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family of the Falconidae, which contains six Queen of the Brigantes, to whom he had fled for genera, of which the most important are Poly refuge. Caractacus was sent to Rome, where he borus and Ibycter. The former has three spe- had to remain until his death. Tacitus in the cies, one of which, the carancho, is the common Annales, Book vii. Chapter 37, places an eloquent 'carrion-hawk' of Argentina and Brazil, while and dignified speech in the mouth of Caractacus that now most commonly called 'caracara’ is when he stood in bonds before the Emperor. Caracara cheriway, which ranges from Ecuador

CARAC'TACUS. (1) A play, "written on to the southern border of the United States.

the model of the ancient Greek tragedy” by Their names (compare CHIMANGO) are imita

William Mason, published in 1759, in quarto. tive of their hoarse cries. Consult: Sclater and

It was done into Greek by George Henry Glasse Hudson, Argentine Ornithology, Vol. II. (London, in 1781. In 1805 it was republished in the oc1889); and Darwin, A Naturalist's Voyage (Lon- tavo collection of the author's works. The London, 1860).

don Quarterly Review (xv. 376-337) designated it CARÁCAS, ká-rä’kás. The capital of Vene- as "a beautiful dramatic poem, with much fancy, zuela and an episcopal city, situated 6 miles some tinsel, great classical taste, and an entire south of La Guayra, its port, in latitude 10° unfitness for representation.” 31' N. and longitude 67° 5' W. (Map: Venezuela, (2) A tragedy of J. R. Planché, produced in D 1). The city lies in a fertile valley, 3000 feet 1837. It is founded on Fletcher's Bonduca. above sea-level, and enjoys a mild climate. Its streets are broad and straight, crossing cach råk'tar de ta'o'frást. A work by La Bruyère

CARACTÈRES DE THÉOPHRASTE, kå'other at right angles, and its principal square, based his translation of the character the Plaza Bolívar, with an equestrian statue of Bolívar in the centre, is surrounded by the Gov. adapted to the customs of his own day. These

sketches by Theophrastus, which he extended and ernment buildings, the university, the cathedral, studies were increased from 386 to 1100 in numand the episcopal palace. Other notable build- ber in the various editions from 1688 to 1696. ings are the national museum and the public library. Besides the university, there are numer

CAR'ADOC, or CRAD'OCK. A member of ous educational institutions, such as the med- the Round Table in Arthurian legend. One of ical school and the military school. There are

the thirty-one knights selected by Merlin to acalso several learned societies, and associations company Arthur to Carohaise, to help King Leofor the promotion of agriculture and industry. degran against King Ryance of Ireland, who was Carácas does little manufacturing, but is the

about to attack that monarch with fifteen tribucentre of the export trade of the district, which tary kings. His wife was the heroine of the produces cacao, coffee, tobacco, etc. The city episode of The Boy and the Mantle. is the seat of a United States consular agent. CARADOC SANDSTONE. A heavily bedded Population, in 1899, 82,429. Caracas sandstone, so named from its development at Caer founded in 1567 as Santiago de Leon de Carácas, Caradoc in Shropshire. With the Bala slates and prospered greatly because of its favorable and sandstones, which are geologically equivasituation. It was twice destroyed, in 1595 and lent, it constitutes the uppermost division of the in 1766, but continued to grow, and played an Ordovician system of England. The Carado important part in the war of independence and Bala beds are fossiliferous, and have been against Spain. The great earthquake of 1812 used largely as the basis of comparison in geokilled 12,000 persons and laid half the city in logical study. Their formation ruins. The last serious shock occurred in 1900.

panied by extensive volcanic action; lavas and CARACCI, kå-rä'chê. See CARRACCI.

tufas are included within their limits, and in

the Snowden region these rocks attain a thickCARACCIOLO, kä'rå-cho'lo, FRANCESCO pess of several thousand feet. (c.1748-99). A Neapolitan admiral. He entered

CARAFA, kå-rä'få, MICHELE (1785-1872). the navy at an early age, and distinguished himself at Toulon, in 1793. In the year 1798 he

An Italian composer, born in Naples of a noble abandoned Ferdinand, and entered into the ser

family. He served as a cavalry officer under

Murat (then King of Naples) in the Russian vice of the Parthenopean Republic, established by the French invaders, and with a few vessels campaign of 1812, but after 1814 resumed the prevented the attempted landing of a Sicilian study of music and brought out operas in Naples,

