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ion, edited by Lighthall, Windsor series (Lon. for drainage, irrigation, supplying water-power, don, 1889); Canadian Poems and Lays, edited or purposes of navigation. The design and by Lighthall, in Canterbury Poets Series (Lon- construction of canals of large size are much don, 1891); Younger American Poets, edited by the same whatever their purpose may be; in Sladen and Roberts (London, 1891) ; Later Cana. this article the general questions of design dian Poems, edited by Wetherell (Toronto, and construction for all kinds of canals will 1893); and Chansons populaires du Canada, be discussed, but for specific examples of canals edited by

gnon (Quebec, 1865). See CANADA; for other purposes than tion the articles AUERICAN LITERATURE; and ENGLISH LITERA- on DRAINAGE, IRRIGATION, and WATER-POWER TURE.

should be consulted.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION. The two points CANADIAN PERIOD. See ORDOVICIAN Sys- which have mainly to be considered in canal TEM.

design are the cross-section of the channel and CANADIAN POLITICAL PARTIES.

See its longitudinal profile. Considering the longiPOLITICAL PARTIES, Canada.

tudinal profile first, it will readily be understood CANADIAN RIVER. A river formed by that a canal cannot, like a road or railway, adapt the union of several branches flowing east from itself to the irregularities of the country by the Taos and Culebra range of the Rocky Moun- means of ascending and descending grades, but tains, at the border between New Mexico and must consist of one or more practically level secColorado, in longitude 105° 20' W., and about tions or reaches. When two or more reaches are 100 miles northeast of Santa Fe (Map: United required at different levels, the adjoining exStates, Western Part, F 3). It flows nearly due tremities of two reaches cannot be, for obvious south to latitude 35° 20' N., then east across the reasons, connected by a grade in the channel. panhandle of Texas and into Oklahoma, where at The various means for making such connections Taloga it turns southeast, forming from about are described in the following section; but the longitude 97° 55' to longitude 96° 45' the bound- fact which needs to be noted here is that, since ary between Oklahoma and Indian Territory. It the profile of the canal must consist of a series then flows through the Indian Territory toward of level reaches at different elevations, care has the northeast and joins the Arkansas River, of to be exercised to select a route which will prowhich it is the chief tributary, at Tamaha. It is vide long reaches and consequently few changes nearly 900 miles long, but, owing to closely paral- in level. As in railway work, however, depresleling other rivers in the lower part of its course, sions in the ground may be crossed by embankit drains a relatively small territory. The vol- ments or other structures upon which the channel ume of water varies greatly in the wet and dry is carried. seasons.

Another matter which has to be carefully proCANAIGRE, kả-nă'gếr (Fr.). (Rumex hy. reach, or summit level, as it is usually called;

vided for is a supply of water to the highest menosepalus). A tannin-producing plant related to the docks and quite resembling the sour

the reason for this being that this reach is dock. It grows wild in the southwestern United constantly losing its water to the reaches below, States. The stem is nearly smooth, often reddish

and this loss must be supplied by streams or in color, grows from one to three feet high, and reservoirs so located as to discharge into the terminates in a branched flower-stalk.' The summit level. Distances being equal, a canal leaves vary from about 2 to 16 inches in length. which connects two points with a single reach is The roots are tuberous, somewhat resembling preferable to one with two reaches. Indeed, a

considerable increase in length is allowable to small sweet potatoes, and are clustered in an upright position 3 to 12 inches below the surface permit the canal to be constructed without a of the ground. The value of the plant consists transferring a boat from one level to another by

change of level. The reason for this is that in the amount of tannin contained in the roots. The tannin content in the air-dried tubers varies tion, and furthermore, locks are very expensive

locks or the other usual means is a slow operafrom about 10 to 35 per cent., a quantity exceeding that in any other tannin-producing, plant. the ordinary channel. The engineer carefully in

to construct compared with a similar length of The rapid decrease in the supply of wild canaigre has caused its culture to be undertaken tegrates these factors of time and cost and selects

the route between the various points he wishes during recent years in the Southwest, where some

to connect which will give the minimum time extensive plantations have been established. It

of transit at the minimum cost. In deciding is propagated mainly from the roots, one ton being required to plant an acre. The land is

upon the cross-section to be given to the chan

nel, two things have to be considered, viz. its prepared and cultivated as for other root crops.

