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1. GOLDFINCH MULE (Canary and goldfinch).


shape of the largest island). A group of islands been known to the Phænicians and the Carthain the Atlantic, off the northwestern coast of ginians, judging from the description by Juba Africa, constituting a province of Spain (Map: il., King of Mauretania. Before their annexaAfrica, C 2). They extend from about latitude tion to Spain they were inhabited by the Guan27° 40' to 29° 25' Ñ., and from longitude 13° 25' chos, a Berber tribe, now completely amalgato 18° 16' W., forming a land area of 2808 square mated with the Spanish settlers. Their discovery miles. The group consists of the seven large by Europeans in modern times dates from the inhabited islands, Teneriffe (782 square miles), Fourteenth Century, when a vessel was accidenGran Canaria (531 square miles), Palma (280 tally driven on the islands. In 1344 they were square miles), Gomera (144 square miles), Ferro granted by the Pope to Luis de la Cerda, who, or Hierro (107 square miles, the smallest of the however, did not take possession of them. They large islands), Fuerteventura (665 square miles) were subsequently granted by Henry III. of Casand Lanzarote (326 square miles), and six tile to Robert of Bracamonte, and it was only in islets. The entire group is of volcanic origin, the beginning of the Fifteenth Century that an and there are extinct voléanoes on all the islands. attempt was made to take possession of them. In The volcanoes of Pico de Teyde on Teneriffe and 1402-05 Jean de Béthencourt, a French adventhe Mountain of Fire on Lanzarote are but slum- turer, to whom Robert of Bracamonte had transbering. The former, the loftiest mountain of the ferred his title, conquered several of the islands, Canaries, often called the Peak of Teneriffe, rises and by the end of the century the entire group to a height of 12,190 feet.

was in the possession of Spain, Teneriffe, the The climate is generally mild and healthful. largest, having been taken in 1496. Consult The average temperature for the year is about Brown, Madeira and the Canary Islands (Lon65°, while the maximum and minimum are about don, 1894). 800 and 52° respectively. Precipitation is very

CANARY-SEED. See CANARY-GRASS. scant and occurs mainly in winter; droughts are frequent. The hot east and southeast winds

CANARY WINE. A wine which is also .blowing from Africa dry up the vegetation. There known as Tenerife, from one of the Canary are several zones of vegetation depending on the Islands bearing that name, produced in these altitude, but in general the west slopes furnish islands, and resembling Madeira. The name is a more abundant vegetation than those on the applied properly only to the Bidogne wine, and cast. The vegetation of the lowest zone, extend- niust be distinguished from the Malvoisie of the ing up to 1200 and 1300 feet, is more or less Canaries, made from the Malvasia sweet grape. African, and includes the date palm, sugar-cane, It increases in mildness with age, and becomes so the dragon's-blood tree, etc. In the second zone, much like Madeira that it is often sold for it. between 1200 and 2800 feet, the flora resembles

CANASTOTA. A village in Madison County, that of southern Europe, and comprises the vine, N. Y., 32 miles west of Utica, on the New York the olive, the orange, and several kinds of Euro- Central and other railroads, and on the Erie pean grain. In the third zone the vegetation Canal (Map: New York, E 2). It has a public is confined mostly to trees, and includes the library and a soldiers' monument. The princiPinus canariensis, evergreens, the Retama blanca, pal manufactures are agricultural implements, and a few other coniferæ. The native fauna offers canned goods, furniture, gasoline engines, dumping little variety, and most of the animals have been

wagons, and mutuscopes. Canastota was settled imported either from Europe or Africa. The two about 1806 and was first incorporated in 1850. easternmost islands, Fuerteventura and Lanza- The government is administered by a president, rote, possess a richer vegetation and are better elected annually, and board of trustees. The wooded than the others.

