Slike strani

The Gut or STRAIT OF CANSo is a passage 17 5000 feet in the eastern part increase to nearly miles long and 21%, miles in average breadth, 8800 feet near the centre (Peña de Cerredo, 2678 connecting the inlet just mentioned with the meters) ; but farther west the elevations decrease Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and forming an island from 6000 and 7000 feet in Asturias to 3000 to of Cape Breton. It is greatly used by local sail- 4000 feet in Galicia, and rapidly diminish toward ing vessels, but of the three channels between the western coast. In general, the northern and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the open ocean, western sides are steep, forming a bold seacoast, it is the one that is least frequently used by Eu- with promontories interrupted by short narrow ropean vessels.

sections of flat coast, but on the south and east CANSTADT, kän'ståt (from Cannstatt, or the slope is more gradual, and the descent relaCanstadt, a city of Württemberg, now part of tively slight to the great Castilian plateau. DifStuttgart). The name applied to a long-headed ferent portions of the Cantabrian Mountains have type of Quaternary man in Germany, based on

local names. a fragment of skull found among relics dug up CANTACUZE'NUS (Med. Gk. in the year 1700 by Duke Eberhard Ludwig. voc, Kantakoutēnos), John VI. (c.1292-c.1380). Consult Mortillet, Le préhistorique ( Paris, 1900). A Byzantine emperor and historian, born in

CANSTEIN, kän'stin, KARL HILDEBRAND, Constantinople. Under Andronicus III. (1328Baron von (1667-1719). The founder, by his 41), he had principal charge of the Government, writings and by his will, of the famous Canstein and when Andronicus died he was left regent, Bible Institute in Halle, Germany, for the dis- the successor being John Palæologus, then only tribution of the Scriptures at the lowest rates. nine years old. Suspected by the Empress, Can

CAN'TAB, or CANTABRIGʻIAN (Med. tacuzenus fled from Constantinople, and proLat. Cantabrigiensis, from Cantabrigia, Cam

claimed himself Emperor. Six years of civil war bridge). One who is either a student or a grad- followed, in which the rivals employed foreign uate of the University of Cambridge, England.

mercenaries and nearly ruined the Empire. În CANTABILE, kán-täbe-lå (It., singable, 1347 Cantacuzenus entered Constantinople and from Lat., It. cantare, to sing). In music, a

became joint Emperor with John Palæologus, term which signifies in a singing or vocal man

but monopolized the royal power. He governed ner. When placed over a passage of music, it

the Empire until 1354, when John, aided by a demands an easy, flowing execution, along with popular revolt, overcame him. Cantacuzenus a clear-cut and well-defined delivery of the chief abdicated and entered a monastery, where he melody, so as to bring it distinctly out against wrote a history of his life and times, from the background of the accompaniment.

1320 to 1357, published in the collections of CANTABRI (a word of Iberian origin). A

Byzantine historians. He strove during his rude race of mountaineers of ancient Spain. regency and reign earnestly but unsuccessfully to

preserve the Empire from further decline. They were of Iberian origin, and lived in a district comprised in the modern provinces of

CANTAL, kän'tål'. A central department of Oviedo (eastern part), Santander, Vizcaya, and France, formed out of the southern portion of the Guipúzcoa, on the coast of the Bay of Biscay, old Province of Auvergne (Map: France, J 6). which derived from them its name, Öceanus Can Area, 2217 square miles. Population, in 1896, tabricus. The most important of their towns was

234,382; in 1901, 230,511. Almost the whole Iuliobriga (the Roman form of its name). The

area consists of the remains of an extinct volCantabri are described as like the Scythians and cano, intersected by gorges and diversified by "Thracians in hardihood and martial character, peaks, the higuest of which are the Plomb de sleeping on the bare earth, enduring extreme pain Cantal (6095 feet) and the Puy Mary (5850 feet). without a murmur, and, like most savages, leav- Unimportant streams traverse the gorges. Cattleing agricultural toil to their women. Their raising is the chief industry, only about onebravery was evinced in the Cantabrian War, a six quarter of the department yielding arable land. years' contest with the Romans, begun hy Au Coal exists in the northwest and near Mauriac, gustus, and concluded by Agrippa (B.C. 25-19). and marble is quarried. Capital, Aurillac. Tiberius afterwards stationed garrisons in the CANTALOUPE. A variety of muskmelon towns of the conquered Cantabri, but some por- (q.v.). tion retreated into their fastnesses among the CANTANI, kån-tä'nė, ARNOLDO (1837-93). mountains, where they preserved their independ- An Italian physician, born in Hainsbach, Boence. They are supposed by some to be the an- hemia, and educated in Prague. In 1864 he beL'estors of the Basque race (q.v.).