dimensions and its form. As regards dimenHarvestir.g may begin after the plant has made its full period of growth, but it has been found

sions, they are determined largely by the size of that the percentage of tannin increases as the the canal. The width must be at least sufficient

the vessels with which it is proposed to navigate roots lie dormant in the ground. In the wild state the plant makes its growth during the

to permit two vessels of the largest size to pass winter and early spring, and by early June has

each other without fouling. Another influencing

factor is that the resistance to traction is greater seeded and the tops are dead. About fifteen tons

in a restricted waterway. of roots per acre is an average yield. The preparation for the market consists in slicing the roots equal to twice the beam of the largest vessel

It is generally assumed that a width of bottom and drying them in the sun. The extract obtained is especially adapted for tanning leather

nav ing the canal regularly is necessary, and

that the depth of water should be about 114 feet for uppers, fine saddlery, etc.

greater than the draught of these vessels, if good CANAL (Fr., from Lat. canalis, water-pipe). results are to be obtained. The form of the An artificial channel for water, constructed cross-section is determined very largely by the

same.

or

material through which the channel is cut, and the vessel is floated into the lock-chamber and by the location of the channel under certain cir- the down gates are closed. By means of valves cumstances. The bottom of the channel is al- in the upper gates or culverts in the side walls ways made flat; in soft ground the sides are or floor of the chamber, water from the upper made sloping, the angle of slope depending upon reach is slowly admitted until the water levels the stability of the material, being quite steep in the chamber and in the upper reach are the in firm materials and quite flat in unstable ma

The upper gates are then opened and the terials; and in rock the sides are made vertical boat floated out into the upper reach to conor nearly so. The attempt is always made for tinue its journey. To lock a vessel from the the sake of economy of excavation to approach as upper reach to the lower reach, the operations nearly to a rectangular cross-section as the con- described are merely, reversed. The gates are ditions will permit. When the canal passes usually made of wood or iron, and each leaf conthrough towns the sides are made vertical to save sists structurally of two vertical posts called space and provide quays, retaining walls being the quoin-post and the miter-post, connected by used in soft ground to form vertical sides. horizontal frames, which serve as a framework

Canal construction consists chiefly of open-cut for carrying the water-tight boarding or plating. excavation, but embankments, aqueducts, tun- The quoin-post has pivots at top and bottom nels, culverts, bridges, and a variety of other which work in suitable fittings in the side wall, construction work are involved. The plant used so that each gate-leaf swings open and shuts like and methods adopted in excavating canals depen

a door. very largely upon the size of the canal section A gate consists of two leaves, the swinging and the material encountered. In rock the prac- edges of which meet on the centre line of the tice is the same everywhere, and consists in the chamber, but as each leaf is somewhat wider than use of power drills and explosives for breaking up half the width of the chamber, they do not form the rock, and derricks, conveyors, and cars hauled a straight diaphragm across the chamber when by animal or mechanical power for removing it. closed, but are shaped like a very flat letter V In a boat canal of small section, the plant re- with its point projecting toward the upper level quired is small and simple, but in large ship- reach. This construction gives greater canal sections very large and powerful machin- strength to resist the pressure of the water. ery and elaborate power plants supplying com- The height between the bottom of the down pressed air and electricity are employed. In reach and the bottom of the upper reach is small canals soft-ground excavation is commonly called the lift of the lock. The practicable performed by means of shovels and plows for height of lift in lock construction is limited, and loosening the material, and scrapers and carts where great differences in level have to be overfor carrying it from the excavation. In larger come, a series or flight of locks built end to end canals this plant is increased by the addition of is employed. The dimensions and main structugrading and excavating machines and steam- ral features of the locks of several canals are shovels loading into carts or cars hauled by given in succeeding sections. horses or light locomotives. In ship canals of Where a vessel passes through a lock from one the largest section this plant is still further en- level to another, a lockful of water is lost from larged by the employment of special excavating the upper level to the lower level for each pair of and conveying machines and powerful dredges. boats passed. Where water is scarce and the Aqueducts are usually built in the form of ma- total lift is large, therefore, resort is somesonry-arch bridges with the top formed into a times had to inclined planes up and down which channel for the water. Sometimes, however, ma- the boats are transported in cradles or tanks sonry piers carry a wooden trough, or, in later running on wheels and hauled by cables or other years, one of steel. In embankments the channel