water-works are the property of the village. The chief agricultural products are fruits, Population, 1900, 3030; 1905, 3244. onions, and potatoes, which are exported to the West Indies. The production of wine was for. CAN'BY, EDWARD RICHARD Sprigg (1819-73). merly of considerable importance, but is at pres. An American soldier. He was born in Kentucky, ent in a state of decline. The land is held graduated at West Point in 1839, and served as mostly in large estates and the peasants are gen- second lieutenant in the Seminole War from 1839 erally very poor and emigrate in considerable to 1842, and as captain in the Mexican War in numbers to Cuba and to the other West Indian 1846-47, being brevetted major and lieutenantislands. The Canaries were formerly of great com- colonel for gallant conduct at Contreras, Churumercial importance through the production of busco and Belen Gate. He then served as assistcochineal, but this industry has declined greatly. ant adjutant-general of the Pacific Division from Tobacco, sugar, and silk are raised only in insig- 1849 to 1851, and in the adjutant-general's office nificant quantities. The manufacturing industries from 1851 to 1855; participated in the Utah expeare of little account and are confined chiefly to dition of 1857-60, and commanded the Navajo the production of some silk and cotton fabrics expedition of 1860-61. During the Civil War he and coarse linen. The commerce is largely with commanded the Department of New Mexico from Great Britain and Spain. Inter-insular commu- June, 1861, to September, 1862, successfully denication is maintained by means of sailing ves- fending his territory from the attacks of the sels, and communication with Europe is effected Confederate general Sibley; was raised to the by mail steamers. For administrative purposes rank of brigadier-general of volunteers in March, the group is divided into seven districts. There 1862; was in command of the Draft Rendezvous is a Spanish garrison and a native militia. The at Pittsburg from November, 1862, to January, towns of Santa Cruz de Teneriffe (the capital) 1863; was then assigned to special duty at the and Ciudad de las Palmas are fortified. The War Department; commanded the city and harpopulation of the group was 358,564 in 1900. bor of New York at the time of the Draft Riots

The Canaries are regarded as the Fortunate (q.v.) in 1863; became a major-general of volInsulæ of the ancients, and are supposed to have unteers in May, 1864, and subsequently commanded the military division of West Missis- parties is equally valid. In general, the desippi from May, 1864, to June, 1865, directing, struction, obliteration, or marking of an instruas such, the Mobile campaign of March-April, ment creating property rights, whether acci1865, which resulted in the occupation of Mobile dentally or with the intention of canceling it, and Montgomery. In May, 1865, he received the will not have the legal effect of extinguishing surrender of the Confederate forces under Gen- the rights or obligations created by it. Thus, erals R. Taylor and E. K. Smith. At the close the destruction of a deed by which real propof the war he was brevetted brigadier-general in erty has been conveyed will not operate to dithe regular army for "gallant and meritorious vest the title of the grantee and revest it in the services at the battle of Valverde, N. M.,” and grantor. The title, having passed by the deed, major-general for "gallant and meritorious ser- can be restored to the former owner only by vices in the capture of Fort Blakely and Mobile, another deed. So the tearing or obliterating Ala.” In July, 1866, he was promoted to the reg- of a written lease by the parties thereto will not ular rank of brigadier-general, subsequently com- have the effect of terminating the subsisting manded various military divisions and depart relation of landlord and tenant, as this can only nients, and on April 11, 1873, while commanding be etřected by a surrender made in writing or the Division of the Pacific, was treacherously otherwise, as prescribed by law. The only exkilled by the Modoc Indians while holding a con- ception to this rule is when the cancellation of ference with them near the 'Lava Beds' in Ore

an instrument--as a deed or letters patent-is gon.

ordered by a court or other competent authority CANBY, WILLIAM MARRIOTT (1831-). An for fraud or mistake, or because the instruAmerican botanist, born in Philadelphia, and ment-a mortgage, for example—has answered educated mainly in private schools. Although in its purpose and is entitled to be discharged. business, he devoted much time to the study of The case of a will, which may be canceled by botany, and described many new species of plants. the maker at his pleasure, is not a real excepHe made large collections in the United States

tion to the rule, as a will does not go into effect and Canada, and was one of the botanists of the and create property rights until the death of Northern Pacific Transcontinental Survey.


the testator. See LETTERS PATENT; FRAUD; activity in botanical research has included the MISTAKE; WILL. collection, through purchase, exchange, and gift, Instruments creating mere contract rights, of a fine herbarium of more than 30,000 species whether under seal or not-as written agreeof plants, now the property of the College of ments for services or for the sale of goods, notes, Pharmacy in New York City, and a smaller col- and bills of exchange, and the like-may, on the lection made for the Society of Natural History other hand, usually be canceled by the parties of Delaware.

