS OF LORNE. “The reception the Princess and I have met with in Victoria and through out British Columbia, will long live in our memory as one of the brightest episodes of a time which has been made delightful to us by the heartfelt loyalty of the people of our Canadian provinces. Nowhere has the contentment insured by British institutions been more strongly expressed than on these beautiful shores of the Pacific. I am rejoiced to observe signs that the days are now passed when we had to look upon this community as one too remote and too sundered from the rest to share to the full the rapid increase in prosperity which has been remarkable since the union.

“I have everywhere seen signs that a stable, and therefore satisfactory, immigration has set in Victoria has made of late a decided start. I visited, with much pleasure, many of the factories which witness to this.

“There is no doubt that any Canadian who visits this Island and the Mainland shores, and sees the happiness of the people, the forest-laden coast, the tranquil gulfs, and glorious mountains, can but congratulate himself that his country possesses scenes of such perfect beauty.

“There is no reason to doubt that the population attracted to you as soon as you have the line through the mountains will be the population which we most desire to have, a people like that of the old Imperial Islands, drawn from the strongest races of northern Europe, one that with English, American, Irish, German, French, and Scandinavian blood shall be a worthy son of the Old Mother of Nations,

“Where there is open land the wheat crops rival the best grown elsewhere, while there is nowhere any dearth of ample provision of fuel and lumber for the winter. As you get your colonization roads pushed through, and the lines along the Fraser built, you will have a large available acreage, for there are quiet straths and valleys hidden away among the rich forests which would provide comfortable farms. As in the North-West last year, so this year

I have taken down the evidence of settlers, and this has been wonderfully fa. vourable.

“Besides the climate, which is so greatly in your favour, you have another great advantage in tractability and good conduct of your Indian population. I believe I have seen the Indians of almost every tribe throughout the Domin. ion, and nowhere can you find any who are so trustworthy in regard to con, duet, so willing to assist the white settlers by their labour, so independent and so anxious to learn the secret of the white man's power.

"Throughout the interior it will probably pay well in the future to have flocks of sheep; the demand for wool and woollen goods will be always very, large among the people now crowding into those regions which our official world calls the North-West, but which is the north-east and east to you. There is no reason why British Columbia should not be for this portion of our territory what California is to the States in the supply afforded of fruits. The perfection attained by small fruits is unrivalled, and it is only with the peninsula of Ontario that you would have to compete for the supplies of grapes, peaches, pears, apples, cherries, plums, apricots, and currants. Every stick in the most wonderful forests which so amply and generously clothed the Sierras, from the Cascade range to the distant Rocky mountains, will be of value as communication opens up.

“The business which has assuined such large proportions along the Pacific shore, of the canning of salmon, great as it is, is as yet almost in its infancy, for there is many a river swarming with fish from the time of the first run of the salmon in the spring to the last run of other varieties in the autumn, on which many a cannery is sure to be established. Last, but certainly not least, in the list of your resources, comes your mineral, and, chiefly, your coal treasure. The coal from the Nanaimo mines now leads the market at San Francisco. No where else in these countries is such coal to be found, and it is now being worked with an energy which bids fair to make Nanaimo one of the chief mining stations on the continent. It is of incalculable importance not only to this Province of the Dominion, but also to the interests of the Empire, that our fleets and mercantile marine, as well as the continental markets, should be supplied from this source. Where you have so good a list of resources it may be almost superfluous to add another; but I woulst strongly advise you to cultivate the attractions held out to the travelling public by the magnificence of your scenery. Let this country become what Switzerland is for Europe in the matter of good roads to places which may be famed for their beauty, and let good and clean hotels attract the tourist to visit your grand valleys and marvellous mountain ranges.

"I have always been a firm friend of British Columbia, and I hope before I leave the country to see still greater progres3 made towards meeting your wishes."



Map of Province.
Summarised Index of Part I...
Introductory general description of province

3 to 5


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