power. Inclined planes for canals are of very is formed by building up the sides and lining the early origin, being at one time quite extensively bottom and slopes with concrete or a layer of used, and some of these old inclines are declay or other impervious material. Tunnels for scribed in the following section. A more imcanals are built in the same manner as tunnels portant system of transferring canal-boats from for other purposes. (See TUNNELS.) Culverts one level to another is the vertical lift or liftare provided for carrying streams underneath the lock system, which has been installed in a numcanal and bridges for carrying highways and ber of places and is proposed for several other roadways over it. See BRIDGE; CABLEWAY; places where very high and important differences CRANES; DRILLS; QU'ARRY.

of level occur. In the vertical lift-lock system, LOCKS, INCLINES, AND LIFTS. The usual the boat is floated into a movable trough, the methods of transferring vessels from one level or ends of which are closed by gates, while similar reach of a canal to another one are by locks, gates close the ends of the canal approaches. inclines, or lifts. Of these three devices, the When the gates are closed behind the boat the lock is the one most extensively employed. A trough is raised or lowered, as the case may be, lock is a masonry chamber built at the junction until it coincides with the other level of the of the two reaches, the bottom of which is a canal, when the front gates are opened and the continuation of the bottom of the lower reach boat proceeds upon its way. The trough is and the top of which is at the same level as the raised and lowered by means of hydraulic or banks of the upper reach. Structurally this other power aided sometimes by counterweights chamber consists of two parallel masonry side or flotation tanks. The first vertical lift on a walls, closed near each end by a pair of folding large scale was that built at Anderton, England, gates. When a vessel is passing from the lower in 1875; a second was built at Les Fontinettes, reach to the upper reach through a lock, the France, in 1885; a third at La Louvière, Belsequence of operations is as follows: The lower gium, in 1888; and a fourth at Heinrichenberg, gates being open and the water in the lock being Germany, in 1895. In 1895 a lift lock was deat the same level as the water in the down reach, signed to replace the flight of locks at Lockport, N. Y., on the Erie Canal. A summary of the miles long, connecting Stockholm and Gothen essential details of the Anderton, Les Fonti- burg, in Sweden, was completed in 1832; and nettes, La Louvière, and Lockport lifts is given the Danube-Main Canal, 108 miles long, was in the accompanying table:

constructed 1836-46. France, however, was the HYDRAULIC LIFT LOCKS

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Date of opening ....
Type......
No. of troughs....
Length of trough.
Breadth"
Depth of water.
Height of list
Weight of boats, tons

" trough, empty, tons
“ water in trough, tons

trough, loaded,f tons.
Diameter of plunger..
Pressure on plunger, lbs. per sq. in..
Excess of water to lower trough, ins..

tons.. Time of lift, mins.......

“ lockage, mins..
Equivalent number of ordinary locks.
Time by ordinary locks, hours.
Cost of lifts and machinery

total...

of operation per week. Number of men....

1888
Hyd. ram

2
141 ft.1 in.

14
8 " 6
50 “ 644“

400
492
660
1,161
6 ft. 64 in.

469
12
64

24 15

176 269

3 It. 530

17
212
8

6
1 to 142
$147,200
$242,000

$75

5

438

879
6 ft. 6% in.

442
16

98
5 to 7

20
5

2
$166,000
$341,000

3 35

2 15

5 * to 142

$ 163,000 $239,000

$300,000

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* There are four similar lifts on this canal, the only difference being that one of them has a list of 63 ft. 734 ins. In the first three columns this includes the weight of the plunger.

The Heinrichenberg lift lock has a tank Continental country which devoted the great229.6 x 28.2 x 8.2 feet, with a lift of 52.45 feet. est attention to canal construction, taking up the