thereto. Even where such contracts are required CANCALE, kän'kål'. The capital of a can- by law to be in writing, they are capable of ton in the Department of Ille-et-Villaine, France, being revoked by parol; and the cancellation of situated on a height overlooking the Bay of the instrument operates as a revocation or reMont Saint-Michel, 10 miles east of Saint Malo. scission of the contract, if made with that inIt is a favorite seaside resort and a busy fishing tention. Bonds were, and, to a certain extent, port. Oyster-culture is an important industry, still are, instruments of a peculiar nature, and 430 acres of beds devoted to their propagation are considered as comprehending within thembeing inclosed by the Rocher de Cancale, an

selves all of the rights and obligations deislet which also protects a safe harbor. Popu- scribed in them. Even the accidental loss or lation, in 1901, of town, 3678; of commune, 6549. destruction of such an instrument rendered it

CAN'CAN (Fr., origin obscure; OF. caque- unenforceable at common law. While this is han, tumultuous assembly, noise, quarrel. Ro- generally no longer true, it may always be exmance scholars derive it from the disputes of the tinguished by cancellation. See CONTRACT; mediæval schoolmen over the pronunciation of the BOND; DEED; and compare ALTERATION and. Lat. quamquam, quanquam, although the word

SPOLIATION. may be purely onomatopoetic). A wild dance, or

CANCELLATION (Lat. cancellare, to make rather à series of violent choreographic movements, originated by the demi-monde of Paris.

like lattice, to strike out lattice-wise (X), to There is some resemblance between it and the

cross out, cancel). The process of rejecting a Bacchic or Dionysian dances of ancient Greece.

common factor from both dividend and divisor,

or a common term from both members of an CANCAO, kän kou', KANG-KAO, or HATIEN.

ducing fractions any factor comA seaport of Cambodia, situated on the Gulf of equation. In

mon to both numerator and denominator is reSiam at the mouth of the river Cancao, on the frontier between Cambodia and Cochin China jected by cancellation; e.g.

6 2.3 3 (Map: Siam, E 5). The harbor is shallow, and the trade, once considerable, is now in a state

8 2.4 4 of decline.

Algebraic expressions are often simplified on CANCELING (Lat. cancelli, lattice-work). the same principle; e.g. The extinguishment of the rights or obligations a' — 63 m? — na (a - b) (a2 + ab + b*) created by a written instrument by obliterating

m tn

m tn or destroying the instrument itself. Originally

(m + n) (m n) the efficacy of the act depended on a strict com

=(a2 + ab + b) (


- 6 pliance with the prescribed form of drawing transverse lines over the face of the document; The plan, formerly followed in text-books, of but at the present time any mark or writing treating cancellation as an independent chapter as the word 'canceled' indorsed on the back of elementary arithmetic, has, in recent years, thereof-clearly showing the intention of the been abolished.



CANCELLERIA, kån-chā'lå-rē'å, PALAZZO Wealth, and Political Economy (1821); and DELLA. A Renaissance palace in Rome, the The Economy of Human Societies (1845). masterpiece of Bramante. It was built in 1489 CAN'CRUM O'RIS (Neo-Lat., from Lat. can. for Cardinal Riario, and is connected with the

cer, cancer + oris, Lat. gen. sing. of os, mouth), Church of San Lorenzo in Damaso, built on the Noma, or GANGRENOUS STOMATITIS. A gangre. site of the Basilica of Damasus I. The chief

nous process which usually begins on the gums or feature of the palace is the graceful court with cheek in children, following an exhausting disease a double row of red Egyptian granite pillars, such as measles. It is very rare, and is caused by removed by Damasus from Pompey's Theatre to streptococci, the bacteria of pus, acting upon tishis basilica and thence to the palace.

sues of low vitality. It is also found attacking CANCER. See TUMOR.

the ear and the female genitals. The gangrene CANCER (Lat., crab). The fourth of the spreads rapidly, invades the surrounding tissues, twelve signs of the zodiac, running from 90° and causes death in 75 per cent. of cases. In to 120° on the ecliptic (q.v.). The constella- those in which it is not fatal, a line of demarcation Cancer contains the interesting cluster tion appears, a slough separates, and granulation called Præsepe, which has been carefully meas

Among the symptoms of cancrum oris ured very recently at Göttingen with the heliom- may be mentioned: profound prostration; a temeter, and photographically at Columbia Uni- perature of 102° to 105° F.; dullness, apathy, versity, New York. See PRECESSION; ZODIAC. and diarrhea. There is little pain. Patients sufCANCER, TROPIC OF.