Milan, Venice, Rome, and Paris. After and British fleet. In 1799, when Cardinal Ruffo

1827 he lived in Paris, where he became a took Naples, Caracciolo was arrested, contrary to the terms of capitulation, sentenced to death by member of the Academy of Fine Arts, professor the Junta and hanged on the mast of a frigate. His

at the Conservatory, and director of the Gymnase

de Musique Militaire. corpse was thrown into the sea. For Caracciolo's

Among his numerous fate Lord Nelson, influenced by the notorious

works are Le solitaire (1822) and Masaniello

(1827). Lady Hamilton, was largely responsible. CARAC’TACUS, or CARAT'ACUS (C.A.D. decanter, probably from Ar. ghirāf, vessel, ghar

CARAFE, kå-råf' (Fr., from It. caraffa, a 50). A king of the Trinobantes who dwelt afa, to dip up water). A water bottle or decan. north of the Thames, and who were the masters

ter for the table or toilet, a term long in use in of southeastern Britain when Claudius began his Scotland, but of later introduction into England conquest in the year 43. When the Trinobantes and the United States. were defeated, and their capital, Camalodunum (Colchester), was taken by the Romans, Carac

CARAGA, kå-rü'-gå. A Christianized village,

eastern Mindanao. See PHILIPPINES. tacus retreated, but kept up the struggle until 51. In that year he was overthrown in a pitched bat- CARAGLIO, kå-rälyó, GIOVANNI JACOPO tle, his wife and children were captured, and he (c1498-c.1570). An Italian designer and enwas delivered to the Romans by Cartimandua, graver, born in Parma. He studied in Rome, and

was

was

accomor

is supposed, from a certain quality of style, to terwards he became attaché of the Turkish emhave been a pupil of Marc Antonio Raimondi. bassy at Paris, but renounced a diplomatic caFor some time he was at the court of Sigismund reer to become chief secretary of the Société of Poland, where he became well known as a gem- Générale de l'Empire Ottoman, the first great cutter. About sixty of his plates (on copper), financial institution to be established in Conmany of them after Raphael, have been preserved. stantinople by the bankers of the country (1864). Most of them are excellent in design.

In 1876 he began to devote himself to archæology, CARAMBOLA, kä'råm-böslá (East Indian and promoted the investigations which led to the word). An East Indian fruit, of the size and discovery of the ruins of Dodona, concerning shape of a duck's egg, but with five acute

which he wrote the interesting work entitled angles or longitudinal ribs. It has a yellow, Dodone et ses ruines (1878). thin, smooth rind, and a clear, watery pulp, CARAQUET, kăr'å-kět'. A port of entry in in some varieties sweet, in others acid, of very Gloucester County, New Brunswick, Canada, on agreeable flavor. It is often used in making the Bay of Chaleur and on the Caraquet Railsherbets, and in tarts and preserves, and is way (Map: New Brunswick, D 2). It has a known to the British in India as the C'oro good harbor and important fishing industries. mandel gooseberry. It is one of the most uni. The settlement consists of Upper and Lower Caraversally cultivated and abundant of the fruits of quet. Pop. of census sub-district in 1901, 4074. India. It is produced by the Averrhoa caram

CARAT (Fr., from Ar. qirāt, pod, husk, bola, a small evergreen tree or bush of the order Oxalidaceæ or Geraniacex, according as

carat, from Gk. Kepátiov, keration, fruit of the these orders are considered, some botanists com

locust-tree, from xépas, keras, horn). Originally

the name given to the seeds of the Abyssinian oining them into the latter. The bilimbi, blim

(oral-flower coral-tree bing, or cucumber tree, so called from the shape sinica). These, which are small, and very equal

(Erythrina Abysof the fruit, is the very acid fruit of another species of the same genus, Averrhoa blimbi,

in size, having been used in weighing gold and also East Indian. Both species are now much precious stones, carat has become the desig

nation of the weight commonly used for weighcultivated in the tropical parts of America, the

The first to a limited extent in southern California. ing jewels, and particularly diamonds. Both exhibit an irritability of leaf resembling said to be the original carat weights of jewelers,

seeds of the carob (q.v.) tree have also been that of a sensitive plant; they also display in but with less probability. a remarkable degree the phenomena known to

Jewelers and assayers divide the troy pound, physiologists as the sleep of plants (q.v.).