BOAT CANALS. History.-Canals date from a development and extension of the canal system period long anterior to the Christian era and and railway system at the same time. By a law were employed as means of navigation and com- passed in 1879, France made provisions for unimunication by the Assyrians, Egyptians, Hindus, formity in its canal system by establishing a and Chinese. The royal canal of Babylon was depth of 612 feet of water and locks 12612 feet built about B.C. 600. As an interesting instance long by 17 feet wide. France now has upward of of canal construction, previous to the Fifteenth 3000 miles of canal and 2000 miles of canalized Century, may be mentioned the Grand Canal of rivers. The countries of Continental Europe China, built in the Thirteenth Century to con- continue to manifest considerable activity in nect the Yang-tse-kiang and Pei-ho. This canal enlarging and extending their boat-canal sysis 650 miles long; is largely composed of canal- tems, while England and America have practiized rivers; is about 5 to 6 feet deep, and has ally abandoned the development of their sysinclined planes up which the boats are hauled by tems of navigable waterways. capstans and made to slide down a paved track. The first canals in Great Britain are generally The lock is said to have been invented in 1481 conceded to have been the Foss dyke and Caes by two Italian engineers, but the merit of this dyke in Lincolnshire, 11 and 40 miles long reinvention is also claimed by Holland. The known spectively, the former of which is still navigable. facts are that canal locks were used in both These channels are stated to have been first ex. Holland and Italy in the Fifteenth Century, and cavated by the Romans and to have been enlarged that by their development a wonderful impetus in the Twelfth Century. It was not until the was given to canal construction, which had pre- latter part of the Eighteenth Century, however, viously been confined to such countries as per- that canal-building assumed importance in Engmitted canals of a single level or reach to be land through the energy and liberality of the Duke used. The first European country to take the of Bridgewater and the skill of the engineer, construction of navigation canals on a system. James Brindley, the success of whose works stimuatic plan and extensive scale was France. The lated others to engage in similar undertakings. Briare Canal, connecting the rivers Seine and The era of canal-building, ushered in by the Duke Loire, was built from 1605 to 1642; the Orleans of Bridgewater by the construction of the BridgeCanal was built in 1675, and the Languedoc water Canal in 1761, continued until 1834, when Canal in 1666-81. For the time this last was the last inland boat canal was built in Great an enormous work—the canal connecting the Bay Britain. It is interesting to note that from 1791 of Biscay with the Mediterranean by an arti- to 1794 speculation in canal shares became a ficial waterway 148 miles long and 61. feet deep, mania in England, and finally resulted in a with 119 locks having an aggregate rise of 600 financial crash and the ruin of many persons. feet, and capable of floating vessels of 100 tons. At the end of 1834 there were about 3800 miles of In Russia, a great system of canals connecting canal in Great Britain, of which about 3000 miles Saint Petersburg with the Caspian Sea was de- were in England. The following may be menveloped during the Eighteenth Century; a canal tioned as among the more notable of the British connecting the North Sea and Baltic 100 miles canals: Grand Canal, Dublin to Ballinasloe, long was finished in 1785; the Gotha Canal, 280 Ireland, 164 miles long, 40 feet wide, 6 feet deep, built in 1765; Royal Canal, Dublin to Torinans. northeastern sections of the United States and burg, Ireland, built after the Grand Canal; the newly settled States of what was then the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal, Sharpness to

West. Light packet boats, drawn by frequent Gloucester, 17 miles; Caledonian Canal, crossing relays of horses, which were made to proceed at Scotland, 17 feet deep; Forth and Clyde Canal, a trot, made the trip from Albany to Buffalo in 35 miles long and 10 feet deep; and the Crinan three and a half days. In 1896 it was estiCanal across the peninsula of Kintyre, 12 feet mated that the cost of construction and imdeep. The depth of the great majority of British provements had aggregated $52,510,800. An excanals, however, varies from 312 feet to 5 feet, penditure of $9,000,000 more for enlargement and many of these are now owned by the rail- was authorized by popular vote in that year. ways.