fering from the affection should in all cases be See TROPICS.

isolated. The mouth should be carefully disinCANCER-ROOT, or BEECH-Drops (Epiphe- fected with peroxide of hydrogen or with a weak gus virginiana). A parasitic plant of the order solution of potassium permanganate, and sup; Orobanchaceæ. It is a native of North Amer porting and stimulating food and medicine should ica, growing almost exclusively on the roots of beech-trees. Like all the other plants of its consists in making a thorough excision of the dis

be given. Surgical treatment, if at all employed, order, it has a curious appearance, having eased tissue and cauterizing, or else applying scales instead of leaves. Its stem is branching, nitric acid. and produces distant alternate white flowers, streaked with purple. The whole plant is pow. Philippines, in the Province of Pampanga. It

CANDABA, kån-däbá. A town of Luzon, erfully astringent, and the root is brownish, spongy, very bitter, and nauseous in taste. This province, and west of the Pinag de Candaba, an

Jies 20 miles from Bacolor, the capital of the plant at one time had quite a reputation as a

inland marsh of considerable size. The town cure for cancer, and, in conjunction with white

was founded in 1578. oxide of arsenic, is believed to have formed a

Population, in 1903,

11,783. medicine once famous in the United States under the name of Martin's Cancer Powder. An

CANDACE, kăn'då-sē. The name of two or other American plant, the Indian pipe (Mono

more queens of Ethiopia (q.v.)—i.e. Nubia-in trope uniflora), is sometimes also called cancer- Roman times. According to Pliny, Candace was root, and is used in the same way; and an in- the usual name for Ethiopian queens, or, rather, fusion of the common broom-rape (Orobanche for the mother of the King. Two Candaces are major), a native of Great Britain and of the known to history. One, a one-eyed virago, atsouth of Europe, parasitic on the roots of broom, tempted to invade Egypt in B.C. 22, but the furze, and other leguminous plants, has been

Roman governor, Petronius, defeated her and employed as a detergent application to foul penetrated to her capital, Napata (q.v.), which

The attachment of the cancer-root to the he destroyed. Another Candace, who seems to roots of the beech-tree is said to be a case of have been a contemporary of Nero, is mentioned the intervention of mycorrhiza or fungus fila

in Acts viii. 27 et seq., where it is stated that

her treasurer ments penetrating and investing both roots.

was converted by Philip. Her Through these connections the parasite gains residence was at Meroë. its sustenance. Being without functional leaves, CANDAHAR, kin'da-hür'. See KANDAHAR. it cannot make its own food. (See BROOM

CANDAULES, kắn-da’lēz. See Gyges.
RAPE.) For illustration, see colored Plate of

CANDEISH, kän-dāsh'. See KHANDESH. CANCRIN, kån-krēn', GEORG, Count (1774

CAN'DELA'BRUM (Lat., from candela, a 1845). A Russian statesman. He was born at candle). A word signifying properly a candleHanau, Germany, and studied law and political stick, but frequently employed to mean a supeconomy at Giessen and Marburg. He then went port for a lamp.

The candelabra proper were. to Russia, where his father was director of the of sufficient height to stand upon the floor, salt-mines of Starava Russa, was first employed and though the forms vary greatly in details, by him and then in the Ministry of the Interior. the general shape is well defined. Those from He subsequently entered the army, and attracted Etruria have a base, usually formed of three feet attention by his writings on military subjects. of some animal, from which rises a slender In 1812 he was appointed commissary-general of shaft, often crowned by a statuette. Near the all the forces, and in 1814 accompanied the Czar top four arms branch, terminating in spikes on Alexander I. to Paris. He was Minister of which the candles were placed. A metal disk Finance from 1823 until 1844. In some respects below the arms protected the hand, if it were he gave a great stimulus to the national indus- needful to move the candelabrum. This pattern tries, and by his financial management brought was easily modified to serve as a support for the order into the financial chaos, but the unlimited small hand lamps, sometimes by placing flat issue of paper money sanctioned by him paved plates on the top of the shaft and ends of the the way for subsequent financial disaster. His arms, sometimes by suspending the lamps by chief works are: International Wealth, National chains from the branches. Many bronze can

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