ounce, or any other weight, into twenty-four CARAMEL (Fr., from Med. Lat. calamellus, parts, and call each a carat, as a means of statstrictly cana mellis, cane of honey, but considered ing the proportion of pure gold contained in to be dim. of Lat. calamus, cane). The name any alloy of gold with other metals. Thus, the applied to the dark-brown and nearly tasteless gold of our coinage, and of wedding rings, which substance produced on the application of heat contains of pure gold, is called twenty-two to sugar. It is likewise formed during the carats fine, or twenty-two-carat gold. The lower roasting of all materials containing sugar, such as standard used for watch-cases, etc., which concoffee, chicory, and malt, and is one cause of tains {} of pure gold, is called eighteen carat, the dark color of porter and infusions of coffee. and so on. The carat used in this sense has It is largely employed in the coloring of whisky, therefore no absolute weight; it merely denotes a wines, vinegar, soups, gravies, etc. The name is ratio. This, however, is not the case with the also given to a kind of confectionery.

carat used for weighing diamonds, which has a CARAMNASSA, kä'råm-näs'så. See KARAM- fixed weight, equal to 3 troy grains, and is

divided into quarters, or "carat grains,' eighths, CARANCHO, ka-ränochồ, or CARANCHA,

sixteenths, thirty - seconds, and sixty-fourths. -chả. See CARACARA. )

These carat grains are thus less than troy grains,

and therefore the jeweler has to keep a separate CAR'APA (Neo-Lat., from Guiana caraipi). set of diamond-weights. A genus of plants of the order Meliaceæ, natives of warm climates. Carapa Guianensis, sometimes

CARATHEODORY, kå'rå'ta'o'do'rė', ALEXcalled the Anderaba, also the carapa tree, is a

See KARATHEODORI, ALEXANDER. large tree with beautiful shining pinnate leaves, CAR'ATHIS. The star-gazing mother of Vawhich have many leaflets. It is a native of thek in Beckford's romance of that name. Guiana and the adjacent countries, where its CARAUSIUS, kå-ra'shi-ús ( ? -293). A bark has a great reputation as a febrifuge, and Roman usurper, who made himself Emperor of the oil obtained from its seeds is much used for Britain. He was a native of what is now Bel. lamps. Masts of ships are made of its trunk, gium, and was placed by the Emperor Maximian The oil, which is called oil of cara pa, is thick and in command of the Roman fleet at Boulogne. Ho bitter and is anthelmintic. Carapa procera, also used his office to secure wealth and power, and known as Carapa touloucouna or Guineensis, an connived in the piratical expeditions of the GerAfrican species, yields a similar oil, which is

mans against Britain. In 286 Maximian oremployed by the negroes for making soap, and dered him to be put to death, but Carausius had for anointing their bodies, its bitterness pro- already revolted. He went to Britain, secured tecting them from the bites of insects, a purpose the allegiance of the Roman soldiers there, and to which the oil of carapa is also applied in assumed the title of Emperor. For six years South America.

he maintained his position, and with his ships CARAPANOS, kå-rä'på-nos, CONSTANTINE commanded the British Channel. After the de(1840—). A Greek archæologist. He was born feat of a Roman fleet in 289, Diocletian and at Arta and studied at Corfu and Athens. Af- Maximian recognized him as co-Emperor, but

NASSA.

ANDRE.

when Constantine was made Cæsar he undertook and had to leave Rome for this offense. He was the subjugation of Britain. Boulogne was taken protected and concealed near Palestrina by Duke in 293, and the same year Carausius was mur- Marzio Colonna. He painted for that nobleman dered by his chief minister, Allectus. The latter until he went to Naples. In this city he found was easily conquered by Constantine in 296. an appreciative public, and from his activity Consult Gibbon, Decline and Fall, Chapter 13, there arose a Naturalist school of great imporedited by Bury, with notes (London, 1896-1901). tance. He afterwards went to Malta. Pleased

CARAVACA, kü'rå-vä’ků. A city of Spain by his portraits of himself, and by his other in the Province of Murcia, on a river of the services to the order, the Grand Master of the same name, about 39 miles west by north of Knights of Malta made him one of their number,

but Murcia (Map: Spain, E 3). It is situated on

when Caravaggio again quarreled and the slope of a hill crowned with a fine old cas.