Work was begun on this enlargement in the winIn the United States the construction of the ter of 1896-97 and resumed again during the Erie Canal opened up the development of the winter of 1897-98. In the spring of 1898 all of canal system, which now aggregates upward of the $9,000,000 had been consumed and only a 4200 miles, located mostly in New York, Penn- part of the projected deepening to 9 feet was sylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Virginia. The first completed. No further money for continuing the man who really saw the future of canal com- work was forthcoming, and in 1900 an investigamunication was George Washington, whose main tion was set on foot to determine the cost and efforts, however, were directed toward the con- prepare plans for a much greater enlargement nection of the Chesapeake and the Ohio River. which would permit the use of 1000 to 1200 ton Canal-building continued active in the United boats. States until about 1837. After this date atten- THE ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL connects tion was turned chietly to railway construction. Lake Michigan and the navigable waters of the Space is not available here to trace the develop- Illinois River, and allows the passage of vessels ment of the canal system of the United States in from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of Saint detail, but the essential facts respecting some of Lawrence by using also the Welland Canal, which the more important enterprises will be given. In forms a navigable channel from Lake Erie to 1793 a canal was built around the rapids of the Lake Ontario. In 1825 it was estimated that Connecticut River at South Hadley, Mass., and the canal, about 100 miles in length, would another, 3 miles long, was built around Turners cost about $700,000. In 1833 new surveys and Falls on the same stream in 1790-96. The canal estimates were made placing the cost of a canal at South Hadley is interesting as being the 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep at $1,043,000; first canal built in America, and as having the but nothing definite was attempted till 1836, two levels connected by an incline, up and down when the plan was altered and estimates were which the boats were raised and lowered in a made for a canal 60 feet wide at the bottom, and tank or caisson filled with water and propelled 6 feet deep, costing $8,654,000. Work was comby cables operated by water-wheels.

menced in June, 1836, and continued until March, Tue Erie CANAL, connecting the Hudson River 1841, when it was discontinued for want of at Albany and Troy with Lake Erie at Buffalo, available funds. In 1845 an additional $1,800,is 363 miles in length. It was begun in 1817 and 000 was raised by the sale of lands owned by the completed in 1825, at a cost of $7,602,000. Its canal. It must be here stated that in conseconstruction was due chiefly to the foresight and quence of a change of plans the entire cost fell energy of De Witt Clinton. The enterprise was within the estimates which had been made, so undertaken and carried through by the State of that at the opening of the canal in April, 1848, New York, Clinton being Governor during nearly the entire expenditure had been $6,170,226. all the period of its progress. As its route lay When completed, the eastern terminus joined the chietly through an uninhabited wilderness, it south branch of the Chicago River, 5 miles from opened for settlement an immense territory. It the mouth of the main stream. A direct line is was subsequently enlarged, and is now 70 feet pursued to the valley of the Des Plaines, the broad at the surface and 56 feet at the bottom, main eastern branch of the Illinois River, a diswith a depth of 7 feet, except as hereafter noted. tance of about 8 miles. The canal then traverses The locks, 72 in number, 57 of which are double, the valley to the mouth of the Kankakee River, a and 15 single, are 110 feet long and 18 feet wide. distance of 43 miles, passing through the towns It is carried by great stone aqueducts across sev- of Lockport and Joliet, and receiving water from eral streams, and in some places it is cut through four feeders—the Calumet, Des Plaines, Du Page, solid rock. It is supplied with water from Lake and Kankakee rivers. The canal now follows the Erie for 140 miles from Buffalo to Seneca River. valley of the Illinois River to its terminus, La Most of the flow of water is from the west toward Salle, passing through the towns of Morris and the east, the only exception being between Lodi Ottawa, receiving water from Fox River; the and the Seneca River, where there is a fall west- whole length being 96 miles. The water at La ward through five locks. At Rome, a little west Salle is 115 feet lower than Lake Michigan, and of Utica, a supply of water is received from the the descent is accomplished by means of 17 locks, Black River Canal. Between Rome and Syra- varying in lift from 324 to 10 feet. The locks cuse, water is drawn from Cazenovia Lake and are 110 feet long and 18 feet wide, giving passage other reservoirs, while at Syracuse the Erie to boats of 150 tons. Canal supplies water to the Oswego Canal. Buf- Lake Michigan is also connected with the Misfalo is 568 feet above the level of the Hudson at sissippi by the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Albany, the difference being overcome by locks completed in 1900. (See CHICAGO DRAISAGE at various points. The canal has been immensely CANAL.) 'This canal, 28 miles in length, was successful, contributing largely to the growth of originally designed to carry the drainage of ChiNew York, Buffalo, and intermediate places, and cago to the Mississippi instead of to Lake Michiserving for many years as the great artery of gan.

It has a minimum depth of 22 feet, a passenger as well as freight traffic between the width at the bottom of 160 feet, and a width at

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

SAINT MARY'S (Sault Sainte Marie) CANAL, Michigan. A "whaleback” steamer with tow is leaving the lock for lower lake ports.

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