came professor of pharmacology and toxicology CANTABRIA. The name anciently applied in Pavia ; in 1867 director of the Clinical Instito a district of Spain, on the south coast of the tute of Medicine in Milan; and in 1868 professor Bay of Biscay, the home of the Cantabri (q.v.). in Naples. His investigations

devoted CANTA'BRIAN MOUNTAINS. A range chiefly to such diseases as malaria, cholera, tyof mountains extending for a distance of over phoid, tuberculosis, and diabetes. His efforts in 300 miles through northern Spain near the behalf of the introduction of German medical shores of the Bay of Biscay, from the west

methods into Italy were especially commendable. ind of the Pyrenees to Cape Finisterre (Map: Among his principal publications are the followSpain, ( l). Less than 30 miles wide in the east ing: Januale di materia medica e terapeutica in the Basque Provinces, the range broadens out

(2 vols., 1865-77), and Ianuale di farmacologia toward the west and breaks up into a number of clinica (5 vols., 2d ed., Milan, 1885-90). ranges, which, with their foot-hills, cover the CANTARINI, kän'tå-rē'nė, SIMONE (1612whole northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula ; 48). An Italian painter, called the Pesarese, or at the east the main range is less than thirty Simone da Pesaro. He was born in Oropezza, miles from the coast, but this increases to about near Pesaro, and after studying under Pandolfi 70 miles at the west. Extreme elevations of over and C. Ridolfi, entered the school of Guido Reni,


of whose manner he became a close imitator. In England there is a canteen established in He devoted some time to studying the works of every post, barrack, and standing camp; in the Raphael in Rome, and then went to Jantua. latter instance each regiment stationed in the garHumiliated by his unsuccessful effort to paint a rison or camp has its own regimental canteen, portrait of the Duke of Mantua, he went to while there is, in addition, a separate establishVerona, and died there, probably by poison. ment known as the garrison canteen. The canteen Though Cantarini approached nearer to Guido is divided into two parts—the wet canteen, where than any other of his imitators, and excelled as ale, porter, and mineral water are on sale; and a colorist, he showed little originality. His the dry canteen, at which groceries may be puretchings, too, are able and spirited, but in these chased. A separate institution is installed in his imitation of Guido is even more apparent all permanent barracks, known as the “recreation than in his paintings. His best-known produc- rooms.' This also is a regimental institution, tions are the paintings: "Assumption” (Bologna and generally contains pool and billiard tables, Gallery); “Holy Family” (Barbaziano); “Trans- material and accommodations for the playing of figuration" (Milan); “Joseph and Potiphar's cards, chess, dominoes, and similar games, fur Wife” (Dresden Gallery); a portrait of Guido which no charge is made. There is a room in (in Pesaro! : and the etchings "Saint John in the the same building set apart for library and Wilderness;” “The Repose in Egypt;" another reading-room. In garrisons and standing camps “Repose in Egypt,” with the head of the Virgin there is a permanent library of considerable size, in profile and Saint Joseph sitting near her; supplied with standard and current literature. “Venus;" "Adonis;” “Cupid;” and “Fortune.” British soldiers are allowed three-quarters of a CANTATA, kin-tä’tà (It., song, from Lat., This is the regular Government ration; all other

pound of beef and one pound of bread per diem. It. cantare, to sing). In music, the name of a vocal composition of either a sacred or a secular food is purchased by the soldier, for which an character, for solo voices, ensembles, and chorus, average allowance of threepence halfpenny is with instrumental accompaniment. The sacred

deducted from his pay, the scale of pay being

The eantata differs from the oratorio in that it is

so arranged as to cover this deduction. less subjective, the solos representing individ- value of this system to the soldier is that it uals from a community or a congregation. The gives him so much increase of pay when away secular cantata differs from opera in the absence

from his mess or regiment. All groceries are of stage accessories, and in this respect the name

to be purchased from the dry canteen, and are *lyric scene' is perhaps more appropriate. In

retailed to the different company messes at the mere matter of length the cantata is usually also purchase foods and groceries in the smallest

lowest possible rate. Individual soldiers may much shorter than the opera or the oratorio.