wounded one of the knights, he threw him into tle, and has broad and well-paved streets. The prison. The painter escaped, and was for some municipal building and the parish church, the

time occupied in the churches of Catania, Syralatter an Ionic structure completed in 1600, are

cuse, and other Sicilian cities. He was always the more noteworthy edifices. The city is in a

desirous of returning to Rome, and on having very fertile region, and has manufactures of been pardoned by the Pope, in 1609, he set out linen and woolen goods, brandy, soap, paper, waylaid on the road, and died at Porto Ercole,

from Naples for the Eternal City. But he was leather, flour, chocolate, etc. Caravaca is a very from the effects of a wound. old town, many ancient remains being found in the vicinity. It was held successively by the

Caravaggio's art was like his character-fierce Goths, Moors, and Christians; but has occupied in mood, impetuous in expression. His pictures in history a place of comparative unimportance. models, like those of Courbet" (q.v.), his Nine

are full of action and of feeling, not mere painted Population, in 1900, 15,804.

teenth Century successor, They resemble his in CARAVAGGIO, kä'rå-vä'jó. A town in the that they are plebeian: both sought in the comProvince of Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy, 14 miles mon types of the people the models for their south of Bergamo. A steam tramway connects it pictures, and both insisted on the exact reproducwith Monza and Milan. The site of its ancient tion of these types. There was, however, this fortified walls is now occupied by promenades, great difference, that while Caravaggio saw nabut the moat remains and is spanned by six iure with the extravagant eyes of the Seventeenth bridges. The chief buildings are a parochial Century, Courbet saw it with the matter-ofchurch with a lofty campanile and the church fact gaze of the Nineteenth. Caravaggio was a L’Apparizione della Madonna, a celebrated pil- good technician, in drawing, color, and brush. grim resort. The artists Polidoro Caldara, work, and he handled light and shade with fine Michelangelo Amerigi, and Fermo Stella were effect. born in this town and all received the surname Da

His work may be best divided into two periods. Caravaggio. Francesco Sforza, commanding the In the first he did not make such prominent use Milanese troops, here defeated a Venetian army of the dark shadows and high lights which charin 1448. Population, in 1901 (of commune), acterize his later period, and which became the 8974.

most prominent characteristic of the Naturalist CARAVAGGIO, kä'rå-vä'jò, MICHELANGELO School. Most of the works of this period are AMERIGI, MERIGI, or MORIGI DA (1569-1609). An genre pieces, executed during his stay in Rome. Italian painter, founder of the Naturalistic One of the best examples is the “Card Players,” School. He was born in Caravaggio, Bergamo in which the artist represents a wealthy, inexProvince, the son of a stone-mason. As a boy he perienced young man being cheated by profeswas employed to prepare plaster for the fresco- sionals. The best example of this picture is in painters of Milan, and from them he acquired his the Sciarra Palace, Rome, although the Dresden desire to become a painter. He does not seem to replica has been most reproduced. Another fine have studied under any particular master, but to specimen of his first period is the “Gipsy For have used nature as a model, confining himself, tune Teller," in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, at first, to still life and portraits. After five on the Capitoline Hill. The cunning jade seems years of such work in Milan, he went to Venice, more anxious to win the young man's heart than where he studied the works of Giorgione, the only to attend to professional duties. The Berlin master who influenced him. Thence he went to Museum possesses two charming genre pieces, Rome, and although for a short time associated “Love as a Ruler,” “Love Conquered,” showing wit'ı Cesare d’Arpino and another unimportant an admirable mastery over the nude. painter, he persisted in going his own way. After The works of his second period were mostly much vicissitude he found a patron in Cardinal larger religious compositions, the result of the del Monte, which insured his success.

reputation already established by his genre proHis talent developed with great rapidity. ductions. They aroused great opposition, espeThrowing all traditions aside, and appealing only cially in Rome, on account of the ordinary types to nature, he became the head of the Naturalists, which he used to portray the saints whom the in opposition to the Mannerists. He became very Church adored. Among those which had to be popular, and even the Eclecticists imitated him. removed from the churches in Rome was “Saint But the animosities which he excited and his own Matthew Writing the Gospel,” now in the Berpassionate disposition involved him in constant lin Museum, and the admirable “Death of Mary,” quarrels, although he certainly did not provoke in the Louvre. In the latter picture the body of all the quarrels attributed to him. Thus he is the Virgin looks as if it had just come from the said to have challenged Guido Reni, who imitated morgue, but the expression of grief in the mournhis work, to a duel, and to have chased the inof- ers is most affecting. His masterpiece of this fensive Guercino from Rome. It is true, however, category is his “Burial of Christ," painted for that he killed a comrade in a quarrel over a game, the Church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, but

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