possible quantities from the dry canteen, and CANTEEN' (Fr. cantine, from It. cantina, cooked meals or goods from the regimental café cellar), MILITARY. A place of refreshment, set or restaurant attached to the recreation rooms. a part in every army post, wherever practicable, The wet canteen is for the exclusive use of prifor the use of the rank and file of the troops sta- vate soldiers; neither wines nor spirits are pertioned there. In the United States, the canteen mitted to be sold, nor are men allowed to have system consists of a number of so-called post credit with the steward, as they usually are in erchanges, intended to combine the advantages of the dry canteen, and invariably in the restaua gymnasium and reading and recreation rooms. rant. A non-commissioned officer is always on There are also in the same establishments co- duty, to maintain order and prevent the admisoperative stores and restaurants, including lunch sion of men denied its privileges. Corporals counters, where are sold non-intoxicants and to have their separate canteen, and sergeants their bacco. The primary purpose of the entire un- own mess, military discipline not permitting dertaking is to furnish the troops, at reasonable the intermingling of the rank and file. All prices, with articles of ordinary use, wear, and moneys over and above the expenses and workconsumption not supplied by the Government, ing capital are divided among the various regiand to afford them means of rational recreation mental organizations and funds. and amusement. When the exchange or canteen The canteen as an article of equipment varies is free from debt, the net profits are distributed in the different armies. In the United States, among the various organizatiolis stationed at

as in most of the armies of Continental Europe, the post, for the maintenance of regimental and it is a metal, leather, or wooden task or bottle, post athletic teams and other institutions. Pre having an average capacity of two pints, in vious to 1901, when the sale of intoxicants was which the soldier carries his liquid refreshment abolished, the post exchange was permitted to on the march, in which case it is carried slung sell beer and wine to the troops, the sale of spir. by a strap over the shoulder. In the British its being, however, prohibited. This department irmy such a vessel is called a water-bottle, was for the advantage of men confined by their while the canteen is a combination of pan, dish, duties to the post, or those not desiring to go and plate, constructed of tin, covered, when not outside. Strict regulations were made and en- in use, with a thin leather material, and carried, forced against possible abuses of the privilege; on the march, strapped to the valise (knapsack), the beverages sold were generally the best pro- pack, or waistbelt, according to the order in curable, and retailed to the soldier at the lowest which the men are equipped. possible price. As a result of public pressure, however, the canteen was formally abolished by

CANTEMIR, kän'tye-mēr'. See KANTEMIR. act of Congress in 1901. There has been much CANTERAC, kän'tå-råk', JOSÉ (c.1775-1835). controversy regarding this side of the canteen, the A Spanish soldier. In 1818 he went to Peru, in majority of army officers being strongly in favor command of a detachment sent to assist in quellof the canteen, and the several national temper- ing the revolt there. With General La Serna ance societies as strongly against it.

he fought several campaigns in Upper Peru. He was a member of the cabal which in 1821 still more popular name to the list of martyrs. obtained the deposition of Pezuela from the vice. The offerings at these shrines, especially the royalty and the appointment of La Serna to that last, contributed greatly to defray the expenses office. As lieutenant-general and commander- of the magnificent work. William of Sens did in-chief of the Royalist forces, he was utterly de- not, however, live to see its completion, dying feated by Bolivar at the Plain of Junin. He from injuries received through a fall from the was subsequently in command of the reserves at clerestory. He was succeeded by another Wil the final battle of Ayacucho (December 9, 1824), liam, an Englishman, and to him we owe the and, after his return to Spain, was shot during completion of the existing unique and beautiful a mutiny in Madrid.

choir, terminated by the corona or circular CANTERBURY, kằn'tēr-běr'î (AS. Cantuar- chapel called Becket's Crown. Gervasius, a aburh, burg of the Kents, from Cantwara, gen.

monk, who witnessed the fire of 1174, has left pl. of Cantuar, Kentish man + burh, town).

an account of it, relating that the parts of LanA municipal and Parliamentary borough, civic franc's church which remained in his time were county, and cathedral city in Kent, England, on

the nave, the central and western towers, the the river Stour, 56 miles east-southeast of Lon

western transepts,' and their eastern chapels. don, on the highroad from London to Dover

In the Fourteenth Century the nave and tran( Map: England, H 5). It is the archiepiscopal septs were transformed into the Perpendicular see of the primate, and the ecclesiastical metrop- style of that period. The central tower (called olis of all England. The city, traversed by two

the Angel Steeple) was carried up (1486-1504) main branches of the river, stands on an undu

to about double its original height, also in the lating plain between hills of moderate height. Perpendicular style; it is 234 feet high and 35

The northwest tower, taken It dates from the early period of English his feet in diameter. tory, and retains many of the aspects of an old down in 1834, was replaced by the existing one town, High Street containing several media

to match its southwest neighbor; the old tower val houses with gabied ends and projecting fronts.

was 113 feet high, and divided into five stories. One of the gates and some remains of the an

The Norman plinth still remains on each side of cient city wall still exist, and near the wall is

the nave, in the side aisle, and portions of Noran artificial mound, 80 feet high, known as the man ashla ring may still be seen about the tranDane John (probably Donjon), from the summit septs outside the west wall, and on the eastern of which a fine view of the country around is piers of the great tower. The indiscriminate obtained. Connected with this mound is a pub

use of the round or Norinan, and the pointed or lic garden, laid out in the end of the Eighteenth early English arch, is also a very striking feaCentury. The ruins of a Norman castle also

ture in the eastern part of the building. The stand near the city wall.

Lady Chapel (now called the Dean's Chapel), Christchurch Cathedral, the crowning archi

with its beautiful fan-vaulted rooi, stands on tectural feature of Canterbury, occupies almost

the north side of the church, and was built in

1368. the central point of the city. It star.ds amid its

The north transept, where Becket was own precincts, to which admission is obtained

niurdered on Tuesday, December 29, 1170, is through a beautiful gate of Perpendicular archi- called the Martyrdom. Fifty years later his retecture erected in 1517. The cathedral is a

mains were removed from the crypt to a shrine magnificent building, 515 feet long and 156 feet

in the newly erected Trinity Chapel, eastward of broad at the eastern transepts. Its general as

the choir. About the year 1500 the yearly ofpect is of the Perpendicular style of architecture, ferings at this shrine amounted to $20,000; but

А although it represents various phases of the they had then declined much in value. architectural development of several centuries.

mosaic pavement still remains in front of the The noble proportions of its nave, choir, corona,

place where the shrine stood, and the stone its lofty central tower, its double set of tran- steps which lead up to it are worn by the knees septs, and its northwest and southwest towers

of countless pilgrims; but during the Reformaare particularly impressive, as viewed from the

tion period the shrine itself was demolished entrance gateway.

(1538) by Henry VIII.'s commissioners; and, When Saint Augustine became Archbishop of according to tradition, the saint's remains were Canterbury (about 600), he consecrated, under

burned. In 1643 the building was further 'purithe name of Christ's Church, Queen Bertha's

tied,' as it was called, by order of Parliament. Church on Saint Martin's Hill, which had been

Still, many interesting monuments remain, such formerly used by Roman Christians. Cuthbert,

as the tomb of Stephen Langton; that which is the eleventh Archbishop (740), added a church to commonly, but wrongly, supposed to be the tomb the east of this. In the course of ages it re

of Archbishop Theobald; with those of the Black ceived numerous additions, until it assumed its

Prince, of Henry IV., of Archbishops Maphan, present magnificent form. Among those who

Peckham, Chicheley, Courtenay, Sudbury, Strathelped to repair, enlarge, and rebuild it were

ford, Kemp, Bourchier, Warham, and of CarArchbishops Odo (940), Lanfranc (1070), and

dinal Pole. The crypt is of greater extent and Anselm (1093). In 1174 the choir was de

loftier than any other in England, owing to the stroyed by fire, and a number of French and

choir being raised by numerous steps at the English artificers were employed to rebuild it. east end. Here, in 1888, a stone coffin containing Among the former was William of Sens, a man

the remains of a skeleton, supposed to be Beckof real genius, to whom the work was intrusted. et's, was discovered and reinterred. In 1561 The church was rich in relics. Plegemund had this crypt was given up by Elizabeth to a conbrought hither the body of the martyr Blasius gregation of French and Flernish Protestant from Rome; there were the relics of Saint Wil refugees, and French service is still held here. fred, Saint Dunstan, and Saint Elfege; while In 1872 the church narrowly escaped destructhe murder of Thomas à Becket (q.v.) added a tion for the fourth time by fire. Other build

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